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T. A. WISE, M. D. 









184 5. 



Preliminary Remarks, P^^gc i to xx 


History of Medicine. 

Chapter I. — Origin of Medicine, 1 

Chapter II. — Rank of Physicians and duties of Teachers, . . 11 

Chapter III. — Character and duties of pupils, 13 

Chapter IY. — Duties of the Physician, of the attendants, and 

of the patient, 16 

Chapter V, — Recompence of the Physician, 29 


Anatomy and Physiology. 

Chapter I. — Elements of the Body, 30 

Chapter II. — Generation, 32 

Chapter III. — Growth and functions of the body, 35 

Chapter IV. — Structure of the Corporeal part of the body,. . 42 

Section I. — Humors ; air, bile, and phlegm, 42 

Section II. — Essential j^arts ; 49 

Chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, brain, spinal marrow, 

marrow, semen, strength and vitality, 54 

Section III. — Excretions ; alvine evacuations, urine, per- 
spiration, milk, 55 

Section IV. — Joints, b^ 

Section V. — Ligaments, &c., 57 

Section VI. — Muscles, 58 

Section VII. — Vessels, 60 

Section VIII. — Celular tissue and fascia, 65 

Section IX. — Organs or receptacles, 66 

Section X. — Orifices of the body, ^7 

Section XI. — Skin, ib. 

Section XII. — Supplementary Parts, ib. 

Section XIII. — Dissection of the human body, 68 

Chapter V. — Vital Parts, 69 

Chapter VI. — Spiritual parts of the body, 74 



Chapter VII. — Temperaments, 76 

Chapter VIII. — Ages, 79 

Chapter IX.— Death, 80 



Chapter I. — Hygeology, 83 

Section I. — Relative duties, climate, seasons, 84 

Section II. — Personal duties, rising from bed, cleaning 
the mouth, anointing the body, exercise, shampooing, 

bathing, clothing, houses, food, sleeping, 102 

Chapter II. — Materia Medica, 114 

Section 1. — General remarks on Simple Medicines from 

the vegetable, animal, and mineral kingdoms, 1 14 

Chapter III. — Fharmacy and preparations of medicine, .... 125 

Section 1. — Weights and Measures, 125 

Section 2. — Preparation and arrangement of medicines, 127 
Section 3. — Forms of medicines, powders, fresh juice of 
plants, pastes, infusions and decoctions, extracts, roast- 
ing, spirituous mixtures, pills, electuaries, oils, 128 

Section 4. — Doses of Medicines, 132 

Section 5. — Administration of medicines, 133 

Section 6. — Uses of Medicines; medicines for curing 
diseases of air, bile, and phlegm ; diaphoretic medicines, 
emetics, purgatives, enemata, injections for the urethra, 
errhines, gargles, emmenagogues, diuretics, scialogo- 
gues, local and internal stimulants, astringent tonics, 

alteratives, chemical agents, 136 

Chapter IV. — Surgery 157 

Section 1. — Anatomy, 158 

Section 2. — Surgical diseases, inflamimation, ulcers, fistu- 
la, surgical instruments, practical instructions, bandages, 159 
Section 3. — Description of Surgical Instruments and 

bandages, 168 

Section 4. — Bloodletting, venesection, scarifications, cup- 
ping, leeches, 173 

Section 5. — Styptics, I79 

Section 6. — Cauteries, actual, potential, 180 

Section 7. — Scalds and Burns, 182 

Section 8. — Directions for performmg operations, wounds, 
accidents, fractures, dislocations, 183 



Practice of Physic. 

Chapter I. — General remarks on Disease, 193 

Section 1. — Introductory remarks, nature of disease, clas- 
sification of disease, causes of disease, description of 

diseases, 198 

Section 2. — Diagnosis, 202 

Section 3. — Prognosis, 205 

Section 4. — General treatment of diseases, 212 

Chapter II. — Description and treatment of particular diseases, 214 

Section I. 

Class I. — Diseases of the humors. 

Air bile, phlegm, , 214 

Section II. 
Diseases affecting the General Sustem. 
Class II. 

Order 1. — Fevers, 219 

General symptoms and treatment. Species, — continued, 

remittent, accidental, intermittent varieties, 233 

Order 2. — Small-pox, 233 

Order 3. — xVcute Rheumatism, 239 

Order 4. — Swellings, 241 

Order 5. — Fatness, 244 

Order 6. — Emaciation, 245 

Order 7. — Burning of the bod}', ib. 

Order 8. — Jaundice, 247 

Order 9. — Nervous diseases, 250 

Order 10 and 11. — Leprosy and varieties, 258 

Order 12. — Urticaria (?) 269 

Order 13 and 14. — Erysipelas, carbuncle, boils 270 

Order 15. — Hcemorrhagia, 272 

Section III. 
Diseases of the regions of the body. 

Class III. — Diseases affecting the mind, 275 

Order 1 . — Swooning, ib. 

Order 2. — Epilepsy, 277 

Order 3. — Madness, 279 

Order 4. — Possessed persons, 281 

Class IV. — Diseases of the head and neck. 

Order 1 . — Diseases of the Head, 284 

Order 2. — Ditto Ears, 287 

Order 3.— Ditto Nose, 289 



Order 4, — Diseases of the Eyes, 291 

Description of the eye, inflammation, diseases of the 
coloured part of the eye, of the membranes, of the white 

part, of the joinings, of the eye-Hds, treatment, 292 

Order 5.— Diseases of the. mouth, — diseases of the lips, 

gums, teeth, tongue, palate, 304 

Order 6. — Diseases of the neck, throat, hoarseness, goitre, 

scrofulous swellings (?) tumors of the neck, 310 

Class V. — Diseases of the Chest. 

Order 1. — Asthma, 316 

Order 2.— Cough, 318 

Order 3. — Phthisis Pulmonalis, 321 

Order 4. — Hiccup, 324 

Order 5. — Diseases of the Heart, 326 

Class VI. — Diseases of the Abdomen. 

Order 1 . — Dyspepsia, 327 

Order 2. — Indigestion, 328 

Order 3. — Drumbeily, 330 

Order 4. — Constipation, ib. 

Order 5. — Cholera, ib. 

Order 6. — Vomiting, 332 

Order 7. — Dysentery,. 333 

Order 8. — Diarrhoea, 337 

Order 9. — Swelling of the abdomen, ib. 

Order 10.— Cholic, 341 

Order 1 1 . — ^Worms, 348 

Order 12. — Hetention of discharges, 350 

Order 13. — Unhealthy discharges, 353 

Order 14. — Vomiting of bile, ib. 

Order 15. — Enlargement of the Abdomen, 354 

Class VII. — Diseases of the urinary organs, and of the organs of 
Order I. — Diseases of the urine and bladder, suppression 

of urine. Urinary Caculi, 359 

Order II. — Diseases of the male organs of generation, 
sores, history of the venerial disease, phymosis, paryphy- 

mosis, structures, 370 

Order III. — Diseases of the female organs of generation, 
of the vagina, ]\Ienorrhage, dismenorrhoea, utero-vaginal 

tumors, impotency, 380 

Class VIII. — Diseases of the tectum, and Anus. 

Order I. — Piles, 2 ; Stricture of the rectum ; 3, fistula-in- 

ano ; 4, ulcers round the anus ; 5, prolapsus ani, 384 

Class IX. — Diseases of the extremities. 

Order I. — AVhite swelling, 390 

Order 2. — Elephantiasis, 39 1 

Order 3. — Sliglit diseases of the extremities, of the 
sole of the feet, and Ulcers of the axilla and 

groins, 393 

Class X. — Diseases jji'odiiced hxj Poisons 

Order 1. — Vegetable and mineral, 396 

Order 2. — Animal poisons, 399 

Order 3. — Hydrophobia, 404 

Class XI. — Trivial diseases, baldness, warts, &c 412 

Midiviferiji and diseases of Women and Children. 

Chapter I. — Treatment of women during pregnancy and 

labour, 4 1 5. 

Treatment of the Infant, 419^ 

Chapter II. — Means of preventing abortion, 422^ 

Food during the different months of Utero-Gestation, . . 423 

Preternatural Parturition, 425 

Diseases of the Mammae, 428 

Varieties of IMilk, 42^ 

Chapter III. — Diseases of Infants, ib. 

Purulent Ophthalmia of Infants, 430= 

Marasmus, ih. 

Diseases produced by Devils, ib^ 


In every country individuals are to be found who occupy 
themselves in endeavours to discover the means of alleviating 
pain^ and of curing diseases. In Europe especiallj'^ the dif- 
ferent countries were so connected together as to enable the 
physician to profit by the discoveries of his neighbours, and 
the historian to trace the progress of the sciences among the 
various races of mankind from the Indus to the Atlantic, and 
from the time when medicine emerged from the obscurity of 
ancient fable to the present age. During this long period we 
know the individuals and the people who have added to our 
medical knowledge, and can prove that all these different sys- 
tems have a common source ; being originally derived from 
the family of Hippocrates. Those distinguished benefactors of 
mankind first explained the nature and treatment of diseases, 
and reduced to theory the various phenomena of the human 
body. The Grecian Philosophers were assisted by the 
Egyptian sages, who appear to have obtained much of their 
knowledge from some mysterious nation of the east. Egypt, 
after having had her institutions destroyed by the sword of 
the conqueror, became the seat of Grecian learning ; which 
was afterwards transferred to the east, where under the foster- 
ing care of the Caliphs of Bagdad medicine was cultivated 
with diligence and success. It received still farther additions 
from the east ; and thus improved it was conveyed by the 
Muhammadan conquerors into Spain. From thence it was 
communicated to other parts of Europe ; where it has exer- 
cised the genius of many great men, with so much advantage 
to suffering humanity. 

Among the sacred records of the Hindus there is a system 
of medicine, prepared at a very early period, that appears 
to form no part of the medical science, and is not supposed 
to have enlightened the other nations of the earth : a system 


for which the Hindus claim an antiquity far beyond the period 
to which the history of the heroic age is supposed to extend. 

The following commentary is intended to describe the 
Hindu science of medicine. Insulated in their position, and 
residing in a rich and fruitful country, the Hindus appear to 
have been satisfied with the knowledge and power which 
they had acquired at a very early period, and affectionately 
attached to their own country, they retained for ages their 
own opinions and practices, amidst various revolutions. 
Their country was repeatedly overrun by the Muhammadans, 
who destroyed and persecuted them with the most relentless 
cruelty, without making any impression on their religious 
belief, or diminishing the respect and veneration which they 
bore to their sacred records. Freed for a time from their 
persecutors, their luxuriant country quickly resumed its 
former fruitfulness ; and the intelligent and industrious in- 
habitants, under peaceful and sagacious princes, who promo- 
ted the happiness of their subjects rather than increased 
their own power by conquest, were soon restored to their 
former prosperity. The description of the medical profession 
by a people, so remarkable for the early period at which 
they reached an advanced state of power and learning, must 
be interesting, as it will enable us to trace the extent and 
modifications of civilization in a nation unconnected with 
any other, and instructive as pointing out the means by 
which such an advancement in the social state was accom- 

In tracing the progress of Philosophy among such a peo- 
ple, it is necessary to observe, that human nature exhibits a 
general resemblance among all nations ; while the absence of 
absolute identity, is accounted for by the influence of climate, 
habits, customs, and political state. Hence there exists a 
certain resemblance in the general speculations of different 
nations, which, however erroneous in many respects, must 
be acknowledged to have some foundation as regards the 
facts upon which they are based. This will be pointed 
out in the following work, and will be of use as defining, 
with more exactness, particular opinions. Doubtful facts 
in medicine may thus be illustrated and established, and 
distant analogies between tenets detected, which will corro- 


borate the testimony of history, and lead us to compare those 
first principles, upon which systems are founded. With this 
intention I propose, in the following work, to follow the 
classification pursued by the Hindus, in some of their minor 
particulars, and shall add as much of their reasoning on 
facts, as will enable the reader to understand their system ; 
but, in order that the value of these ancient records may be 
better appreciated, I have reduced the medical knowledge of 
the ancient Hindus to what I suppose to be, the order best 
adapted for exhibiting its real value. 

In a second part, it is my intention to trace the decline of 
the medical profession in India, and the best means of 
removing the state of ignorance, which now prevails over the 
whole of Hindustan. 

This work has grown upon me imperceptibly. Interested 
in the History of the medical science, for a number of 
years I had employed my leisure in noting the development 
of systems in different schools and nations, and was induced 
at an early period of mj'^ residence in Bengal, to examine 
the Hindu medical Shastras. I translated and compared 
what I considered the most valuable parts of different manu- 
scripts, when I found that my materials had accumulated so 
much, that they were too bulky for my original purpose ; it 
then occurred to me that the following commentary might be 
worthy of being published separately, as containing interest- 
ing information, which had not hitherto been placed before the 
public. An accomplished scholar had indeed given an interest- 
ing account of Hindu opinions regarding certain diseases ;* 
a persevering traveller had afforded a sketch of certain opi- 
nions contained in the Hindu medical Shastras, as translated 
into the Tibetan language ;t an antiquarian, and a distin- 
guished physician had given some of their peculiar opinions, 
as found in the medical works of the south of India; J and 
an able lecturer had combined all this information with im- 

* Professor Wilson, Trau. Med. and Phy. Society Calcutta, toL 
1, Oriental Magazine for IMarch, 1823. 

f Mr. A. Soma de Koros, Journal Asiatic Society, Calcutta ; No. 
37, January, 1835. 

% Dr. Heyne's Tracts on India, and Ainslie's Materia Medica 
Indica, Lond. — Ed. 


portant additions of his own ;* but a comprehensive view of 
their system of medicine^ which it is the intention of the 
present work to supply^ is still wanting to complete om* 
information on the subject. 

While other branches of Hindu philosophy have been 
made the frequent subject of discussion, and much that 
is curious and important has been discovered by European 
philosophers, it is remarkable into what neglect the medi- 
cal Shastras have fallen ; from the contempt with which 
the conquerors of Hindustan regarded the scientific know- 
ledge of the Hindus. This explains, why their system of 
medicine was despised, and their works neglected, and for- 
gotten. When the English student directed his attention to 
the Sanskrit language, he seldom extended his examination 
to the medical Shastras, with which the brahmans were 
rarely conversant; and when he did study the subject, it was 
in a cursory manner, and he in general was incompetent 
to judge of the real value of such professional works. Under 
such circumstances Sir William Jones asserts, " that there 
is no evidence that in any language of Asia there exists one 
original treatise on medicine considered as science. ^^ ^^ Even 
Medicine and Surgery,'^ says Mill, ^^ to the cviltivation of 
which so obvious and powerful an interest invites, have 
scarcely, beyond the degree of most uncultivated tribes, at- 
tracted the rude understandings of the Hindus." 

The following Commentary on the most ancient records of 
the Hindu medicine will sufficiently refute such opinions ; 
and will at the same time prove, that these works contain 
much that is interesting and instructive. 

Another cause, which produced the neglect of the Hindu 
Medical Science on the part of the Muhammadan conquerors 
of Hindustan, is that they were so prepossessed in favor of their 
own system of medicine, as to have little respect for that of 
a vanquished people. More lately, the diffusion of the Eu- 
ropean system of medicine operated as a discouragement to 
the study of the Sanskrit works ; and the prejudice against 
the national system grew stronger, as the ancient Medi- 
cal Works became more inaccessible from their rarity, 
and imperfect copies were substituted, as the ignorance of 
* Royle on the antiquity of Hindu medicine, 1838. 

the people increased. The expense of drugs was also consi- 
derable^ and the difficulty of procuring them genuine became 
greater^ as they were less sought after and appreciated^ which 
led to the introduction of inferior substitutes. Thus confidence 
in these medical prescriptions diminished still more ; and the 
consequence of such neglect was^ to increase the prejudice 
against the ancient science even among the HinduS;,and to lead 
to the substitution of superstition and quackery. The sys- 
tem of Bhutaredya^ which included the offering up of certain 
prayers and incantations^ was introduced ; as well as the 
w^orshipping of village gods^ for the cure of diseases, as pro- 
per medical assistance became more difficult, to meet the 
pressing wants of the people. The native practice of 
medicine may now be said to be in this lamentable state 
of depression over all Hindustan ; but, it was far other- 
wise, as cultivated by the ancient Hindus. A very few 
practitioners may still be found in the neighbourhood of 
cities, in the service of rich individuals in whose families 
the ancient treatises of their forefathers are studied, and 
transmitted from generation to generation. I have had 
the happiness of knowing such a family of hereditary physi- 
cians, rich, independent, and much respected. "^ Among 
such, the ancient Medical AYorks are so highly valued; 
that the influence of station, rank, and money, will often be 
ineffectually exerted in procuring these manuscripts. In 
some cases, it is even difficult to obtain permission to copy 
such works, at the owner's house ; from a belief that all 
the good to be derived from their possession, which God had 
bestowed on the individual and his family, would vanish 
on the work being sold, or even the precepts communicated 
to unauthorized individuals. 

The climate, and the materials of which these ancient 
Works are composed, render them very liable to be destroy- 
ed. Some are already lost, and the difficulty of procuring 
con*ect copies of the remainder, is yearly increasing. Un- 
der these circumstances, it is believed that the following 
Commentary will be considered interesting, as embod}^- 

* After some enquiry I find there are not more than four or five 
persons, in this part of India, who are acquainted with the Hindu 
Medical Shustras, 


iiig all that is considered worthy of preservation in the an- 
cient Hindu medical writings. These treatises appear to have 
been prepared at a very early date. In order to investigate 
this very important fact^ it will be necessary to make a few 
remarks on the history, literatm-e, chronology, and sciences 
of the Hindus ; which are all so combined with each other^ 
and interwoven with their theology, as to require elucidation, 
before the originality of their medical system can be proved, 
some of their theoritical notions understood, and the probable 
age determined, in which the medical writings were prepared. 

1st. History. That portion of the Caucasian race of man- 
kind, which inhabited the fertile plains south of the lofty 
range of mountains extending eastward from the Caspian 
Sea, and forming the northern boundary of modern Hindu- 
stan, was probably the original stock of the Hindu nation ; — 
a nation which from the most ancient testimonj^, as well as 
from the character of its social institutions, is considered to 
have been coeval with the first formation of men into social 
communities. These early inhabitants of the world increased 
so rapidly in number and power, that at the sera of the build- 
ing of Babel, they are described as "^ journeying from the 
East ;^^ and, as resolving, on their arrival in the land of 
Shinar, to build '^ a city and tower, whose top may reach into 
heaven.^' From them, and from his great progenitor, Shem, 
Abraham probably obtained all the -learning then known. 

It was the knowledge acquired by the privileged class of 

brahmans, and the habits of industry of the other classes, 

joined to their skill in adding to the comforts and elegancies 

of life, that explained the power and riches of these eastern 

nations at that remote period, and which caused them to 

be regarded as proverbially possessed of the " wisdom of 

the East,'' (1 Kings ch. iv., v. 30.) Little, however, was 

known of the Hindu nation previous to the conquest of 

Alexander. That great monarch carried his arms beyond 

the Indus; and one of his successors, Seleucus Nicator, 

advanced as far as the Ganges. It is interesting to note 

the language of the historian of the Macedonian hero. 

After his victory over Porus, Alexander, in his harangue to 

his troops, assures them, " that they were now going to 

enter those famous countries so abundant in riches, that 


even what they had found and seen in Persia would appear 
as nothing in comparison to them/^ (Quintus Curtius, lib. 
x.^ ch. 1.) Herodotus, Diodorus, and Arrian, describe the 
strength of the Hindu armies, the number of their war- 
chariots, the excellence of their arms and appointments, and 
the strength of their fortresses ; and Strabo and Plutarch 
agree with them in asserting the high state of civilization to 
which India had then attained ; and that it was full of large 
and rich cities, had roads with mile-stones, and inns for the 
accommodation of travellers, and carried on a considerable 
trade with their neighbours. 

A people, who had distinguished themselves at such an 
early age, by their power and riches, as well as by their 
successful cultivation of the sciences, may be supposed to 
have studied with much care the means of succouring the 
wounded and maimed, of alleviating pain, and curing diseases. 
The Hindu history of medicine proves this to have been the 
case ; for one of the fourteen ratnas, or precious objects, 
which their gods are believed to have produced by churning 
the ocean, was a learned phj'sician. This proves of what 
importance the}^ considered the healing art, and accords with 
the opinion of the best informed of the ancients. Arrian in- 
forms us, that, in the expedition of Alexander to India, ^^ the 
Grecian physicians found no remedy against the bites of 
snakes ; but the Indians cured those who happened to fall 
under that misfortune.^^ ^' For this reason,^^ Nearchus tells 
us, " Alexander, having all the most skilful Indians about his 
person, caused proclamation to be made throughout the 
camp, that whoever might be bitten by one of these snakes 
should forthwith repair to the royal pavilion to be cured. 
These physicians are also said to have made other cures ; but, 
as the inhabitants have a very temperate climate, they are not 
subject to many varieties of disease. However, if any among 
them feel themselves much indisposed, they apply to their 
Sophists (brahmans), who, by wonderful, and even more than 
human means, cure whatever will admit of it.^^* 

2d. Literature. The Sanskrit language, so majestic, so 
richly reflected, and so ancient, is still viewed as the na- 

* Arrian's Indian History, Edited by Mr. Brooke, Lond. 1729, 
vol. ii. ch. 15, p. 232. 


tional language^ not only from its being that in which the 
oldest works in Indian literature are composed^ but also as it 
was at one time the language of a considerable part of India^ 
especially of those regions near the Ganges^ as the Province 
of Bahar^ in which were laid the scenes of many of the most 
ancient Indian poems. 

The early period at which Sanskrit was cultivated^ and the 
success with which the study was attended, prove the great 
capacity of those who made it the object of pursuit. In some 
cases, it seems to have been blended with other languages, 
and in others it probably absorbed the dialects of the abori- 
gines. Its analogy to the languages with which scholars are 
familiar, and its connection with the local religion, arts, and 
sciences, like those of Greece and Rome, render the study ex- 
ceedingly interesting, and excite a desire to become acquaint- 
ed with its literary remains, containing as they do memorials 
of an ancient theolog)^, of poetry, science, and philosophy, 
which have exerted an influence over the most distinguished 
nations of antiquity, and to which even Europe is indebted 
for the rudiments of her learning. 

Sd. Chronology, The Hindus divide their Chronology into 
four ages (yugs). The three first were probably fanciful. 
During each of these ages, mankind was supposed to have 
lost a part equal to one fourth of truth and moral rectitude, 
until the last, or wicked age (kaliyug), in which man becomes 
wholly depraved and sinful. It is probable that the second age 
(dwapar yug), is the renovated world, described by Moses, in 
which we find a chaos, or the wreck of a former world, upon 
the surface of which moved the Spirit of God. The Study am- 
bhara, Adimo, or Adom, was the man-woman of the Hindus ; 
who was separated into a male and female, like our first 
parents, and became the first progenitors of mankind. By 
both accounts, the life of man extended to one thousand 
years ;* and the days of their gods were as a thousand years of 
mortals, to which St. Peter seems afterwards to allude.f 

The Hindus pretend that the present age, or kali yug, be- 
gan in the year B. C. 3101 ; or with the entrance of the sun 
into the sign Jiswin. the first of the 2/ Nakshatras, or man- 

* Methusalem died at the age of nine hundred and sixty-nine years, 
t See his Second General Epistle, ch. iii. v. 8. 


sions of the fixed lunar zodiac. This is now considered to 
be merely an assumed era. According to Menu^ Noah 
lived in the third or in the beginning of the fourth yuga, 
when the age of man was fixed at one hundred years. The 
long interval that intervened before oral traditions were re- 
corded in written characters, and the advancement which 
such a step proved^, accounts for the pride which marked 
these first efforts of genius ; and the superiority which such 
a knowledge indicates, explains the authority which the 
Brahmans usurped. As these sages were occupied in the 
investigation of the operations of nature, they soon acquired 
great authority from their being likewise employed in the ser- 
vice of the divinity, to whom they were regarded as allied in 
friendship, and from whom they were supposed to have derived 
their accurate knowledge. This is said to be so extensive that 
their geometry, arithmetic, and astronomy, '^ surpassed that 
of Ptolemy ; their music that of Phythagoras ; their mechanics 
that of Archimedes ; their theology that of Plato ; and their 
logic that of Aristotle.^^ In proof of the early and high civiliza- 
tion of the Indians, Colonel Call, chief engineer at Madras, 
states as follows : " It may safely be pronounced that no part 
of the world has more marks of antiquity for arts, sciences, and 
civilization, than the peninsula of India, from the Ganges to 
Cape Comorin. I think the carvings on some of the Pago- 
das and Choultries, as well as the grandeur of the work, 
exceeds any thing executed now-a-days, not only for the de- 
licacy of the chisel, but the expense of construction, consi- 
dering, in many instances, to what distances the component 
parts were carried, and to what heights raised.""*^ 

Nor do the Hindus appear to have derived their knowledge 
from any of their neighbours. The Greeks were the only 
people from whom they could have borrowed their informa- 
tion ; but, besides the distance, and the absence of frequent 
communication between the two countries, the Hindus were 
naturally so averse to travelling, and so little desirous of in- 
tercourse with foreigners, their having borrowed their litera- 
ture seems to stand on an exceedingly slender basis. 

Ath. Sciences. — The knowledge the Hindus possessed of 
medicine, as well as of the other sciences, may, therefore, 
* Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixii. p, 354. 

be considered as forming a criterion by which we may 
judge of their pretensions to originality. The date of their 
astronomical tables cannot now be determined^ but their 
accuracy is unquestionable. According to their astronomy the 
Zodiac was divided into twenty-seven constellations; the eclip- 
tic into signs^ degrees, and minutes ; the planes of the sun and 
moon_, the length of the solar year, the accelerated motion of 
the moon, the inequality of the precession of the equinoxes, 
&c. was probably obtained by the Europeans from the Hin- 
dus, and formed the foundation of the astronomical know- 
ledge, which was improved and extended by the genius of the 

The Hindu notions of Philosophy are likewise original, and 
as they explain some of their opinions regarding the physiolo- 
gy of the body, or microcosm, I shall add a few remarks on 
this curious subject. According to the Hindu philosophers 
space was first created by Brahma,^- in which the five ele- 
ments of the material world (ether, air, fire, water, and 
earth), t were confusedly mingled together. He separated 
them, and assigned to each its proper place, for the perform- 
ance of its office. He first separated the subtile ether, 
which has the quality of conveying sound, from which was 
derived the pure and potent air, a vehicle of scents, and en- 
dowed it with the quality of touch and sound ; from ether 
proceeded light or fire, making objects visible, dispelling 
gloom, and had the qualities of figure, touch, and sound. 
From light proceeded water, with the quality of touch, sound, 
colour, and taste ; and from water was deposited earth, with 
the qualities of touch, sound, colour, taste, and smell. In 
each of the elements of organs was contained lyiore or less of 
the qualities of happiness, action, and inertness. From 
satioa-gun, the first quality in space, arose the power of 
hearing, in which organ is contained much of the element 
of pure ether, and in this manner the perception of sound is 
conveyed to the soul by means of the mind 5 air, in like man- 

* Brahma (^^), the Great God ; Paramdtmd {'^JX[^]), the 
Supreme Being ; Pradhdna (Sf^t^), Nature ; I'shwara (^^), the 
Supreme Ruler of the Universe. 

-|- See page 30. 


ner^ conve3'S the sense of touch or feeling through the skin ; 
fire^ sight through the eye ; water^ taste through the tongue ; 
and earthy smelUng through the nose to the soul. The 
whole of these five elements, and their functions, give birth 
to the power of thought and decision. From the second, or 
active quality [Raja-gun) in space, arose speech ; from the 
same quality in air, arose the power of the hands ; in light, 
that of the feet ; in water, that of generation ; and, in matter, 
that of expulsion. The five senses, the five organs of action, 
the heart, which comprises sense and action with mind, are 
animated by the soul from the embryo state. 

The soul desires knowledge, and, through the channel of 
the mind, acts on vision, and produces the perception of 
visible objects ; through the ear, the perception of sound ; 
through the skin, touch, &c. It invigorates the five active 
members, the five perceptive members, five elements, &c. It 
is pure, beholds everything as an indifferent spectator, while 
united with matter ; in the same way as the ej^e is affected 
by light, the pot of water by the fire, iron by the magnet, 
fire by fuel, the shadow by the substance, the arrow by the 
string of the bow, so does the Divine particle act through the 
material organic world. 

The soul, when it exists in the body, has the qualities of 
piety, morality, and justice, — of happiness and misery, — of 
continence and lust, — of anger, folly, arrogance, avarice, and 
ignorance, — of energy, breathing, dejections, will, and un- 
derstanding, — of mental judgment, memory, knowledge, ef- 
fort, and sensibility. 

The combination of the soul and body gives rise to the 
different dispositions of persons, which are derived from Pri- 
kriti, or Nature. 

1st. A happy disposition [Satwa-gun)'^ is said to be derived 
from Vishnu.-\ If, in excess, it affords light, and produces 
knowledge and happiness, the person avoids bad, and strives 
to perform good actions ; he has patience ; is a lover of truth, 
holiness, faith, knowledge, and understanding ; has no bad 
desire ; possesses a good memory ; is charitable, just, firm, 

* From Satwa, good, and gim^ a quality, 
f From Vish, to overspread. 


and is devoid of anger ; is contented^, and without avarice : 
hence^ when " gydni" (from gydn, wisdom) appears at all 
the gates of the body^ it indicates that Sotwa-gun predomi- 
nates within. When such a person dies, his soul is conveyed 
to the regions of those immaculate beings who are acquainted 
.with the Most High. He becomes a Deva. 

2d. An active disposition (Raja-gun)^ proceeds from 
Brahma, and signifies desire, the love of gain, industry, and 
commencement of works : and produces unhappiness when 
in excess. Such a person is miserable, inquiet, unforgiving, 
and pervaricating. He has no mercy ; is haughty, proud, 
lascivious, intemperate, passionate, changeable, and covetous. 
When a person with such a disposition dies, his soul re-ani- 
mates another body of a different and inferior nature. 

3d. When an inert or wicked disposition {Tama-gun)i is 
in excess, it proceeds from Siva ; and is indicated by a want 
of energy and love of retirement, secrecy, and distraction of 
thought ; he neither believes in God nor in another state of 
existence ; he is a great sinner ; is without understanding or 
knowledge, so as to be unable to take care of his wealth ; and 
is sensual, slothful, procrastinating, and stupid. When such 
a person dies, his soul is conceived again in the womb of 
irrational animals. 

Each of these dispositions confine the incorruptible spirit 
of the body. The Satwa-gun, being pure, clear, and free 
from defects, inspires the soul with sweet and pleasant con- 
sequences — the fruit of wisdom. The Raja-gun is of a pas- 
sive nature, arising from the effects of worldly desire, and 
imprisons the soul with the sense of sloth, intoxication, 
and the feelings produced by action. The Tama-gwiy 
being the offspring of ignorance, is the confounder of all the 
faculties of the mind. As one or other of these qualities pre- 
dominates so will the character of the individual be formed. 

The harmonious action of the five elements and their quali- 
ties constitutes health ; and the increase or diminution of one 
or more of the humors, formed from the elements, produces 
disease. To reduce these humors when superabundant, and 
increase them when wanting, were the principles upon which 

* From Raja, to desire, and gun, quality. 
t From Tama, darkness, and gun, quality. 


their system of cure was based. To accomplish these objects 
a strict regimen was enforced^ and certain articles of food and 
particular medicines were prescribed to increase or diminish 
these elements according as they were supposed to have de- 
viated from the healthy proportion.* 

Another peculiarity of the Hindu belief is the supposed 
separation of the human race into four classes in order that 
they might be multiplied. Each of these classes has differ- 
ent qualities^ distinctions^ and occupations. 

1st Class. — The Brahmans^ the emblems of wisdom, 
proceeded from Brahma's mouth ; and their occupation is 
to pray, to read, and to instruct, 

2nd Class. — The Khetriya, the emblem of strength, came 
from his arms ; and they are destined to hold the land, to 
defend, an,d to govern. 

3rd Class. — The Baishya (or epitome of nourishment) are 
sprung from Brahma's navel ; and their province is to culti- 
vate the land, to traffic ; and, by these means to provide 
man, in the social state, with the necessaries of life. 

4th Class. — The Sudra, the emblem of subjection, pro- 
ceeded from Brahma's feet; and are intended to labour, to 
serve, to travel, &c. 

As the Brahmans were allow^ed to marry into the other 
classes, there were, at an early period, other distinctions to 
be made. The offspring of the Brahman with the daughter 
of a Baishya, was called Ambasta, or, more commonly, 
Baidya ; and it is stated in Menu, that their profession is 

The early age at which this division of the Hindu nation in- 
to castes took place, each of which was devoted to a particular 
branch of the useful or ornamental arts, rapidly accelerated 
the advancement of knowledge. It enabled this people to 
accumulate the experience of generations, and to acquire a 

* " There is a class of physicians," according to Megasthenes, 
" among the Germanes (Brahmans) who rely most on diet and regimen, 
and next on external applications, having a great distrust of the effects 
of more powerful modes of treatment. They are also said at that early 
period (about A. D. 300) to have employed charms in aid of their medi- 
cines." (Strabo, lib. xv.) 


degree of expertness^ and to develope an extent of ingenuity^ 
that^ even in the present advanced state of the arts in Eu- 
rope^ has scarcely been equalled. The distinctions of sects 
likewise enabled the nation to set apart the most distinguish- 
ed class^ in order that they might devote themselves to the 
acquisition of knowledge ; and the Brahmans thus became^ 
like the Druids and Monks of Europe^ at a much later pe- 
riod^ the great improvers^ and^ by their skill and enterprise^ 
taught the nation how much happiness and comfort might 
be extracted from the rich resources of nature. The know- 
ledge of a remedy to assuage pain^ or of a principle in the 
prevention or cure of a disease^ was too important a disco- 
very not to be recorded ; and the physicians were so sensible 
of the vast importance of such knowledge^ as to seek not 
only to retain them in their families but likewise to test their 
accuracy, and to modify and extend them according to their 
own experience. 

The difficulties of the subject, and the importance of 
health, while these induced the Hindu sages to accumulate 
observations, must have proved to them the weakness of their 
unassisted faculties, and their ignorance of the operations of 
nature, which led them to call in the assistance of their gods 
either as practitioners, or as counsellors. '!" 

The following are the names of Hindu gods, who were 
supposed to possess a knowledge of the medical profession. 

Brahma, the creator, or creative principle. 

Siva, the destroyer, or destroying principle. 

Inclra, the king of heaven. 

Surya, the god of the sun. 

Dhanwantari, the great physician, king of Benares. 

Ashivinikmnaras, the twin physicians of the gods. 

Daka, the P7'ajdpati. 
Rishis — Obree. 
„ Baraddsa. 
„ Pardsara. 

* " This was more natural from their believing that sickness was a 
proof of guilt of the person in the present or in a former state of exist- 
ence ; so that even in the time of Alexander it was considered dis- 
graceful for the holy sophists (brahmans) to be sick ; and they put an 
end to themselves when they fell into that calamity." (Strabo, lib. xv.) 


No goddess of medicine is represented as having flourished 
until at a late period^ when the small-pox made its appear- 
ance and committed great ravages in Hindustan. 

Particular gods are supposed to superintend different parts 
of the body^ and it is to them that prayers are offered up be- 
fore operations are performed or medicines exhibited. The 
following are the chief of their gods : 

Ungi, fire, superintends the tongue. 

Bciyu, air, _,, life. 

Indra, firmament, .... „ strengtli. 

Baruna, water, „ understanding. 

Surya, sun, „ sight. 

Chandra, moon, .... „ understanding 

Vishnu, preserver,. ... „ courage. 

Brahma, creator, .... „ soul. 

Samudra, ocean, .... „ navel. 

Dhruba, stars, „ ej^ebrows. 

These are the chief, although all the gods have particular 
duties assigned to them to ansvver particular ends, and are 
accordingly propitiated in their several characters. 

These deities were supposed, at different periods, to have 
taken compassion on the sufferings of their weak and erring 
creatures on earth, and communicated to a few favored mor- 
tals, the means of preventing and curing diseases. The 
following are the principal medical works that were thus im- 
parted to the Hindus : 

1. The A^yur Veda is the most ancient system of medicine, 
and is of the highest authority. The age in which it was 
written is not known, and fragments only of the MS. are 
now procurable. From the terseness of the descriptions, 
there is said to have been considerable difficulty in under- 
standing it, and many commentaries were written on the sub- 
ject, and it is to them alone we have to refer. In the first 
part of the following work I have given an account of this 
curious Veda, which is said to have been prepared by Brahma 
in the Satya Yug. 

2. The second work, called Ayugranta, is said to have 
been written by ^wa in the Tretd Yuga, Part of this work 
is said to be recorded in some of the Tantras, 

3. The nature of medicines and diseases is treated of in 


some of the Purdnas, particularly in the Ugni Purdn, These 
works were prepared by Deities and Rishis, and some of 
them are still procurable. 

4. We find the names of the following authors in the Ma- 
ImhMrata;'^ they are said to have flourished under Yudliis- 
thira, in the beginning of the Kali Yuga. 

Author's Name. 


Ugni Besa 

Charaka. . 
Bhila .... 
Parasara. . 
Harita . . 
Karpari . . 



Name of the Work. 


Atri Sangita 
Charaka . . . 

Harita Sangita. 


Supposed to be irre- 

Bhila Tantra. 
Jutukarna Tantra. 
Parasara Sangita. 

Karpari Tantra. 

These works are supposed to have been prepared by differ- 
ent Munis, on the plan in a great measure of the original 
Ayur Veda, The anatomical part appears to have been pre- 
pared from actual dissection. The following is a list of the 
principal medical works which are now found in Hindustan, 
after the great works of Charaka and Sushruta, They are 
arranged in the probable order in which they were prepared : — 

Aupadhanaha, a system of Surgery. 

Aurabhra, Do. 

Bhila Tantra, a system of Medicine. 

Jatukarna Sangita, 


















* Written, according to Bently, A. D. 600 i 


Rajaiiirghanta, a system of Materia Medica. 

Chakradatta^ Do. 

Drabyagima^ a commentary on the last work. 

Madhaba Nidana, a system of Nosology. 

Bangaja Ratnabali, a system of Pharmacy. 

Kasa Ratnakar^ treats of metallic preparations. 

Rasendrachintamani^ Do. 

Rasendrakalpadruma^ Do. 

Madliumati, a system of Medicine.* 
The names of Dhanwantari^ who is also called the King 
of Benares (Kasi Raja) or Debadasa, is found stated with 
those of Charaka and Sushruta in poems written in the time 
of Nala Raja. These poems are allowed^ from internal evi- 
dences, to be of great antiquitj-. In Charaka the names of the 
Munis-\ appear to have flourished before mythology was intro- 
duced into the Hindu system of religion ; as these names have 
no connection with the names of their gods^ who were after- 
wards most probably introduced by degrees^ as the various 
objects and operations of nature were deified and named 
by their votaries. Professor Wilson supposedj ^^ that from 
the Charaka and Sushruta being mentioned in the Puranas^ 
the ninth or tenth century is the most modern limit of our 
conjecture ; while the style of the authors, as well as their 
having become the heroes of fable, indicate a long anterior 
date. One commentary on the text of Sushruta, made by 
Ubhalta, a Cashmerian, is probably as old as the twelfth or 
thirteenth century, and his comment, it is known, vvas pre- 
ceded by others." Dr. Royle, in his ^^ Essay on the Anti- 
quity of Indian Medical Science,'^ has cited passages from 
the Latin translations of Avicenna, Rhazes, and Serapion, 
in which the Charaka is mentioned. Professor Wilson is of 
opinion, that the Arabians of the eighth century cultivated 
the Hindu Works on Medicine before those of the Greeks ; 
and that the Charaka, the Sushruta, and the treatise called 
Nidana, &c., were translated and studied by the Arabians in 
the days of Harun and Mansur (A. D. 773), either from the 

* See also Sir Whitelaw Ainslie's Materia Indica, vol. ii. p. 491. 
f See Note on Mill's History of India, vol. ii. p. 232. 
X See Sir W. Jones' preface ; and Mountstuart Elphinstone's His- 
tory of India, vol. i. p, 427 et seq. 


originals, or more probably from translations made at a still 
earlier period into the language of Persia.* 

Others suppose that the Vedas were compiled in the four- 
teenth century before Christf (see Asiatic Researches, vol. 
viii. p. 489), and the Ayar Veda supplement added proba- 
bly some centuries afterwards, about the time of Menu's code 
of laws (B.C. 900?). 

This remarkable code appears to have been written at a 
time when the prejudices of caste, &c. did not exist ; and 
when looking at the Sun or stroking a cow were sufficient to 
purify a person who had touched a human bone. 

As the result of the above remarks it appears that at a very 
early age the Hindus had made much greater advances in 
civilization, and the arts and sciences than any other ancient 
people ; and while the nations of the west have been slowly 
advancing in civilization during the last two thousand years, 
the Hindus, by the depressing influence of foreign subjuga- 
tion, are at present in a lower social condition than they ap- 
pear to have been in, three centuries before the Christian era. 
It was most probably at this early period that they studied 
the healing art with such success as to enable them to pro- 
duce systematic works on medicine, derived from that source 
of knowledge which the prejudice of mankind is so much 
opposed to. Sushruta informs us that a learned physician 
must combine a knowledge of books, or theoretical know- 
ledge with dissection of the human body, and practice. This 
explains why the ancient system of Hindu medicine was so 
complete in all its parts, and so permanent in its influence 
and warrants the inference that several centuries were re- 
quired to form it. J 

In comparing these Medical Works, and compiling the 

* See the Remarks by Professor Wilson on the Indian Physicians at the 
Court of Bagdad ; by Rev. W. Cureton. — Journal of the R. A, Society, 
vol. vi. p. 105. 

t Mr. Colebrooke arrived at this conclusion from a passage from the 
Jyotish of one of the Vedas, when the northern Solstitial point is 
reckoned to be in the middle of Aslesha and the southern at the begin- 
ning of Sravishtha, or DhanisJithaj and then declares what he had 
elsewhere shown that " such was the situation of those cardinal points in 
the Fourteenth Century before the Christian era," 

X See Professor Wilson's Note on Mill's History of India, vol. ii. p, 232, 


following Commentaries, I have rejected some portions as 
worthless, while I retained all such parts as appeared peculiar 
in theory, or important in practice. I have sometimes been 
obliged to restore passages altered by the carelessness or 
ignorance of compilers, or of commentators. It is probable 
other portions might have been omitted or enlarged with 
advantage ; I believe, however, it will be found, that I have 
erred more frequently in the latter than in the former parti- 
cular. For arriving at the true meaning of words and ex- 
pressions, I have had the assistance of able Pandits, of these 
I must particularly mention the assistance I have derived 
from Abhaycharan Tarkapanchanan, now superintendent of 
the Bengali department of the College of Muhammad 
Mohsem, Hoogly, and of Aladhusudan Gupta, Lecturer of 
Anatomy to the Medical College, Calcutta, whose accurate 
knowledge of the medical shastras is combined with an ex- 
tensive knowledge of the sciences of Europe. 

To the general reader I beg leave to state, that I have 
embodied what I conceived to be important and curious 
in these most ancient records of medicine ; and I trust that 
the publication will be of use in removing that blind 
reverence which an imperfect knowledge of the Medical 
Shastras is so liable to engender among the Native physicians 
and which has operated most perniciously in retardino- the 
advancement of knowledge ; while at the same time it will 
assist in giving the proper degree of credit to the ancient 
Hindu philosophers. An examination of their works will 
convey an idea of the extent and accuracy of the knowledge 
of the ancient Hindus, and will enable the physician to com- 
pare it with that of Europe, amongst its ancient inhabitants, 
as well as the moderns. As utility is the principal object of 
this compilation, I have added such remarks, as appeared to 
me important in illustrating the history of certain diseases, 
such as sj^Dhilis, small-pox, &c. 

The orthography and pronunciation of the Sanskrit pro- 
per names will be sufficiently correct if attention be paid to 
the following rules : — 

1st. The consonants to be pronounced as in English, 

2nd. The vowels as in the Italian language. The long 
vowels will be distinguished by the following marks : 


a is to be soiinded like a in papa. 

a ... ay in say. 

i ... ee in see. 

o ... o in so. 

u ... 00 in too. 

I regret to find many errors in the orthography of names^ 
and in one or two places the opinions of the Moderns have 
been stated with those of the Ancients. These errors would 
not have occurred had I not been obliged,, on account of ill 
healthy to leave India ; and had I not on my return to this 
country^ been stationed at a distance from Calcutta^ as the 
work passed through the press. I feel most grateful to 
those friends who kindly^ and ably, assisted me in the 

Dacca, 20th September, 1845. 


ox THB 



This book will be devoted to the consider a.tion or the OnienN 
AND History of Medicine ; of the rank of PRACTiTioNERt 


Pupils; of the duties of the Physician, Attendants, and 
Patient ; and of the IIecompence of Practitioners. 


Origin and History of Medicine. 

In the sacred works of the Hindus it is recorded that the four 
immortal V^das*, named Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva were 
received from Bramha, one having been produced from each of hiss 
four mouths. These works were the original code of divine legisla- 
tion, and contained all the knowledge required by mankind during the 
Satya Yugaf, or the first age, during which man remained pros- 
perous, virtuous, happy, and free from disease. 

In the second age, or Treta Yuga, a third of mankind were repro- 
bate ; and disease appeared, life was curtailed, and memory impaired. 

* From ved, to know. Besides the four Vedas, the Hindus have other 
sacred records ; as the Shastres, or commentaries upon the Vedas, now 
the great rule of faith. Eighteen of the most celebrated Puranas were 
written by Vyasa, the " compiler," an inspired Brahman, one of the seven 
inmiortal beings of the regal race of Puru. Pie was aided by other 
celebrated Pandits snch as Paila, Vaisam Payana, Jaymini, and Sumantu. 
Besides these, the Hindus have numerous other commentators of their 
sacred works. 

I From Satya^ truth and Yuga, age. 


In the third age, or Dwapara Yuga, half of the human race were 
depraved ; and during the K^li Yuga, the present age, the corruption 
of mankind was such as to cause a still farther curtailment of life, 
and embittered it by numerous diseases. 

Bramha, however, had such compassion on man's weakness and 
suffering, that, he produced a second class of sacred books called 
Upav^das*, one of which named Ayur-veda, which was intend- 
ed to teach the proper manner of living in this world, by pre- 
venting and curing diseases in the present state ; and while the 
individual thus enjoyed health he may perform the various purposes 
of this world, and thereby ensure his happiness and prosperity in 
another state. 

Other Shastres say that this Ayur-veda was obtained from Siva. 
It is the sacred medical record of the Hindus ; and is of the highest 
antiquity, and authority. This work is said to have consisted of 
one thousand sections, of a hundred stanzas each, or a lack of 
verses (slokas). Bramha, pitying the weakness and suffering of 
mankind, and the impossibility of their learning so large a work, 
abridged it, and divided it into eight parts (tantra). Little of 
the original work has escaped the destructive ravages of time. 
Fragments only have been preserved, in the works of commen- 
tators ; but, as all their information on the science was derived from 
what was considered the full and true account of every branch of 
the healing art, we are enabled, through their works, to judge of the 
arrangement of the great original : these divisions are as follows : — 

1st. — Salya^ Surgery, included the mode of removing external 
substances accidently introduced into the body, as grass, wood, 
stones, iron, earth, bones, hair, and nails. Pus, which has not been 
evacuated, and also the means of removing the dead child from its 
mother ; of healing wounds inflicted by sharp instruments, as knives ; 
of applying bandages, and using surgical instruments, in the dif- 
ferent operations ; of appljdng escharotics and fire ; and of the treat- 
ment of different kinds of inflammation, abscesses, and other sur- 
gical diseases. 

■ 2nd. — Sdldkya^ includes the description and the treatment of exter- 
nal and organic diseases of the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, and other 
diseases which are situated above the clavicles. 

These two divisions constitute the surgical diseases of modern 

* Joined to, or appended to. A kind of supplementary Vida, said to 
he derived immediately from the Vedas. There are four of these, the 
first is called Ayur-veda; Ayus^ signifying the period of living; and ved^ 
to know. 

Srd. — Kayachikitsd. That is describes the diseases which affect 
the whole body ; as fevers, dysentery (otesara), hematemisis (rakta- 
peta), consumption (sosha), mania (umnada), epilesy (apasnara), 
Leprosy (kusta), diabetes, (bamutra), gonorrhaea (maha), and other 
diseases of the same kind. 

This may be considered as constituting the practice of Physic. — Bhutavidya^ or the means of restormg the deranged faculties 
of the mind, supposed to be produced by demoniacal possessions ; 
as by the anger of the God's (Devfas), de^dls (asurs), or another 
kind of devils {gandarba), demigods or devils (Jaksha), giants 
resembling devils (rakshas), spirits of dead men (pefrigriha), and 
other kinds of devils {pihochas). 

These various demigods, when enraged, were supposed to enter 
into the person, and produce the various diseases of the mind ; which 
could onl)' be removed by prayers, medicines, ablutions, and offerings 
to the offended deity. 

6th. — Kaumdrabhritya, comprised the treatment of Infants, the 
effects of bad milk and unproper diet ; the nature of infant diseases, 
including those produced by the displeasure of certain demigods 
( Graha) *. In this division also was included the treatment of 
wet-nurses when their milk was bad. 

6th. — Agadatantra. In tliis division the administration of antidotes 
for poisons was considered ; as for preventing the effects and diseases 
produced by mineral, vegetable, and animal poisons ; as the bites 
of dangerous serpents, insects, &c. 

*Jth. — Rasdyanatantra treated of those medicines which cure dis- 
eases in general, and restore youth, beauty, and happiness. This di- 
vision embraced chemistry, or more properly alchemy ; as the chief 
end of the chemical combinations described in it are mostly metal- 
lurgic, and the intention was to discover the universal medicine, 
the panacea that would render health permanent and life perpetual. 
Such a medicine was supposed to preserve the energies of youth, 
strengthen memor}^, lengthen life, and prevent as well as cure 

^th. — Vdjikarana-tantra. This division made known the best 
means of increasing the human race, by pointing out the mode by 
which tone was given to the weakened organs of generation, when 
the sensibility of these parts became diminished or deranged. 

These remarks, on the di%dsion of this most ancient work, as given 

* Many of the diseases of children are still supposed to be produced 
by the entrance of devils, into the child's body ; which are expelled by 
particular prayers offered up to Panchanana (Siva.) 

A 2 

in Susruta, &c., are the only parts which have come down to uf. 
They afford the most incontestable evidence of the HindO Medical 
writings having been the result of observation and experience ; 
although the authors assigned a divine origin to them, in order to 
increase the respect paid to the books, and to themselves. They 
thus seem to liave arr-anged the diseases according to the frequency 
of the assistance re^iuired from the art, and in the order in which 
the knowledge of medicine naturally advanced. 

The sacred Ayur Vedci contained abo a description of the 
structure of the human body obtainerl from dissection ; an account 
of the causes and diseases to which it is subject, reduced to a syste- 
matic form ; the enumeration of many useful remedies ; and the 
precepts for preserving healtli, and curing diseases. 

In some of the sliastres TCliaraka, Susruta; it is stated that Bram- 
lia first instructed Dahhsa the J^rajapati, the father of JMnja, in 
the Ayur VefJUiy as he was an ocean of wisdom. He v«^rote a 
book named the ChikifJia-lJo/nfuina, and by him it was communi 
cated to the two Aakvrlns^ or offspring of the Sun fSurja). Others 
say that Bramha gave the Ayur Veda to Surja, who like the Phoebus 
of the Greeks, was supposed to be the fountain of medical knowledge 
among the Hindus. Tlie Ashwins became the medical attendants 
of the Gods, wrote works on medicine named ChifdtHa-rat/aalarUra^ 
and the Bramho/jya. By their remarkable cures, the Ashwins be- 
came very celebraterl. When the fifth head of Bramha was cut off 
by Bayraha, it was joined again by them, so great was their know- 
hidge of Surgery. They also cured immediately the wounds in 
the battle between thrj Gods (dcvf/u), and giants (asura). Indra 
liad another opportunity of judging of their knowledge by their 
curing his paralytic arm. Many other remarkable cures were ac- 
complished by the two Asliwins. On witnessing these effects Indra 
became desirous of examining the Ayur-veda, and he was taught 
by the Ashwins. 

Some time after this, mankind, in consequence of their wickedness, 
became divided into sects, ignorant, restless, unhappy, and afflicted 
-with numerous painful, and dangerous diseases ; and as health is the 
origin of desire, virtjie, holiness, riches, and external happiness, so 
disease diminishes strerjgtli, energy, faith, knowledge, holiness, and 
length of life. It also debilitates the senses, and defiles and 
destroys the souL 

The sacred Sages CMunis) were grieved at a spectacle so melan- 
choly, and, in (mhtr to search for a remedy, Bharadwaja, Atreya, 
with numerous sages, incX in the Hirnaleya Mountains. 

According to Cliaraka their names wero as follows : — 

Angira, Jamadagriiy Vasishto, Kasyapo, Bhrigu, Atreya, Gau- 
tama, Sdnkhya, Pulastya, Ndrada, Osita, Agasta, Bamadeva, Mar- 
kandeya, Aswa?idyan Pariks/ti, Bhikshuratrcya, Bharadiaaja, Kap- 
injala, Viswamitra, Aswaranya, Bhargaha, Chyahana, Obhiiit, 
Gargya, Sandilya, Kaundilya, Abarkshi, JDevala, Galavo, San- 
kritya, Vaijavapi, Kiisika, Vadarayana, Barisa,. Saraloma, Kapya> 
Katyayana, Kankayana, Kaikasaey, Dhauma, Marichi, Casyapo, 
Sarkarahshyo, Hirnnyakshyo, Lohakshya, Paingi, Saimaka, Sa- 
kuneya, Maitreyao, Gautamayaui'^ and others. 

These holy sages were distressed at the sight of the weakness and 
sufferings of mankind, which had increased to such a degree, that 
they saw, with the eyes of their understandings, that the only 
method of removing such calamities was by the assistance of Indra. 

These prophets resolved to send one of their number to the thou- 
sand eyed Indra in Heaven, to make known to him the condition of 
mankind. Bharadwaja agreed to go to Indra to acquire a know- 
ledge of medicine. He went, and beheld him resplendant like 
fire, and by the following prayer propitiated his favor : Oh ! king 
of the Gods ! created for tlie salvation of mankind, I have been 
sent by the sages of the earth, to ask your assistance. Take pity 
on the weakness and infirmities of man, and teach us i\\QAyur- 
veda. Indra was pleased to grant tlie prayer of the petitioner, 
and enlighten him in the precepts of tlie science of medicine ; as, from 
hi<J acquirements, these alone were required to be imparted. These 
precepts embraced an enumeration of the causes, symptoms, and the 
properties of medicines for those in healtli, as well as in sickness. 

With this knowledge of Aytir-veda, the sage returned, and re- 
lated to the Bishis the principles which he had thus acquired. 
These consisted of : — 

1. General character of every thing (Samana.) 

2. Classification (Visesa.) 

3. Elements (Drabya.) 

4. Qualities (Guna.) 

5. Actions (Karma.) 

6. Combinations (Sanjoga.) 

By means of such a knowledge, the Rishis remained healthy, 
and happy. Among tlicse Atreya imparted tlie knowledge which 
he had thus acquired to his pupils, for the good of mankind ; 
among these, the chief were Agnibcsa, Bhela, Jatukania, Para- 
saro, Harita, and Kshyarapatii. 

I give these nnines, as tlieir meaning is now unknown ; proving 
this work to have existed before the Hindu Pantheon was in.stituted, 
from which their proper names are now derived. 

The understandings of these sages being opened, by the instruc- 
tion they received, and they distinguished the peculiarities of dis^ 
eases, the qualities of medicines, and gained much distinction by 
the cures they performed. They are said to have lived in health 
to a very old age. These sages wrote works called by their own 
names, as Agnibesatantra, Bhelatantra, Jatukarnasanfdta^ Pur- 
as&rasmihita^ Haritasanhita and Kshyarapanitantra. 

These works were read before the assembly of the sages {Rishis\ 
who were so much pleased with their arrangement, and the instruc- 
tion conveyed, that with a noise M^hich reached to Heaven they 
resounded the praises of the authors. Agnibesa was de- 
clared to have produced the best practical work, and after it was 
corrected by Charaka it received his name. He therefore became 
the instructor of practitioners upon earth, as the Prajapati were in 
Heaven ; and this is the most ancient and the most celebrated 
Hindu Medical work. 

As it is arranged in the form of dialogues between the master 
and his pupils, the plan is desultory ; for although it follows 
the division into eight parts of the Ayur V6da, the subjects dis- 
cussed seem naturally to have arisen at the conferences, between 
the master and students. Thus, the 1st division contains the 
Materia Medica, the arrangement, and the uses of Medicines, the 
rank of practitioners, the origin of medicine, &c. 

The following may be offered as an example of the manner in 
which philosophical subjects are treated in one of the chapters of 
Charaka. They are the questions asked by the pupil Agni- 
besa, wMch were answered by Atreya their teacher. " What 
is the soul ? How is it produced ? What is the cause of the 
formation of the body ? Is the soul ignorant or wise ? Is it 
eternal or destructable ? What are the temperaments ? What 
are the diseases ? What are the proofs of the existance of the 
soul? Why do some pundits say that the soul is inert, inde- 
pendent, represses the passions (bhassi), omnipresent, and omnipo- 
tent ? Wliy do they call the soul ketragan, or emanation of 
. the deity ? Why is it called witness of the actions of the body 
(Sdki)? If inert, why do we see its actions ? If independent, 
why does it enter the body ? When a represser of the pas- 
sions (bhassi), why is it always desirous of enjoying the passions, and 
greaving over our misfortunes ? If the soul is omnipresent, why 
does it not feel the pains of others ? If omniscient why do we not see 
it in momitains, and hills, and other things ? Does the soul exist 
before or after the formation of the body ? If the soul is the 
science or witness, has it any other judge ? How does it support 

the pains of disease ? Do practitioners employ means to prevent 
disease, to cure them when present, and what is the treat- 
ment ? What is the cause of pain in disease, and where is it 
situated ? How many kinds of pains are there ? How are the pains 
removed ?" 

The work of Charaka is of the highest rank ; but from the author's 
want of exact anatomical and pathological knowledge, his manner of 
treating the subject, and arrangement of diseases it is often obsciu-e, 
although his descriptions may be accurate. In this work simple me- 
dicines are described, as well as their combinations. These remedies 
increased in number, and became more extravagant in their combi- 
nations, in the theraputical department of more modern works. 

In other works of authority, it is stated that when the Vedas were 
lost in the deluge they were recovered by the great serpent Ananta *, 
upon the thousand head of wliich the world rests. At the churning 
of the ocean by the gods (Devtas), and demons (Asuras), the water 
of the ocean was converted into milk, and then into butter, from 
which precious gifts (ratnas) were derived. Among these was 
Dhanwantari, the physician, or holy sage, the possessor of the water 
of life (A?nrita'\) drank by the immortals. 

Dhanwantari was instructed in the Ai/ur Veda by Indra, and 
practised medicine with great success in Heaven, and became cele- 
brated there : But witnessing the ignorance and misery of mankind, 
and the frequency and fatality of the diseases which afflicted them, 
he descended upon earth to cure their maladies, and to instruct 
them in the means of preventing, as well as of curing diseases. He 
became king of Kasi, or Benares, and acquired much celebrity by 
the cures which he performed. The divine sages, aware of his great 
knowledge, and witnessing the misery of mankind in consequence 
of their ignorance, resolved to petition Dhanwantari to assist them. 

With this intention Oupudhnuba, Baiturana, Aurabhra, Poush- 
kalabata, Karabirja, Goupuraa, Rukeeta, Susruta, were selected 
to visit Devadasa or Dhanwantari, king of Kasi, formerly the 
practitioner of Heaven. On their arrival at Benares, they found 
that Dhanwantari had retired to the Jungles. They followed him to 
his retirement, and as they approached him, after mutual salutations, 
they delivered the foUo^ving address : — " Deign Sovereign Ruler, 
to bestow upon us the power of preventing and curing the many 
diseases under which mankind is suffering, — affecting their bodies 
(Sarira), tormenting their minds (^Manah), and which, with the nu- 

* A devta also Vishnu ; which is to say the end, endless, eternal, 

t Amrita, that which gives life . 

merous accidental {agimta) and natural diseases (swabhabika), dis- 
tress them so much that they seem to be without friends. Their 
seeming destitution grieves us much, and we pray that you will 
bestow upon us a work to instruct us in the cause, the nature, 
and the cure of diseases ; for retaining health, and for promoting 
the welfare of the soul in another world. Like scholars, we come 
to receive this information from you." Dhanwantari answered, 
" Your wishes shall be granted." The sages then informed their 
preceptor that as they were all of the same sect ; one of them should 
ask the questions, and write down the answers required, and the 
others observe the answers. 

Susruta, son of Visdmitra, a contemporary of Rama, was chosen 
to be the person to be instructed in Medicine. Dhanwantari said 
that Ayur-v6da is for the cure of diseases, and for the preservation 
of health. But it is too voluminous to be recollected by the present 
deo-enerate race of mankind ; he therefore recommended Sursuta to 
abridge it, and to arrange it into parts, so as to be easily understood 
by every one who perused it with attention. 

The work which Susruta prepared is still preserved, and after 
Charaka, it is the oldest book in Medicine which the Hindus possess, 
and is still of high authority. The manner in which it was produced 
is as follows : — 

Dhanwantari asked his pupils, on what shall I first lecture ? They 
answered, on Surgery; because formerly there were no diseases 
among the gods, and wounds were the first injuries which required 
treatment. Besides the practice of surgery is more respected, as 
afibrding immediate relief, and is connected with the practice of 
medicine ; although the latter has no connexion with surgery. This 
was agreed to ; and we find the explanation of the eight parts of 
Ayur-v6da, in six Books of Susruta, as follows : — 

Ist. — Surgery (Sutra Sth^na), in which is considered the origin 
of medicine ; the rules for teaching, the duty of practitioners, 
the selection and uses of instruments and medicines, the influence 
of the weather on health, and the practice to be followed after 
• surgical operations. Then follows the description of the dis- 
eases of the humours and surgical diseases; the restoration of 
defective ears and noses ; and the removal of extraneous sub- 
stances which have entered the body ; the different stages of 
inflammation with their treatment, different forms of wounds 
and ulcers, and the regimen of patients labouring under surgical 
diseases. The description of good and bad diet ; of prognosis ; the 
kind of messengers to be employed by the sick ; and of disease^ 
* From Su, well and Sruta, Shastres. 

produced by the deranged actions of the senses, and of incurable 
diseases. Then follows the preparations required for accompanying 
a rajah in war, the duty of the practitioners, the difference of cli- 
mates, the different classes of medicines according to their sensible 
qualities, a description of the tluids, and of the different preparations, 
and articles of food. These subjects are treated of in forty- six 

2nd. — Nosology (Nidana Sth^na) the description and Diagnosis 
of diseases produced by vitiated humours, or derangements of blood, 
bile, wind, and plilegm. The symptoms and causes of Rheumatic 
diseases, of piles, stone, fistulo-in-ano, leprosy, diabetes, gonorrhoea, 
and ascitis ; the sjinptoms of unnatural presentations in midwifery, 
large internal abscesses, erj^sipelas, scrofula, hydrocele, venereal 
diseases, and diseases of the mouth. These subjects are considered 
in sixteen chapters. 

^rd. — Anatomy (Sarira Sthdna), or structure of the body. The 
description of the soul, and the elementary parts of the body ; of 
puberty ; of conception ; of the growth of the different parts of the 
body ; of bleeding ; of the treatment of pregnancy, and of infants. 
This division has ten chapters. 

^th. — Therapia (Chikitsa Sthana), in which the exhibition of 
medicines, the history of inflammations, the treatment of fractures, 
rheumatic diseases, piles, stone, fistula-in-ano, leprosy, diabetes, 
and dropsy are given : the manner of extracting the child in unusual 
positions, the remedies for restoring health and strength, and for 
prolonging life ; the means of preventing diseases ; the use of clysters ; 
and of errhines, and the use of the smoke of different substances. 
These are considered in forty different chapters. 

5th. — Toxocology (Kalpa Sthana). The means of distinguishing 
poisoned food, and descriptions of different mineral, vegetable, and 
animal poisons, with their antidotes is given under this head. This 
division is treated of in eight chapters. 

6th. — The supplementary section (Locales Uttara Sthana) inclu- 
des various local diseases ; as those of the eye, nose, ears, and head, 
with their treatment ; the symptoms and treatment of fever, and its 
varieties ; dysentery ; consumption ; gulma ; diseases of the heart ; 
jaundice ; discharges of blood, and fainting. This is followed by 
the treatment of intoxication, of cough, hiccough, asthma, hoarse- 
ness of voice, worms, sterterous vomiting, cholej'a, dispepsia, and 
disuria. It also treats of madness, epilepsy, apoplexy, the different 
tastes of substances with their effects ; the means of retaining health, 
and the different opinions of practitioners regarding tlie humours. 
These subjects are treated in sixty-six chapters. 



It tlius appears that the ancient commentators on the ayur-veda 
did not allow the prejudices that now exist against touching the 
dead Body, to interfere with that important and necessary branch 
of knowledge, which can alone be acquired by dissection. 

The Charaka and Susrata are the ground work of the more 
recent medical systems ; in which their authors have uniformly 
adhered to the classification, and general details of the originals. 
But these imitators being ignorant of anatomy, and the usual 
causes of diseases, are still more defective in their descriptions 
particularly when they did not follow the more ancient writers. 

It was by means of the works of Charaka and Susruta that all 
the sages (Munis) are alleged to have been instructed in medicine ; 
and the variety of opinion to be found in the treatises they after- 
wards wrote, was in consequence of the shortness of their com- 
pilations, their poetical form, and the great extent and difficulty of 
the subject. These Sages are said to have practised medicine as 
a means of accomplishing much good to mankind ; and they became 
famous by the number of lives which they saved. Those who 
were taught by Charaka, became Physicians ; and the followers of 
Susruta, Surgeons. 

Charaka is superior to Susruta in the accuracy of his descrip- 
tions, in the classification of diseases, and in the plan of treatment 
which he recommends. While Susruta is principally celebrated 
for his anatomical descriptions, and judicious principles of surgery 
which his work contains. 

To such authorities the Hindu practitioners invariably looked, to 
the entire neglect of that careful and continued examination of the 
progress of diseases, by which alone their true nature, and success- 
ful treatment are discovered. The works of these commentators 
embraced the whole system, and the erroneous principles upon 
which their theoretical speculations were built is not detected, in 
consequence of the contracted space occupied in their descrip- 
tions, which discard minute observations on disease, or specific 
details regarding the opinions of others. 

The two following Medical works deserve to be mentioned here. 
Babhata compiled a treatise called Ostongo-reedoya. This was 
principally taken from Charaka and Susruta. The manner of treat- 
ing the subject, and the arrangements are much the same. It is 
written in a clear style, and the author explains passages which 
were not before understood, in the original works. 

About three hundred years ago, a compilation was made from all 
the most celebrated medical works, and called Baboprukasa. The 
author collected all that was most precious from the works left by 


other sages, and named the work after himself. By its clearness, 
and excellent arrangement this work explains the difficulties of 
the more ancient medical shastres, forgotten, and corrupted. This 
work was compiled for the use of practitioners, and is prefered by 
tliem, as it gives an admirable account of aU the practical parts of 
the Hindu medical science. 


Hank of Practitioners^ and Duties of Teachers. 

In the Puranas it is stated that a young woman of the Vaisya 
caste, called Ambd, was ser\'ing as a menial to Galaba, the Muni. 
lie was much pleased with her, and while blessing her, informed her, 
that she would have a beautiful and respected son. She told this to 
her parents, who asked the sage how that could be, as she was not 
married ; and that the birth of a child would bring disgi'ace upon 
the whole family. The sage told them that it would be so ; that 
the child should be called Virabhadra (very fortunate), that he 
would be much respected, and his profession would be that of me- 
dicine. This cliild was the first of the Vaidya, * or Medical caste. 

His ' thirteen sons were taught by the sacred Sages the works 
they had written, and they became most learned pundits, and skilful 
physicians. It is from their descendants that the Hindu physicians 
are derived, and now form the caste of Yaidhyas. These physicians 
have free access to various shastres, or commentaries on the sacred 
writings. Brahmans learn the medical shastres for their advantage ; 
Khetriyas for the benefit of their health, and Vaidyas for their 
subsistence. The two first castes are not allowed to receive any 
pecuniary recompense for their assistance to the sick. 

Other castes may learn the medical works when they are honest, 
learned, and men of good descent. Even those of the degraded 
Sudra caste may be taught the Ayur-veda, under such circum- 

Teacher. " The feet of the Teacher is the origin of all happiness, 
and, like a light in a dark room, he will illuminate the contracted, 
and dark mind of the pupil ; or, as quicksilver, properly mixed 
with other metals and exposed to heat, will be changed to gold, 
so will the words that come out of his mouth be pure and valuable." 

* Or one who understands vidyd (i e.) the Ayur-ved, or Medical 



In the ancient works it is stated that the teachers of the medical 
profession were Rishis, or Ascetic sages. They conveyed their 
instruction in the form of lectures, which were delivered in open 
public places, at which many students attended. These sages tra- 
velled about with their pupils, curing diseases, so as to afford them 
the means of witnessing the effects of different manners and customs, 
and different medicines, climates, and forms of diseases. The pu- 
pils kept notes of these lectures, and many of these compilations are 
still in existence. 

At present the Teacher instructs three or four pupils, in many 
cases his relations, who are maintained at their own houses. In 
other cases the Teacher supports them. They continue five or six 
years reading the shastres, seeing the preparation of medicines, and 
their employment, for the cure of the sick. The teacher in many 
cases receives no emolument from his pupils, being content with 
the honor and merit of bestowing knowledge. This merit is consi- 
dered to be of the very first order; procuring for him renown in 
this world, and the highest benefits in a future state. In most cases 
however, an allowance is made to such Teachers by their rich neigh- 

" A good teacher is like rain falling upon the germinating seed, and 
should possess the following qualifications : — A perfect knowledge 
of the shastres, joined to extensive practical knowledge and skill. 
He should be kind and humble to every one; he should have no defects 
of body, and should always be ready to expose the good, rather than 
the bad qualities of others ; he should be clean and neat in his person, 
and possess and exhibit to his pupils all kinds of medicines and instru- 
ments. He should always be increasing his knowledge of books, 
and should neither be angry by the improprieties of others, nor 
fatigued by their importunities. He should be kind and considerate 
to his pupils and be able to explain the most complicated statements, 
in the simplest, and most perspicuous language. Such a person as 
this, who instructs a pupil, when of good parentage, is like the 
seasonable cloud and rain upon the corn field, which quickly ma- 
tures its valuable produce." 

" Such a man is not therefore aged, though his hair is gray. The 
Gods considered as aged, the person who, though young in years, 
has read, and understands the vedas. As an elephant made of wood, 
or an antelope made of earth, such is an unlearned Brahman : who 
has nothing but the name." (Menu, p. 44. and 156 157.) 

Should a Teacher give improper instructions to his pupil, or pe- 
ruse with him bad books, he wiU bear the weight of the sin of his 
pupil, and the seeds wliich he sows wiU not produce good fruits. 


These vaidya teachers are often more learned, and have less pride 
than the Brahmans.* " They are usually poets, grammarians, 
rhetoricians and moralists ; and may be esteemed in general the most 
virtuous, and amiable of the Hindus. Instead of the vedas, they study 
the Ayur ved, and Rajaniti, or instruction of Princes, and instead of 
law, the Nitisastras, or general system of Ethics. Their Sahitya, or 
Cavja Sastra, contains innumerable poems written chiefly by physi- 
cians, which supplies the place of the Puranas, since they contain all 
the stories of the Ramayan, Bharata, and Bhagawata : they have ac- 
cess to many treatises of Alank^ra or rhetoric, with a variety of works 
in modidated prose ; to the N^taka, which answers to the Gand- 
harvaveda, consisting of regular dramatic pieces, in Sanscrit and 
Prakit. Besides which they usually get by heart some entire dic- 
tionary and grammar." 

Character and duties of Pupils. 

Brahmans should teach the sons of Brahmans, of Khetriyas, 
and of Vaidyas, who belong to the third order of Hindu castes. 
The last are the professed, though not the exclusive medical class 
among the Hindus. Other shastus state that a Khetriya should teach 
the son of a Khetriya, and Vaidyas a Vaidya, &c. 

*' In all cases the Medical student should be the son of a respecta- 
ble and ancient family, who is either the son of a practitioner, or of 
one who respects the medical profession. He should be inquisitive 
and observant, not covetous, zealous, or lazy ; he should be a 
philanthropist, possess a generous heart, and his disposition should 
be amiable, and happy. The indications of such qualifications are, 
an agreeable voice, a small tongue, eyes, and nose straight, with 
thin lips, short teeth, which do not expose the gimis, and thick hair 
which retains its vigour." 

" With such qualifications even the son of the Sudra may be taught 
theshastres, with the exception ofcertain prayers (mantras). The tea- 
chers faith in God will thus remain, and be conveyed to such a pupil ; 
and the teacher will afford glory to the scholar, even should he be a 

* The reverence with which a Brahman is held is not surprising when 
it is considered that they are sprung from the mouth of Bramlia, that 
they are the guardians of the sacred books, that all the offices and 
benefits of religion must proceed from them, and, as Gods, they hold 
the destinies of man at their disposal. 


Rajah, and after death the Teacher will go to the heaven of Indra 

The successful student should be active in his duties, and not 
fatigued by his studies, he should possess gravity, a good memory, 
acute senses, and considerable acquirements. 

Without such qualifications and indications the youth should 
be rejected. 

These students of medicine enter their names as the pupils of 
some celebrated Brahman or Vaidya, who teach the science of 
medicine. When the student has learned one branch of the medical 
art, or that followed by his Father, he is not allowed to change it 
for another branch, although he can change his profession at 
any time. 

A fortunate day is to be selected for the pupil to commence read- 
ing the shastres. On that occasion he is to be clean in his person, 
and the place in which he is to study should be purified. A raised 
part of the room, a cubit square, is to be cleaned with cows' dung 
and strewed with Kusa grass, after which fire is to be placed upon it, 
with several kinds of sacred wood, upon which ghee is to be poured, 
while prayers (mantras) are repeated. The pupil while being 
initiated should stand near the fire with his face towards the east. 

The master (Guru) and other Brahmans are then to pray over some 
dried rice, and the Guru should sprinkle water over the assembly. 
He is then to place a Brahman on his right hand, over which he 
prays as he throws a mixture of curdled milk, honey, and ghee over 
the sacred fire. The scholar does the same, and his lesson begins. 
The Guru declares that he must henceforth discard lust, anger, 
covetousness, ignorance, laziness, vanity, pride, envy, revenge, cruel- 
ty, lying, and evil actions. He must always be engaged in the 
search after truth, and in the performance of good actions ; he must 
be clean in his person, wear a humble and peculiar kind of co- 
oured clothes ; and his beard and nails should not be cut during 
the period of his study. 

He must always respect his teacher and parents ; put the dust 
of their feet upon his head, and obey them in every thing. He is 
thus addressed by the guru : — 

" When I say you may eat, drink, sleep, and rise from bed, you 
must immediately obey. If the scholar does not perform all this he 
sins, his understanding will duninish, and his glory will be quenched." 

" Whatever I say you must believe, and carefully follow my 
instructions. You must be careful to act so as to please me, and 
if I do not acknowledge your good actions, I shall sin and my 
knowledge wiU be barren." 


" In the treatment of the diseases of Brahmans, Gurus, and the 
poor and helpless or people who come from a distance, you must 
be as careful as you would be of your own relations, by which you 
will make more friends, acquire virtue, wealth, and a good name. 
You must not be displeased at my treating you as a son, a 
servant, or a beggar, you must harbour no bad thoughts, you 
must be moderate in the indulgence of your appetites, and you must 
be contented with a small recompence. By night and by day your 
anxious desire should always be to consider how you are to cure 
the sick imder your care. You will avoid bad company, and 
neither give medicines to a cidprit who has been condemned by a 
Rajah, to a woman whose husband and guardians are absent, nor 
receive any thing but food from a wife, without the consent of the 
husband. You must avoid entering a house, as a medical man, 
\vithout an in^'itation, you must walk slowly, without gazing, and 
obser^-e deliberately, but you must only observe the patient, and the 
s^Tuptoms of his disease ; and you must not express the period of a 
fatal disease. You must not vaunt your own knowledge, for although 
the learned may be pleased, the ignorant will be angry at the ex- 
hibition of learning in such a situation. After visiting the sick, 
should the disease be complicated, you must detail the symptoms, 
and consult other physicians as to their nature and treatment." 

" As the shastres contain the precepts of numerous prophets and 
great physicians with their descriptions of diseases reduced to a 
proper order, you must study them with care ; by which the stupid 
and illiterate pupil will be instructed in liis duties, and the intelli- 
gent and industrious in the manner in which that knowledge is to be 
improved and extended." 

" The shastres are not to be read on unlucky (astami) days, or 
when the sun is obscured by clouds ; on the two first days of a new 
moon ; when it thunders ; at unseasonable times ; at the morning 
dawn, or evening twilight. The student must not study on holidays, 
or the day on which he meets a corpse, on which the Governor of the 
province is sick, when fighting occurs, or when war approaches." 

The Brahmans were first called Brahmanha, and when they have 
received the string they are called Dwija, or twice born ; in like man- 
ner, the Physicians are called Ambashta, and Vaidya (^^) from 
Veda (^X) when they have acquired the ayur-veda, or medical shas- 
tres. Besides the Ayur-veda, the physician requires to know different 
other sciences. But if a Vaidya does not know or does not follow 
the precepts of the shastres, he will be like a thief, and such a 
person exercising medicine, will commit as great a sin, as beating a 


The preceptor, during the time he teaches his pupil, should wear 
two pieces of cloth, his mind should be calm, and he should be regu- 
lar in his attendance. 

In teaching, the progress of the student must be at first slow, com- 
mencing with the nomenclature of the profession, and then acquiring 
single subjects, and lastly the whole system. He must first read slowly 
and distinctly, without much effort, and avoid a monotonous intona- 
tion, or acquiring a dislike to the subject. The instruction should be 
given without pain to the instructed ; and sweet gentle speech must 
be used by a Preceptor who cherishes virtue. When at his lesson, 
care must be taken not to allow any one to pass between the pupil 
and Teacher, as it will interrupt the supposed passage of good 
qualities from the latter to the former. 

If the Student seek for long life, he Should eat with his face to the 
east ; if for exalted fame, to the south ; if for prosperity, to the west ; 
if for truth and its reward, to the north, (Menu p. 28 ch 2 52) 

When a student has studied medicine, and has understood, 
examined, and remembered the symptoms of disease with the 
actions of medicines and has acted for himself, he is to receive the 
authority of the Rajah to practice medicine. 

Duties of the Physician, of his attendants, and of the Patient. 

There are four circiunstances required in the cure of a disease, — 
a physician ; a disease that is known ; a reasonable patient ; and 
medicines, instruments, and attendants. Eacli of these subjects will 
be considered in this order. 

Duties of a Physician. The duty of a Physician relates to his 
person, character, acquirements, and observances. 

Person. The Physician should possess a healthy body ; he should 
keep his nails and beard short ; liis body pure, his clothes clean, 
and wear shoes, and a small turban. He should carry an umbreUa, 
and stick in his hand. 

Should the Practitioner not know his duty, the cure of the disease 
will be tedious and imperfect ; it will also be so when the pulse 
cannot be felt at the root of the neck, and when the senses are 
affected. In such cases the Practitioner should always inform the 
relations and friends of the sick person of the state in which he 
is in, before prescribing. 


Character. The successful student, after leaving his preceptor, 
should be cleanly in his person, love and obey his Teacher, and should 
be active and studious to find out the proper meaning of the difficult 
passages he^had learned by heart. Should these passages not be un- 
derstood, or should the student know the shastres, and not practice 
the profession, he \W11 be like an ass canying a heavy load of frao-rant 
wood without discovering, and enjoying the fragrance of his burthen. 

The Physician should possess a good memory, and be always amia- 
ble, cheerful, and collected. His language should be mild, candid 
and encom-aging, rather like that of a friend than an acquaintance, 
and he should be ahvays ready to assist the sick. His heart should be 
pure and charitable, and he should carefully follow the instructions 
of his Guru, and of his predecessors. Such a physician should 
possess a character for strict veracity, of cahn temper, and of the 
greatest sobriety, and chastity. He should be a man of sense and 
benevolence, and liis constant study should be how he is to do good. 
As a person may be afraid of his father and mother, friends, and 
guru, but not of his Physician ; so the physician should be more kind 
and considerate to the sick than a father, a mother, a friend, or a guru. 
To these qualities should be added, that of affection for learned 
friends, the constant habit of visiting the sick, and seeing them treated 
by experienced persons. Without such a combination of qualities, 
knowledge will retard rather than advance his progress. He should 
know the causes and varieties of disease, and the means of pre- 
venting and curing them, and have the reputation of accomplish- 
ing cures quickly. He should study to remove curable diseases, but 
must avoid treating healthy persons. A good physician will continue 
to visit his patients diligently, examine them carefully, and be not 
fearful, but give medicines always when the patient can live : But 
if a physician attempts to treat an incurable disease, it will diminish 
his reputation, friends, and riches. 

Acquirements. A good Physician should be acquainted with his 
profession, but so various are the qualifications that the combination 
is rarely to be found, even in heaven. He should be acquainted, — 

1^^. — With the introductory remarks of Sutrusthdna, which 
considers the relation of customs and habits, and the knowledge 
of those duties which the shastres regulate, with reference to 

2nd. — Sdrira, or structure of the body. 

3^c?. — Niddn^ which includes the invasion {Purbura) ; and 
symptoms (JRupd) of diseases. 

/^th. — Chikitsa and upasdya concerning the regimen and the 
Medicines which cure diseases. 



^th, — Upadrahay including all unusual symptoms which deve- 
lope themselves in the course of disease ; as delirium, thirst, &c. 

6th. — KoJpa, concerning poisons. 

To such acquirements, the physician must have practised his pro- 
fession as well as studied the shastres, which were compassionately 
revealed by the Gods. Without such a knowledge of books he will be 
confused, like a soldier afraid in the time of action, will be a great sin- 
ner, and should be capitally punished by the rajah. On the other hand, 
a want of practical knowledge will impede his advancement, and his 
senses will be bewildered, when called on to treat acute diseases. 
Such a physician will not be esteemed by the great, as he cannot pra- 
tice with success when only instructed in half his duty. Such a per- 
son is the murderer of his species, and the medicine prescribed by him 
may be compared to poison, or lightning — such ignorance prevents 
all the good effects of remedies. As the two wheels of a chariot, 
or the two wings of a bird, assist in their progress, so will the 
knowledge of the shastres, and of practice, lead the physician to 
proceed with safety and success in the treatment of the diseased ; 
but, should the physician want either of these essential qualifications, 
his progress will be impeded, as one wing or one wheel will impede 
the progress of the bird, or the chariot. It is the combination of 
both these qualifications which is required ; when medicine be- 
comes like the water of immortality (^Amrita). Such a physician, if 
he is to acquire celebrity, must still daily endeavour to improve 
his mind by an attentive perusal of scientific books. If such a 
physician does not gain money after he has been taught the shastres 
it is his own fault. 

When such a Vydya is spoken to by a patient in a peevish or 
hasty manner, he will remain calm, mild, and courageous ; and 
cherish a cheerful hope of being able to save the sufferer's life. 
The practitioner should a^^oid frivolous or improper language, par- 
ticularly with females ; he should not sit down upon the same bed, 
and the only presents he should receive from them is food. He 
should be frank, communicative, impartial, and liberal, yet ever 
rigid in exacting an adherence to whatever regimen or rules he may 
think it necessary to enjoin. Should death occur under the care of 
such an earthly saint, it can only be considered as his inevitable 
fate, and not the consequence of presumptuous ignorance. 

The presence of a physician for the cure of a disease is most 
important ; indeed, as indispensable as a pilot is to a boat, as a 
coachman in guiding a chariot, or as a general to an army. If a 
physician is not consulted when a person is iU, he wiU soon die, as 
a lamp exposed to wind is continually liable to be extinguished. 


Some severe diseases are cured immediately, by a good physician ; 
but simple diseases are increased much by the want of early assis- 
tance. At the commencement, like a young plant, it is readily 
rooted up, but as it expands and grows in strength the difficulties are 
much increased. Even for a slight disease the assistance of a prac- 
titioner will be of much use ; for as a large man at the bottom of a 
pit may get out by long continued exertion, his extrication will be 
much facilitated by the assistance of a friendly hand. As in war, a 
sword may defend many, so in the hand of an enemy it will destroy. 
In hke manner the shastres and water may become the cause of 
destruction instead of benefit to mankind. 

Some practitioners have many instruments and medicine which 
they do not know how to use, such are calculated to deceive ; and 
by their arrogant manners, and being without a knowledge of the 
shastres, are enemies to mankind, and are called Ch/iadmachara, 
Those who possess the favourable qualities of Physicians, without the 
necessary knowledge, are called Pratirupaka ; and those who know 
the medical shastres, and are well acquainted with the causes, 
symptoms, and means of curing disease, and their prevention, will 
be fit to be the physician to a Rajah. Such persons are called Sid/ii 

The first two are sometimes allowed to practice by the neglect 
of the Rajah, and they may be known by their vanity, and ill will 
towards the good physician. Such persons flatter the patients 
friends, are diligent, take reduced fees, are hesitating and doubtful 
in performing difficult operations, and pretend that their bad success 
is caused by the bad attendants, &c. ; such persons avoid the so- 
ciety of learned persons as they would a jungle. 

Still some patients will be saved when under the care of such a 
physician, as a worm in destroying one of the sacred shastres will 
sometimes leave in its depredations the rude representations of 
some of the sacred letters. A bad physician may cure one patient, 
by which he endeavours to establish his fame, without considering 
the thousands he has killed ; such a person is like a boat in a storm 
without a pilot, or a blind man in the performance of any work, and 
is to be looked upon as the angel of death. If such a fellow has 
his fancy inflamed, he is like a deadly serpent, and should be 

The Practitioner who knows the value of quicksilver, &c. ; is like a 
god ; one who knows the qualities of herbs and roots is like a man ; 
one who knows the use of the knife and of fire resembles a demon 
(Asur) ; and those who know the proper prayers to be offered up 
in the time of sickness is like a prophet. 

c 2 


The following characters will never be respected as Physicians :-« 
When the person is born in, and inhabits a village which has a bad 
name, or visits the sick without being called. A bad Physician does 
not pay respect to the Brahmans, spiritual Teachers, or superiors ; he 
leaves the duties due to the memory of his father unfulfilled ; wears 
bad clothes, speaks on improper subjects, and in an improper 
manner, or neither speaks nor gives medicines. Such a person does 
not pay respect to astrologers, to the seasons and times, to the 
influence of the planets, to the opinion of friends, or acknowledges 
the power of holy men. Such a physician will never be respected ; 
and the great physician, Dhaniuantari himself, possessed of such 
qualities, would not be liked or esteemed. 

Should a proud physician reject the shastres, and the advice of 
his Guru, all sorts of evils will follow him ; and if he cannot repeat 
the usual prayers, is ignorant of the nature of disease, and takes 
money, he should be punished by the Rajah, as a tliief. Should a 
physician speak disrespectfully of the shastres, or incorrectly of the 
Ayur-veda, or of astrology, the same punishment shall be inflicted, 
on him as that for killing a Brahman. 

From these observations, it appears that the duties of a physician 
requires the exercise of sound judgement, unimpeachable integrity, 
profoimd learning, embracing an intimate acquaintance with many 
shastres, and a constant and extensive practice of his profession. 
To these qualities must be joined unremitting attention, a good 
heart and disposition, a knowledge of the appearance and varieties 
of disease, and the manner of preparing, and exhibiting the proper 
remedies. ^ 

A physician should not visit the enemy of a Rajah ; as he 
should always speak the truth, avoid speaking disrespectfully of 
ancestors, and of other good, exalted, and pious persons. He is not 
to walk with the wicked, foolish, or low-born persons, or -with the 
patients enemy. He must avoid riding on wicked horses, elephants, 
or the like, living in empty houses, or in places where bodies are 
burnt ; in very retired places, containing wild beasts or reptiles, 
■ where people are quarrelling, especially with cutting instruments in 
their hands, or animals armed with horns. He is carefully to avoid 
walking behind biers containing dead bodies, moving in the shadow 
of the images of the Gods, of cow^s, Eralmians, or in the smoke of 
burning bodies, diseased persons, or great sinners. The physician 
as well as other persons should neither look at the rising nor set- 
ting sun. He should neither inform a person that a cow is eating 
what belongs to him, nor speak ill of a Rajah. He should not walk 
upon the tops of rocks, beat the water or earth with his hands or 


feet, prevent or resist any inclination of the body, to discharge any 
thing. He should avoid drinking or eating out of a broken vessel, 
or out of the hand ; and should not sleep with his face to the 
north. Ganesah had his head chopped off for so doing by Sunni, 
and the head of an elephant substituted, as it was found sleeping 
vdih its head in the same direction. 

Observa?ices. When called upon to attend a patient, the physician 
is to mark the following circumstances : — He is to observe the 
manner, speech, and dress of the messenger ; the state of the planets, 
and the tune of the day ; and the good or bad omens. He shoidd 
note the occurrence of accidents, in walking, or in seeing impure, 
weak, imperfect, or divided objects : In such cases the person will 
die of the disease. This will be rendered more inevitable, should 
neither presents nor respect be shewn to the practitioner. 

Before a physician visits a patient, he should first remark the 
position he is in when the messenger arrives to consult with 
him ; and, by the persons countenance and conversation, endea- 
voiir to ascertain, whether or not the patient will survive. As he 
proceeds to visit the sick person, he must carefully note any 
good or bad omens that may ocbur regarding the messenger, the 
flight of birds, the relative position of animals, &c. Seeing cows, or 
Brahmans on the right hand side are favourable, as also corpses, 
jackals, vessels of water, &c., when seen on the left side. It is 
unfavourable when lizards are heard when leaving the house, when 
vultures, or bad characters are seen, or when the Physician is 
called by another person, or is hit by any thing behind, or when a 
person sneezes. 

If the physician meets a person carrj ing out a vessel of water, 
earth, seeds, fruit, ghee, sees a bull. Brahman, or scorpion, when 
coming out of the sick person's house ; or the figure of a geni, a fire 
vessel, or a bow for arrows, the person will die. Seeing animals 
in unclean situations, on the right and left hand, bad sinners, very 
old and blind persons, or an enemy, are bad omens. 

If the Physician arrives at the same time at the patients house 
with milk, the omen is favourable. 

The physician should avoid visiting a sick person during the 
night. When he gets up in the morning, and has performed the ne- 
cessary purifications, he is to ^dsit the patient residing in a clean 

The physician should avoid visiting a patient in a place where 
there is hair, bones, spikes, stones, chaff, ashes, broken stone vessels, 
charcoal, or in impure situations. 

If the first object seen in the morning is a holy man, the person's 


money will increase ; and if a bad man it will diminish. Should the 
person be at enmity with a soothsayer, he will become poor ; with a 
physician, he will soon die ; and with a Brahman toil will be the 
only recompence he will get for his exertions, and he wiU soon lose 
his life. 

Should the air at the time be cool, and pleasantly scented it is 
favourable ; but if with a strong wind blowing with a disagreeable 
smell, the prognosis of the disease should be more guarded. These 
and various other indications are explainded in the Medical works, 
and seem to be founded on the Hindu belief in fatalism ; a system, 
though sufficiently plausable with the ignorant, is fraught with many 
and great evils. 

Useful indications are supposed to be derived from the dreams of 
the physician, as well as from those of the sick person ; and a long 
list of the good and bad subjects of dreams are given. In general, 
favourable dreams consist in seeing brahmans, cows, rajahs, clean 
water, splendid houses, &c. ; and the reverse in seeing the person 
cleaning himself, riding on an unclean animal, low caste persons, 
dead acquaintances, killing or fighting, unclean animals, falling down 
a precipice, loss of eye-sight, and other impure objects or defects, 
&c. The good and bad dreams in different diseases is likemse 
given, which seem to be good or bad according to the greater 
or less importance of the changes of the symptoms which they 

The physician should first ask questions at the attendant regarding 
the disease ; what things he has eaten, and what he has done to pro- 
duce, or to influence the disease. The physician should then mark 
the signs of longivity in his patient. These are long arms and fingers ; 
large eyes, forehead, trunk, teeth, mouth, and hands, feet, and 
shoulders. Persons will live to an old age who have long respira- 
tions, and a large space between the mamilse, the fore-legs short and 
fleshy, the neck short, and speak and act sensibly. A person with a 
large body and good voice, deep navel, vessels and joints well formed, 
much hair on the body, the external ears long, the body strong, 
more particularly the head, quickly dries when wet with oil or water, 
from above downwards, and the senses are good: such a person 
will live long, and should be treated by the physician. The want of 
such signs will indicate a short life, not exceeding 50 years ; and 
when moderate in their manner of living, and rich, they will not 
exceed the age of 70 years. When such a person has not been dis- 
eased from his birth, has grown fat gradually, as well as in his know- 
ledge of the shastres, he will live long. The person will live a 
moderate period when the lines on the pahns of his hands, and long 


longitudinal lines on the back are well formed, but with large exter- 
nal ears, and the end of the nose prominent, the person may live 70 
years. When the bones of the fingers and forearm are short, testi- 
cles pendulous, breast and back contracted, ears short, nose pro- 
minent, and gimis are seen on laughing, and eyes are not steady, 
such a person will live 50 years. Then follows the proper propor- 
tions of both the large and small members, and the proportions of 
the size of each part of the body for indicating the length of 
the persons life. 

It is necessary to recollect that a good Brahman, and a Rajah, 
will be cured of a disease with difficulty, as they will not always 
take the proper remedies, and the physician is afraid to urge his 
instructions strongly. The same is the case with women, children, 
and old people, who do not observe the proper directions. In 
like manner, those who do not explain their complaints, who are 
weak in intellect, are poor, and avaritious ; who will not spend their 
money, or have bad tempers or dispositions, are dissipated, and are 
without friends, will be cured of their diseases with difficulty, as 
they will not strictly follow the directions of the physicians. In 
such cases the disease may be rendered incurable. 

2nd. The Nature of the Disease. The physician (chikitsaka) 
should next mark the nature of the disease, the seasons of the year, 
and enquire from what country the patient comes. He is to mark 
which of the humours {dhdtu) are diseased, and how they can be cured. 

There are three kinds of these duties : — 

1 5^. — To cure the diseases of wind (vajTi), bile (pitta), and phlegm 
(kaph) which occur without causing other diseases. These derange- 
ments are the usual cause of disease, and produce the change of | 
disposition, and the peculiar feelings of the sick ; besides one disease 
may produce another, w^hich sometimes diminishes the symptoms 
of the first. 

2nd. — When a disease is present, how it is to be cured? and 

^rd. — Wlien a primary and secondary disease are present, and 
require to be cured ? 

The physician is to observe the general appearance of the sick 
person, his age, and the condition of his body, his temperament 
and strength, the state of the mind, and the food which he 
has been used to. He should examine the symptoms of the 
disease with his eyes ; consider the probable result of the disease 
by his judgement, and its similarity with other diseases ; as there 
is a good and a bad form of every disease. The symptoms enu- 
merated in the shastres, should be observed, more especially the 
state of the pulse, of the tongue as to moisture and dryness, the 


condition of the bowels, urine, and sleep ; his general feeling, more 
especially the state of the nose, head, hands, feet and abdomen. 
The state of the patient's appetite and internal fire ; the part of 
the body attacked, and the state of the various vessels (^era), and 
the abdomen (kastha) ; particularly where the stomach presses upon 
the food to digest it (pokasia) ; where the undigested portion is 
situated (dmasia) ; where digestion takes place {pakasaya) ; and 
where the dejections are retained (moldsaya) next the bladder and 
pelvis. The seat of the blood (Jokerit, &c.) the heart (hit) and the 
lungs (phuspus) are to be considered ; and the period when the 
disease increases, and intermissions occur. The kind of caste, 
temper, and disposition ; the degree of fear ; the state of the dejec- 
tions ; and, in females, the state of the cataminia, &c. If the patient 
cannot speak, those about him should be asked the usual questions 
about the disease. 

The disease is next to be examined by the five active senses, and 
by speech. By the touch is distinguished the feverish heat or cold- 
ness of the surface, the dryness or moisture, the softness or hardness, 
the size of the vessels, and the irregularities of the skin. By the 
hearing, the passage of air in deep seated abscesses, wounds ; and 
in the intestines,^by coughing, &c. 

By the signs of longivity and strength of the body, and the 
changes in the colour of the skin, &c. ; as leprosy, and various forms 
of cutaneous diseases ; by the state of the tongue and of the urine ; 
the quantity of which is to be noted, and the quality, which is 
known by ants being fond of it, by the sight, and by the smell. In 
like manner the other secretions and discharges, as from ulcers, 
&c., are to be examined. 

By speech, the Practitioner learns the time of invasion and pro- 
gress of the disease, the sex and habit of body ; the nature and de- 
gree of pain ; and the state of the appetite, the strength, and the 
evacuations. Unless the disease is well explained, seen, and known 
the practitioner will not understand it, and will be made foolish by 
his ignorance ; whereas the knowledge, and judgment of the physi- 
cian, like a lamp which illuminates a room, enables him to under- 
stand the nature of the diseases of the body. 

The physician has special duties to perform to a Rajah as they 
differ from other men ; not in the formation of the body, but by 
their nature, which is to command and to pardon. These qualities 
are received from God ; and, as an exalted being, he is distinguished 
by the superiority of his voice and manner, by the pureness of his 
heart, and by the justness of his actions. The physician should be 
careful in the time of war, to point out the road he is to travel ; of 


his water, food, and shelter ; and of the food of his liorses and elc- 
phauis. The physician is to live near the person of the Rajah, and be 
like his shadow, or his standard. Medicines and instruments should 
always be at hand ; and he should be allowed to have free inter- 
course with the sick. But the care of the physician should not 
end here. It should extend to the water, and the food of the army, 
as well as of the beasts of burthen which the enemy may endeavour 
to destroy by poison*. The good physician will detect this, and may 
be the means of sa\'ing the army. 

Srd. Medicines and Instruments. When called to a patient the 
practitioner is first to remark if there is still life, and strength, in 
the sick person ; his age, temperament, and country, and this knov/- 
ledge will modify the kind and quantity of medicine to be given. As 
long as life remains in the root of the throat, and the senses remain 
perfect, the physician may give medicines, as the person, under such 
circmnstances, may be cured. Even old, inveterate, and incur- 
able diseases, may be alleviated by a judicious line of treatment. 
If, therefore, a practitioner, after the necessary examination, knows 
the disease, and that it may be cured even with difficulty, his duty is 
to endeavour to alle\date the sufferings of his patient. Should the 
alloted period of his life upon earth have expired, he will die 
notwithstanding the best directed means for his recovery. It is 
proper, however, that much caution be used in the employment 
of medicine in fatal diseases, as a physician may alleviate pain, but 
cannot give life ; and by administering medicines in such cases, with- 
out previously stating the danger the patient is in to his relations, he 
will only bring discredit on himself, and on his profession. Taking 
such precautions, the practitioner may give medicine even when the 
patient is senseless, without any pulse, and only breathes. 

The medicines proper for the individual case, and the manner in 
which it will be most proper to administer them, must be carefully 
observed ; care must also be taken that the medicines be obtained 
from a good soil and neighbourhood. Those from Himalaya 
Mountains are the best. The physician should, however, not only 
know the names but likewise the various qualities of these medicines. 
For this purpose he should penetrate forests, and climb mountains, to 
examine them in their natural situations ; and should not despise the 
information obtained from hunters and shepherds, who may have 
had opportunities of witnessing their effects. 

* The Burmese are said to sprinkle the decoction of some poisonous 
plants upon the trees, so as to destroy tlie elephants belonging to their 



' The medicines should be collected on a fortunate day, and at a 
lucky hour. They should be gathered by the physician himself, 
with suitable prayers. Should a person of another caste touch or pre- 
pare the medicines, and not the physician who prescribes, they will be 
rendered inert, even should a Brahmun have prepared them. Yfhen 
the proper medicine has been gathered and prepared in the prescrib- 
ed manner, and administered at the proper time, the eiFect will be 
as if Vishnu had administered, and entered into the. body of the 
sick person ; but the medicine mil be of no use to the sick unless 
administered by a physician, as it will otherwise be like the lump 
of prepared clay, without the aid of the potter to fasliion it. A phy- 
sician should, therefore, be his own apothecary, preparing and pre- 
scribing those medicines which are peculiarly appropriate to each 
particular case, and being unknown to others, constitutes one of his 
peculiar excellencies. 

The qualities of medicines, depend on their colour, smell, and 
kind of juice. The active power of medicine should be great, but 
the quantity should be small. These quantities should be carefully 
observed, and the medicines given at the proper season, and stage 
of the disease. 

The person's disease is then to be examined, the state of the hu- 
mours and blood ; the seven essential parts (dhatu), and lastly the 
evacuations. He is next to decide on the nature of the disease, 
administer the proper medicines, and give directions regarding diet 
and regimen. 

It is of much iniportance that the disease be treated at the pro- 
per time ; and the patient be of the proper degree of strength to 
admit of the disease being cured. Active treatment should not 
be employed in a slight disease, nor a mild treatment in an acute 
disease. Should the treatment employed be doing no good, it 
should be changed ; but when the symptoms are yielding, under 
a particular plan of treatment, it should be continued. 

That kind of treatment will be successful which diminishes the 
disease, by equalizing all the humours ; and that is bad treatment, 
which increases one, as it diminishes another humom\ The treat- 
ment should be commenced from the first appearance, of the disease ; 
as it is like fire, poison, or the enemy, and a small portion deranges 

Should a physician exhibit medicines the first day he has seen 
the patient, without properly ascertaining the nature of the disease, 
he will be like the angel of death (Yama). Such medicines as 
cure vital air, bile, and phlegm when diseased, are not disagreeable 
to the person ; do not produce any bad effects ; and, given at the 


proper time, are the remedies to be employed. A Vaidhya should 
prepare the medicines ; although this is stated in other shastres to 
be the province of Brahmans. The susruta shastre says that any 
competent person may administer medicine, but the Vaidya de- 
clares whoever does not take medicine from this caste will go to 
hell. Even Brahmans are declared to have no authority in th© 
practice of physic. Any other caste preparing or touching medi- 
cine, but the physician who orders its preparation, will render it 

Ath. Messenger and attendants. The person who is sent for the 
physician should not be of low caste, a fool, one of questionable 
veracity, or a great sinner ; he should not appear before the physi- 
cian distressed from fatigue, by a rapid journey, or appear to be fear- 
fid of the result of the sick persons ailment. The messenger 
who has his hair knotted, clothes old or wet, or is scantily or sloven- 
ly dressed, carries a cutting instrument, &c., as a sword or stick, holds 
ashes in his hands, will be as the angel of death. If he be a Dandi 
or Faqir, or is deformed, or defective in a member, or rides upon 
an ass, camel, or buffaloe ; or wears a band of red flowers roimd 
his neck, the prognosis is unfavourable. If the Messenger has his 
body anointed with oil, or if covered with the deposit of a river, or 
blood be flowing from his body ; or if he be of a bad temper or dis- 
position, so as to speak hastily or indiscretely it will be unfavour* 
able. If he rubs his shoulders, back, head, or hair with his hand 
while speaking, it will be like a decree of Yama, the angel of 
death. Should the Messenger arrive so as to meet the physician on 
the south, and the physician not wishing to visit the sick ; or if the 
messenger stands on one foot, sneezes, or stumbles at the patient or 
physician's house, these signs are unfavourable. Should he find 
the practitioner with his face turned towards the south ; with cut- 
ting instruments near him ; in an unclean situation ; naked, bath- 
ing, eating, sleeping, or making holes in any thing ; these signs are 
unfavourable. It is also a bad omen when the Messenger finds the 
physician preparing a body for the funeral pile, killing birds or 
the!* like, or boiling or preparing medicines with fire. Should the 
messenger arrive at the house of the physician at twelve at night, 
or at noon, or when certain stars are in the ascendant the prognosis 
is unfavourable. 

The messenger should always present a present to the physician.. 
He should be of the same caste as the sick person, and should be 
dressed in clean white clothes, have a good appearance, and be 
strong and intelligent ; of a mild disposition, and know the lucky 
seasons, and the shastres. 

D 2 


The medicines should be given by a healthy dependant, possessed 
of an amiable character, so as to prevent the machinations of the 
patients enemies. 

The friend who relates the progress of the disease must be exact 
in his descriptions, and be careful that the patitnt takes the medi- 
cines regularly. 

^th. Duty of the Patient. A person rejecting a Vaidya, or phy- 
sician, will be punished in Hell ; whereas when a Vaidya is employed 
the patient will go to heaven, even should he not be able to see 
the sacred Ganges in his dying moments*. 

The diseased person will carefully recollect the directions of the 
physician, must follow them with exactness, and must not be afraid 
of the effects of the medicines which have been ordered. 

Should the disease coimaaence at an unfavourable time, or if 
the physician visits the patient at night, or during an unlucky hour, 
or should he have been borne at an unfavourable moment, the person 
will die of the disease. A patient with a good disposition, with his 
body of the natural colour, and with the signs of longivity ; who is 
patient, has a strong mind, senses perfect, with no fatal symptoms, 
and has confidence in his physician, is easily treated, and will have 
the best chance of being cured. Should the patient be strong, the 
disease curable, and he has riches to defray the necessary ex- 
pence, and follow the usual customs and directions of the physi- 
cian ; and his mind is favourably influenced by the shastres, and 
has faith in his physician, he will recover. The prognosis will 
be unfavourable when the sick person is impatient, angry, and 
disobedient ; wanting in courage, is ungrateful, and desponds ; also, 
with those who have no confidence in the practitioner, fatal symp- 
toms will quickly follow. Persons at enmity with the physician, 
and endeavour to deceive him, are cured with diflftculty, and 
are to be avoided as much as possible. The patient will die who 
lives in the house of a person who despises the physician. The 
different appearances observed on the physician's approaching and 
leaving his patient will vary his prognosis. 

The patient is to expect to be visited in the morning, after 'the 
customary prayers and ablutions, is to prepare the medicine as order- 
ed, and is to sit in a clean, convenient part of the house for both t' 9 
sick person, and the physician. 

* Many respectable Hindus will only receive medicines from a Vaidya. 


Recompence of the Physician. 

"When a physician has cured a disease he is entitled to the usual 
gifts for the performance of a good action. These will vary with 
the rank and condition of the patient. Money will be the recom- 
pence bestowed by the rich ; friendship, reputation, increase of virtue, 
prayers, and gratitude will be that of the poor. "When a Guru, a 
Brahman, or a Dandi, a relative, a humble and good friend, or 
one without relations consults a physician, he must not accept of 
any pecuniary recompence : His reward in such cases will be an 
increase of knowledge, and the gratification of his desires in having 
an opportmiity of performing a good action. His cures will 
ensure the admiration, and the esteem of all men ; he will be hon- 
oured and respected as a master, and after death he will go to heaven. 
Should the patient prove ungrateful after being ciu'ed, his holyness 
and good fortune will pass to the physician. But the physician 
must avoid administering remedies, to hunters or great sinners. 
Such people do not deserve his assistance. 



Under this head will be cotssidered the theory of the Elements ,- 
Generation, and Growth of the Body; nature or the cor- 


pehaments ; and of death. 


Elements of the Body. 

At an early period the Hindu PMlosopliers reduced the material 
world to five elementary principles, and primary qualities ; by the 
ao-ency of which, they explained the appearance, composition, and 
condition of the world, and the structure and functions of the Body. 
The five elementary principles were earth, water, air, fire, and ether. 
The peculiar qualities of each of the elements are as follow : — 
The Earth has smell (gandha) ; the water, taste (rasa) ; the air, 
touch (sparsa) ; the fire, colour (rupa) ; and the pure ether, sound 
(sabda). Besides these they have likewise the following qualities : — 
Earth, which is the heaviest element, is possessed of the qualities 
of smell, sound, tangibility, visibility, and taste. It enters largely 
into the formation of the body, and of all solid and heavy substances. 
Water possesses sound, tangibility, visibility, and taste ; bestows 
the sense of coolness, fluidity, weight, and smoothness on bodies ; 
and has much the quality of hajopiness (satwaguna), and of inert- 
ness (tamaguna), and is transparent producing light, and weight. 
. It forms the difierent fluids of the body. 

Air is possessed of sonorousness, tangibility, and lightness ; and 
from having the quality of action (raja guna) in excess, it has the 
moving powers, and qualities of bodies. 

Fire possesses sound, tangibility, and visibility, and gives taste. 
The medical property of fire is to aflbrd heat, digestion, colour, light, 
and beauty to the body. It produces the passions, bodily strength, 
and valour of the individual j and from possessing much of th© 


quality of goodness (satwa), and passion (raja gun a), it gives it light- 
ness, and movement. 

In \dewing the wonderful operations of nature, the Hindu Pliilo- 
sophers seem to have been soon arrested by the beautiful and varied 
adaptation of design to the end, by the order, harmony, and mutual 
dependance which pervades the whole of nature. This seems to 
have led them to the conclusion, that inert matter was insufficient 
of itself to produce such effects, and that there was a fifth element 
for performing the operations of the body, like the great soul which 
regulates those of the world. This induced them to add, at an 
early period, another or spiritual element to those of inert matter 
which they called pure ether (akasa) ; which was supposed to be 
separated from the others, and possessed the property of sound, and 
form. It predominates in the organ of hearing, and fills up the 
porosities of Kving bodies, and their hollow cavities, as those of 
the bones, &c. ; and is full of the quality of goodness (Satwa guna). 
This Element is altogether undistinguishable by olu" senses, and is 
only made known to us through the evidence of our under- 

These elements are all nourishing to the bodj^, and are contained 
in different proportions in every sort of food ; so that after digestion, 
each element, by an inherent property, joins v/ith that which already 
forms a part of the fabric of the body, in the following manner ; skin, 
vessels, bone, hair, and flesh, are made up principally of the element 
of earth ; alvine evacuations (mala), urine, semen, blood, and phlegm, 
of water ; hunger, thirst, and insensibility, are produced by fire ; 
movement, conscience, termination of a work, retaining happiness, by 
air ; and desire, revenge, stupidity, fear, shame, is produced by an 
excess of pure ether. There being both an active or warm, and a 
passive, or cold principle, which are increased and strengthened 
by the rays of the sun and moon. 

The body or microcosm, is also divided into different parts, which 
correspond with those of the globe. It has its mountains, its cold 
and hot situations, with the various oceans. Each of the fluids are 
also influenced by one of the seven planets which regulate their 

The same reasoning, which was supposed applicable to the external 
world, was used for the explanation of the constitution, and fabric 
of the animal system. Hence, all living bodies, among which 
vegetable bodies are placed, are supposed to be composed of the 
five elements, with the element producing action or life superadded. 
Living bodies are produced from vapour, vegetation, incubation, and 
parturition ; as insects, plants, birds, fishes, reptiles, and animals. 


Of the latter, man is the chief, and in proportion to the complicated 
structure of his body so is his liability to disease. 

The essential or elementary parts, when mixed, form vital bodies, 
which are divided into two classes, one of which is stationary, the 
other moveable (jangama). This class is produced from the womb 
(jar^ynja), as animals (pasu), and man (manusha). 2nd, from eggs 
(andaja), as birds, snakes (sadoso), &c. ; 3rd, from the warmth of the 
earth, as worms, ants, mosquetoes, fleas, &c. ; and 4th, (udjbidgo) such 
as break their habitation, and thus gain their liberty, as frogs, &c. 

The second or stationary class consists of four varieties : — 

l5^. Vanaspati or trees in which the fruit is without flowers. 

2nd. Vriksha trees with flowers and fruits. 

^rd. Verada, creepers. 

Ath. Asudie, annuals. 

The same elements and qualities, by their combination and actions 
constitute the human body ; which is governed by an independent 
principle, or soul, which acts through the medium of the members ; 
and is an emanation from the great soul of the world ; into which 
after certain purifications, it is again absorbed. As long as the soul 
remains in connexion with the body, the diseases with which it is 
afflicted may be removed ; and it is proper that during all this 
time, remedies should be employed for the purpose. 

The following is the Hindu theory of the formation of the body : — 


It is stated in medical works, that as the mould receives the 
seed which is to form the future plant, so the menses of the female 
receives the semen of the male, which germinates in it. Hence 
in treating of generation, the secretion of the menses is first con- 

When the menses appear monthly, the female is moist, plump, has 
desire ; and is happy, with her hair flying about. Her eyes are 
languishing ; her sides, arms, breasts, thighs, and hips are in a 
state of excitement. The menses continue for seventeen days, 
during which the woman may be impregnated, and not at any other 
season. During the flow of the menses the mouth of the uterus, 
which is like the mouth of a rue fish, is open like the water lily, 
exposed to the rays of the sun ; and after this season, the mouth of 
the uterus again contracts, and closes like the petals of the lily, 
when the benign influence of the sun is absent. 


The menses are of a red colour, like the blood of a hare, or of lae- 
dve. It should not stain cloth, when it falls upon it ; and shovddbe 
without smell. The menses are derived from the two vessels of the 
uterus, which discharge their contents by the influence of the vital 
air, into the uterus and vagina. The menses remain till the 50th 
year, when the woman is of a weak constitution j but it continues 
longer, when the individual is strong. 

During the discharge of the menses, much attention is required 
to be observed regarding the conduct of the woman, as the state 
of the parents at the time of conception will affect the offspring in 
a very powerful manner. During the first three days of the dis- 
charge, the woman should remain pure, she must sit and sleep in a 
purified situation, upon the sacred grass (kush) ; she must eat 
out of a new earthen vessel, or from a leaf, she must not sleep 
during the day while the menses flow, or her offspring v,dll be very 
sluggish : should she shut her eyes at the time of conception, the 
child will be bluid ; should she shed tears, the child's eyes will be 
sore ; shoidd she cut her nails during the flow of the menses, the 
child will be deformed ; should she anoint or bathe herself during 
these three days, the infant will be afflicted with leprosy ; should 
she laugh or speak loud, the infant will be unhappy ajid deaf; and 
should she fatigue herself, the offspring will be employed in low 

The father should neither be very old, nor very young. If the 
father is not twenty-five, and the woman beyond sixteen, the offspring 
will die in the uterus, if it be born alive it will live but a short 
time, or if the infant lives the senses and other parts will be in- 
complete. Therefore a very young man, or a very old woman 
should be avoided. They should be in good health, the genital 
organs free from disease, and the female should neither be hun- 
gry, nor have eaten recently before connexion. The semen should 
be received into the menses as a seed dropped into a good mould, 
and like it germinate, producing conception. As milk taken into 
the stomach nourishes the child, so the semen requires to be 
animated with the menses to form the germ. 

Should conception take place on the 1st or 2nd day of the menses, 
the offspring will die soon after birth. If conceived on the third 
day, the child will be weak, diseased, and deformed, and will die 
at an early^age. 

If the husband is not at home on the fourth day of the menses, 
the wife is first to regard the sun after bathing, as the best object ; in 
order that her offspring may resemble that luminary in his qualities of 
bestowing strength^and beauty, and should the first object she sees, 



after bathing on the 4th day, be a deformed individual, her oftspring 
will also be so. The female is next to perform the necessary ceremo- 
nies to ensure offspring with the assistance of the Bralmiuns ; she is 
to eat in the afternoon of the fourth day, bathe, rub her body with 
scented oil, put on clean clothes, and ornaments, and at night visit 
her husband. But should there be a great discharge of the menses 
on this day, she must not visit her husband ; as the semen will be 
washed away as by a swollen river, and will thus prevent concep- 
tion. Such cases are to be treated as other cases of Menorrhagia. 

When the female conceives on the 4th, 6th. 8th, 10th, and 12th 
days of the menses they are the fortunate days. It is when concep- 
tion occurs, towards the last of these days, that the offspring will 
live long and have few diseases. If conception occurs after the 
12th day, it is unfavourable to the offspring. When conception 
occurs on the unequal days of the menses, a female child will be 
born ; while on the equal a male will be produced. 

Numerous forms of irregularities, and diseases of the menses 
prevent conception, the principal of which are derangements of 
the humours, in which cases the air, bile, and phlegm stop the 
flow of the menses, by closing the passages by which this evacua- 
tion flows. 

When the menses are irregular, or are stopped, the woman should 
live on fish, a kind of pulse called kulotha, linseed (tel), masculi, 
butter, curdled milk, acids, and sura (a kind of wine). 

Durga asked Siva the nature of the body, Siva answered ; know, 
O Durga ! that the body is formed by a mixture of the energy of 
the male and female, in this way : During a fortunate connexion 
the heat produced gives the semen the quality of the water, and 
the air conveys it to the urethra of the male, from which it 
passes into the vagina. Wlien it enters the uterus it mixes with the 
heating qualities of the sun, wliich the menses possesses, and forms 
the embryo. It is when the mixture takes place, and has become 
solid, by their respective qualities of cold and heat to wliich the soul 
is added. Should the germ have more of the qualities of the semen, 
a male child will be formed, and of the menses a female child ; 
and should the qualities of both be equal, the child will be a 


Signs of conception. The indications of conception, during the 
day it has taken place are ; the woman feeling fatigued, languid, 
and thirsty, a weakness of the two thighs, a retention of the 
semen and blood in the uterus, and a throbbing in the vagina^ 

The signs of Pregjiancy, are the skin round the nipples becoming 
of a dark colour, and the hair upon the body becoming more distinct 


and prominent. The person feels weak, the eyelids heavy, and the 
eyelashes closed ; much saliva is secreted ; sickness and vomiting 
occur ; and even pleasant smelling things are disliked, and produce 
sickness. In tliis condition the woman must not approach her hus- 
band ; she must avoid fasting, vomiting, or strong purgatives ; grief 
or fear ; stretching or severe coughing ; dragging hea\7 weights ; 
riding on horseback ; sleeping during the day ; or sitting up at 
night. She must not be bled, nor strain in passing her dejections. 

During Pregnancy, if the woman is not gratified with what she 
wishes to eat, and the air is deranged, the child will be crooked 
and cripple, or will be small in size, dumb, or cannot speak distinct- 
ly ; will be blind, or have his eyes defective, or will be an unbeliever 
in the sacred shastres. In other such cases these defects are pro- 
duced by acts of previous wickedness of his own, or of his parents 
in a former state of existence. 

Whatever is wanted by the pregnant woman should therefore be 
supplied, when a perfect child wiU be born. If the woman desires 
to see a Rajah, the child will be great and rich ; should the mother 
wish to adorn herself, the child will be well formed and vain ; 
should the mother wish to see a holy man, the child will be holy, 
and just, and if she longs to see ferocious animals the offspring will 
be of that description. In like manner the desire for particular sorts 
of food indicates the disposition of the infant, and the form of his 
body. When the mother wishes to eat buffalo's flesh the child wiU 
have blood- shot eyes, much hair, and he will be warlike ; and when 
hog's flesh, he will be sluggish, and sleepy. 

K any injury be done to the mother, or she suffers in any way, 
the child in like manner suffers. The menses, after conception, goes 
in part to form the placenta, and as the blood flows every month, it 
coagulates to form the embryo ; an upper layer being added every 
month to the embryo, and another portion to the breasts, of the 
mother by which the mammae are increased in size. 

The period of delivery extends from nine to twelve months, and 
after this time when the female is not delivered, the abdominaL 
swelling must be considered as the effect of disease. 


Growth and functions of the Body. 
There is no peculiar organ for the semen, but it is supposed to 
be contained in every part of the body, as butter is in the milk, or 



mgeiv m the sugar-cane. There is a duct on the right side of the 
jnouth of the urinary bladder, where it is collected, and passes 
through the urethra in the time of coition. 

The menses of the woman disappears when she conceives, and it 
circulates towards the mammae where it is collected and producer 

The germ thus formed contains a small proportion of the five ele- 
ments ; each of which assists in promoting the developement (rf 
the other elements, and of the body in general. Jiva or the 
soul is last engendered, and like fire produced by a burning glass, 
the mixture of the menses and semen produce heat. When the 
air separates the particles of the semen it produces twins, triplets, 
&c. Vfiien one of the constituent parts of the embryo is unheal- 
thy, the conception will be so ; and, if both the menses and semen 
are impure, as when the parents are affected with leprosy, the off- 
spring will also be afflicted with this disease. 

The germ in the uterus is like a shrub, the vessels of which are 
connected with the uterus, by which the blood of the mother is cir- 
culated in it, and nourished. The germ is near the fire of the mother 
at the navel, is inflated by the air (vayu) and fire, which the embryo 
contains, by which it is expanded into its different parts, forming 
the vessels, circulating the juices, and from which its members 
are formed ; like the potter giving figure to the piece of eiay upon 
his wheel. 

In the first month, the mixture of the semen and menses forms a 
small mass like a pea (kolala) ; seven days after conception it has 
the form of a bubble, or inflated bag. On the tenth it is red, and 
on the fifteenth it resembles a small round piece of flesh : This 
shortly enlarges in the same imperceptible way as the Moon enlarges 
in size (Jyotistatwa) : At one month it has small fibres proceeding 
from it, and is animated with life (Prana). The point of the vertebral 
column, is to the body, what Mount Sumeru is to the world, and in 
that point the gods of the body reside (Bramha, Vishnu, &c.) 

Should the germ become of a circular form (pinda), it denotes a 
male ; an oblong form (Pashie) a female ; and an iregular form 
(Arbuda) a hermaphrodite. In the third month five eminences 
appear, which when developed become the hands, feet, and head. 
The other smaller parts of the body are then but imperfectly 

In the fourth month the members are more distinctly developed ; 
and the heart of the fetus being perfectly formed, life receives its 
active powers, and has a desire for the assistance of sense and ac- 
tivity. Life then acts as in its former state of existence. 


111 the fifth month, the powers of the mind are increased ; and life 
performs its usual actions. The nose, mouth, eyes, thi'oat, and 
abdomen may now be distinguished ; and at six months all the mem- 
bers are formed, and the understanding is added. 

At the seventh month, the body is completely formed, and the 
members can act separately, and possess life, mind, and understand- 
ing. The essence of the strength of the system (ozah) is imperfectly 
formed, even at the 8th month ; and on this accomit, should the 
infent be born during this month, it will die. During the 8th month 
the joints are formed, the parts move on each other, the fetus re- 
quires food, and, by the heat of the mother strength is added. At 
nine months the mind and memory are active, it moves about, and 
it receives nourislunent from the mother. According to some, by 
means of a vessel which passes from the mother's breasts to the 
mouth of the embrj^o ; by others it is stated that the vessels of the 
umbeliacal cord have a communication with the vessels of the mother, 
and convey blood to the fetus, by which it is increased in size. In the 
9th month, the woman is to remove to the house (sutik^ grirah) pre- 
pared for her delivery. 

At the tenth month * the fetus acquires knowledge, and prays to 
God, and sees the seven heavens, the earth, and the inferior regions. 
By the air of the pehds (opana ba}a.i) the fetus is then expelled ; 
as an arrow is shot from a bow, and the child falls insensible to the 
ground. All his former knowledge is immediately forgotten, and 
on losing so many pleasing illusions, he cries (Jotis). 

Dm-ing the time the fetus is in the uterus it does not discharge 
its evacuations because they are in small quantities, and the air 
which discharges them is not present in the intestines (pokasia). 
The fetus does not cry in the uterus, as the mouth is closed by the 
fetal membranes, the wind-pipe is fiUed with phlegm, and there 
is no passage for air. The respiration, sleep, and turning of the 
fetus are performed by the mother, as she sleeps, &c. 

By natiu'e, the situation and form of the different parts of the body 
are developed. So that the hair is formed on one part, and is absent 
at another part of the body. If the quality of happiness (satwa- 
guna) be in excess, the child knows the state it held in its former 
condition ; and does good or bad actions accordingly, and acquires 
its former qualities. 

The hard substances of the fetus, as hairs, bones, nails, teeth, 

* Nine Calender months seem necessary for the perfection of the 
fetus; that is 39 weeks or 273 days from conception. The Hindu 
Shastres allow ten calender months or 300 days. 


vessels, ligaments, &c., are produced from the semen, and resemble the 
same parts m the father ; and the soft parts as flesh, blood, fat, 
marrow, heart, navel, liver, spleen, intestines, are formed principally 
from the blood of the mother, and resemble her. 

The growth and strength of the body, the different colours and 
the duration of life, are produced from the (rasa) according to the 
qualities of the food of different kinds generally taken by the parents. 
The senses, knowledge of the arts, and life (jiva), happiness, misery, 
are produced from the parent's good or bad actions in a former state 
of existence. 

The fetus in utero is bent on itself with his head upwards, and 
mouth towards the spine of the mother. His hands and feet are 
bent, and during parturition the air turns the body and brings 
the head downwards, and he knows his former history. The uterus 
is a dark and disagreeable place, which the Brahmans eledge is a 
kind of purgatory. If the mother eats proper food, the child re- 
ceives its nourishment from the umbelical cord which is connect- 
ed with the mother, and by means of the cord the blood is con- 
veyed to the fetus wliich thereby grows. 

The sex of the infant is known by the right mammae containing 
milk first, the right eye being larger than the left, the woman wish- 
ing food of the masculine kind, and dreaming of the water lilies of 
different species, and her mouth, and the colour of her lips of an 
agreeable colour. The opposite indications are the proof of an in- 
fant being of the male sex. Twins are known by a depression along 
the centre of the abdomen ; and when the two sides of the abdomen 
are depressed, and the lower end is a little prominent, with a depres- 
sion in the middle, a hermaphrodite is known to be contained in 
the uterus. 

The small vessels in the embryo produce first its growth, before 
the members are produced. The mixture of the semen and blood 
or embryo increase, and life enters it ; the air separates the 
different members, the fire prepares the elements, the water 
moistens, the earth stiffens, and the sky (akasa) increases the fetus. 
When the embryo has hands, feet, mouth, nose, ears, buttocks, &c., 
then it is called the human body, and is composed of six principal 
parts ; four extremities, the trunk, head, abdomen, back, imibilicus, 
forehead, chin, nose, neck, bladder, are the single parts of the body. 
The pairs are the ears, eyes, nostrils, eyebrows, temples, shoulders, 
cheeks, axillas, mammse, testicles, sides, buttocks, knees, arms, thighs, 
&c. The body has nine orifices, like a house with nine doors. They 
are the urethra, anus, mouth, nostrils, eyes, and ears : The vagina 
forms the tenth in the female. There are ten fincrers and ten toes. The 


other parts of the body are the skin, Kolah, (tissues) fluids (dhatu) ; 
dejections, (mala) ; and humours (dossoh) ; with the liver, spleen, 
lungs, pancreas, heart, stomach, urinary and gall bladders ; the 
intestines, kidnies, vessels, ligaments, tendons, membranes, median 
connections of the body,- bones, joints, muscles, vital parts, the 
veins, arteries, nerves, and capillary vessels, esophagus, wind- 
pipe, &c. 

Saunaka says that the head is first formed, because ; it is 
,the principal part of all the organs of sense. Kritahirya says that 
the heart is first formed, because it is the seat of the mind and 
knowledge. Others that the umbiliacus is first formed, because 
from that centre the other members grow. Some say the trunk, and 
others that the hands and feet are first formed, as they are the root 
of the active members. Dhanwantari says that all these opinions are 
incorrect, and that all the members are formed at the same time but 
are, extremely small, as the first sprig of the bamboo contains the 
leaves, &c, of the future plant ; and as a constituent part of the 
mangoe is only visible in its state of ripeness, and cannot be 
detected when the tree is green. 

With the child is produced, the period of his life, his actions, 
whether virtuous or vicious ; his acquirement of riches, or experience 
of the senses, and death, will be varied according to the actions he 
performed in his former state of existence. The acuteness of his 
senses, the extent of knowledge, the duration of his life, and hap- 
piness or misery, being produced from the soul ; so the strength, 
colour, health, memory, will be derived from the nature of the food 
used by the parents. 

As long as the elements remain in due proportion, the body re- 
mains in health, this state is called Prakriti, and when increased 
or diminished in its proper proportions it is called Vikriti. 

On these qualities, and to these alone, the physician at- 
tends. From the elements, the eleven senses are produced to 
perform their peculiar offices, as the sound of the ear, &c., and 
is confined to it. 

The parts of the fetus are formed in the following manner : — - 
The Liver and spleen are formed from the blood ; Lungs from 
its froth ; and the large intestines (cecum) from its impurities. 
The essential parts of blood and phlegm are concocted by the fire 
of the body, into which the air (vayu) enters, and forms the intestines, 
anus, and bladder. The tongue is formed from the essential parts 
of blood, phlegm, and flesh. 

Air, with the assistance of a proper degree of heat, separates 
the soft parts, and forms canals, and passing between the flesh forms 


the difFerent muscles. When these canals are filled up with marrow 
they form nerves. This opinion arises from their supposing that the 
brain and spinal marrow are the marrow of these bones. The air 
entering among the soft parts forms the different receptacles 
of the body, as the stomachjand kidnies, which are derived from the 
essential parts of the blood. The testicles, and its appendages are 
formed from the pure part of flesh, blood, plilegm, and fat. The 
heart is formed by the essential parts of blood and plilegm, to 
which all the principal arteries are connected, by which life is pre- 
served. It resembles a water lily, with its head turned downwards. 
When the person is awake it is in activity, and when asleep it is 
sluggish. It is the seat of the understanding ; and if the quality of 
darkness and ignorance predominates (tamaguna) the person sleeps, 
and when the (satwaguna) prevails the person remains awake. 

Sleep is a kind of death, derived from Vishnu, and the ignorant 
sleep much, and those who have much sotwaguna sleep about mid- 
night, and those who have much rajoguna sleep occasionaUy and 
without any reasonable cause. When the tamohguna and phlegm 
predominate in the heart, a kind of sleep (syncopy) occurs, from 
which the individual cannot be awaken : In this it resembles 


Sleep during the day should always be avoided, except during 

excessive heat, as it is considered a sin, and is unfavourable to 
healtli by derano^ing the humours and producing disease ; such as 
coughing, asthma, catarrh, heaviness of the body, pain of the body, 
dvspepsy fever. Want of sleep at night, produces the diseases 
of air and bile. But children and old people, and those who 
have indulged in an excess of venery, who have consumption, 
drink much, or are much fatigued by travelling, or other exercises, 
or those who are very hungiy, or labour under indigestion, may 
sleep an hour (48 minutes) in the day time. If the person does 
not sleep during the night, he may take half the quantity of sleep 
during the day. Sleeping during the day deranges air, bile, and 
phlegm, and many diseases are produced by it ; as coughing, difficult 
breathing, &c. Night watching deranges air, and bile, and pro- 
duces various diseases ; hence sleep should be taken at night. By 
sleeping at the proper time it wiU prevent disease, and will retain the 
heart, as well as strength, colour, and semen in their proper state. 
It will also prevent too great tliinness or fatness, and such a 
person, with a good constitution, may live a hundred years. 

When phlegm is diminished, and air and bile increased, by 
passions, and any humour of the body lessened by their causes, the 
sleep is disturbed. 


If a person regulates sleep by his will, it will not be favour- 
able. A certain period of sleep daily, is necessary to health. Too 
much air, bile, or grief, destroys sleep, diminishes the dhatu, and 
injures the health of the body. In such cases oil with turmeric 
and other like things applied to the head, and the body will promote 
sleep. Bathing has a like effect, as also champooing, eating good 
rice, flower, peas, cakes, sweet-meats, oleaginous food, milk, with 
the juice of flesh, especially animals that burrow in the ground, or 
the flesh of birds, rasins, and sugar eaten at night. The bed, &;c., 
being soft and agreeable, will also promote sleep. 

^Yhen sleep is protracted it is to be obviated by vomits (song- 
sodhana) and a purge, by spare food, blood lettmg, and causes pro- 
ducing mental depression. When cough, or fat, or poison have pror 
duced it, exercise is to be taken at night. Allien there is thirst, 
colic, or hiccough, want of digestion, or diarrhoea, sleeping in the 
day is proper. 

Dreaming, It is the soul which dreams. A^Tiatever was seen 
or heard when awake, is represented by the mind, during sleep ; 
and is the impression of good or bad actions, when there is much 
rajahguna in the heart. 

Drowsiness, is indicated by the senses not remaining in their state 
of activity ; the body is heav}-, the person yawns, he is tired, is 
drows}^ and desires to sleep. It is produced by an excess of air, 
phlegm, and tomahguna. 

Yawning. During a long inspiration the mouth is extended, fol- 
lowed by a short expiration, and a flow of tears from the eyes, is 
called yawning. 

Langour is when the person is fatigued mthout a cause, and the 
respiration is weak, and imperfect. 

Laziness when the person has the capacity, without the inclination 
to act ; and wishes enjoyment without exertion. 

Nausea is accompanied with an increased flow of saliva and tears, 
with pain in the breast, and an effort to reject the food, but it does 
not reach the mouth. 

Fainting. When bile (pitta) and tamaguna are in excess, it 
produces this effect. 

Swooning is produced by an excess of rajaguna, with bile and 

Digestion. Six varieties of the digested part of food or chyle are 
distinguishable. When the food is astringent, sour, moist, &c., the 
chyle will become of the same nature. When digestion is accomplished 
the respective elements unite with those which had entered into the 
formation of the body ; the earth unites with the earth, the water with 



the water, &c., and they, acting on the inherent qualities of each of 
the five elements, mix and increase those in the body ; smell, 
the property of earth, with that of the body ; taste with water, touch 
with air, and noise with ether (^k^sa). The juice thus separated from 
its impurities is called chyle (rasa), wliich nourishes, strengthens, 
and gives colour to the body. 

Some Pandits suppose that it requires a day and night to form 
and distribute the digested mass, to the last deposited part the 
semen and menses ; others suppose six days are required, and some 
one month before digestion is completed. The first class of Pandits 
suppose the fluids are formed and circulated as a wheel turning 
round, and supplying the various essential parts of the body (dhatu.) 
If an article of food or medicine increases much the semen, and 
fluids, they may require only a day and night to accomplish this, 
and such an increase cures some diseases of the body. As the beard 
does not grow, nor the flower yield its smell at an early stage of 
their growth ; so in the child, the semen, and the menses remain 
for a certain time undeveloped which is also the case in old age, 
like over ripe fruit. 

The strength, or vital principle of the body {OJa or tej) is situ- 
ated in the chest along its centre, and is produced by a mixture of 
the pure fluid ; in the same manner as a bee sucks the juice from dif- 
ferent flowers, and produces honey. Oja exists as long as the per- 
son lives, and it is this which retains the body in its healthy state. 


Structure of the Corporeal part of the Body {Anatomy.) 

The Body consists of Humours, {Dossoh) and essential parts,, {dhdtu) 
with their appendages : — 

Section I. 


The air (vayu*). Bile (pitta f), and Phlegm (kofaj), are the 
three pillars or supports of the system. If deranged they are 

* VSyu from Fa, to go, was first formed. 

t Petu, from Tapah^ hot ; from which the heat of the Body is derived, 

i Kofa, siUso\ from siliso, to embrace. 


tlie cause of disease, and death ; and, with the blood, they retain, 
and eventually destroy the body. Without these tliree Humours 
and the blood the individual could not exist. With the essential parts 
of the body, and the appendages, and impurities, they form the 
fabric of the body. 

As the moon sheds moisture, and abstracts the Sun's rays, which 
dry up and bestow energy upon the earth, and the air moves from 
place to place, so does phlegm bestow moisture, bile withdraws it by 
its heat, and air wafts it about in the microcosm, or animal body *. 

Ist Vayii, spirit, or air, flows tlirough all parts of the body, 
and performs all its actions. It is of the active quality (rajaguna) ; 
is invisible, is of a cooling quality, is extremely light, and is always 
flowing more or less qmckly ; it conveys the essential parts over 
the body ; performs respiration, and all the actions at the outlets 
of the body, the circulation of the fluids, and activity of the 
senses, and of the understanding. It dries up the fluids, is soft, but is 
affected by heat, and cold ; and like the Sun's rays, it prepares and 
separates the fluids, and dejections. It produces happiness when 
healtliy, and with heat increases the hot state of the system. It is 
principally found in the small intestines (puckassia), thighs, ears, 
eyes, senses, and all the canals, the testicles, and the anus. It pro- 
duces the active properties of the body and its organs, and retains the 
body in its proper state. There are five kinds of air according to the 
situations they occupy. 

a. Vital air (Prdjia vayii) which passes through the mouth and 
nose, and by it diglutition is performed. It is situated in the chest, 
and is the supporter of prdna, or life. While this remains in 
health, so does the individual ; it gives movement to the blood, 
and by it the food and drink are conveyed to the stomach, and 
strength to the body : when diseased it produces hiccough, and diffi- 
culty of breathing, &c. 

b. Apdna vdiju is contained in the rectum, urethra, &c. ; and 
is situated under the puchasia^ It separates the dejections, urine, 
semen, menses, and expels the fetus. It is also situated in the 
buttocks. When deranged it produces diseases of the bladder, and 
the anus, diseases of the semen, and constipation. 

c. Samdna vdyu is situated in the stomach, and small intestines 

* This ingenious theory which has been so frequently renewed, and 
was for so many ages universally believed, seems to have been derived 
froin^ the Hindus; from whom it was adopted by the Egyptian and 
Grecian Priesthood. It is defective, however, in excluding the blood 
which, notwithstanding, ha;i been stated as one of the fundamental parts 
of the Body. 

F 2 


(arnasHJA, ari<i pucknsjia; ; performs th*; (iigestion of the food. 
»«paratc6 the iinpurities, produces biood, and fat, and separates the 
urine, alvine evacuations, &c. When dii»eawid it produces loss of 
ajipctite, goolmoh, diarrhoia, &c. 

d. lJ(l/iiM hayu is situated in the hollow of the neck, above the 
sternum. In health it prrxluces speech and singing ; and other 
functions of the voice, above the cokr bones. When deranged it 
produces various diseases of the upper part of the neck. 

e. Beana hayu is found acting in conveying the fluids over the 
body, and in performing its functions, and those of the juices. It 
produces the flow of the blood; and performs v/alking, j umping, open- 
ing of the eyes, raising or depressing things, &c. If diseased all the 
body becomes affected. 

Vital air is thus supposed to flow over the body, to produce, and 
to retain the various vital functions of the body ; as joy, respiration, 
and its various actions : it also mixes with the humours, and regu- 
lates the movements of the body. 

When the air is diminisiied weakness is produced, the person 
speaks little, he is melancholy, and it diminishes the understanding, 
ike. Vital air, is deranged by carrying heavy weights, by severe 
exercise, by excess in venery, mucli study, falls, or walking very fiist : 
by always pressing the body, by injuries, fasting, jumping, or swim- 
ming ; by not sleeping at night, by riding upon horse-back, ele- 
pliants, or in carriages ; by much walking, or using much sour, 
pungent, bitter, or dry substances, or light cooling vegetables, 
flesh or certain kinds of pulse, &c. Air may be deranged by the 
quantity and (Quality of tlie fVx>d wiiicli is eaten, by certain ac- 
tions of the body, and by exposure to the cold, and moist air, 
early in the morning. Vl all the varieties of Vayu are diseased the 
person dies. 

2nd. liile (pUta) is a hot, bitter, oily fluid, having a peculiar 
smell, like that of raw flesh. It is of a blue colour and sour, when 
unconcocted ; and is hot and pungent like flre or pepper, and of a 
yellow colour when properly prepared. It produces animal heat, 
and it possesses the quality of Satwarju7ia. It is situated principally 
in the stomach (Amassia), and small intestines (jmckasia) ; but it is 
also found in the liver, spleen, heart, eye, and skin ; where it is mixed 
with tlie blood, and other fluids. Its principal situjxtion, however, 
is between the stomach and small intestines, from which it passes to 
the different parts of the body in v/hich it is found. There are the 
following five kinds of Bile. 

a. Pachnka, or that which assists digestion, and is situated be- 
tween the stomach and small irit<istines. It digests the six kinds of 

food ; and soparates the rhylo, urino, and fccos. As the 8un imparls 
its proptrticH (tcj) to tlie moon, so bile imparts its j)roi)L*rties to tlie 
phlegm, situated in the stomach. The stomach is therefore like a 
cooking pot containing water and food, which is boiled by the heat 
of the bile underneath it. In this way digestion is performed, and 
the l)lood is rendered more lliiid. 

When digestion is performed its (pialities are like lire, and dries 
lip the thin part of the food, and is called onola or fire, and se- 
parates the pure piut from its dicf's. It gives strength to the body, 
and as a candle enlightens objects around, so bile conveys its ))ro- 
perties over all the body. 

b. In the liver and sjdeen the bile gives a red eoloiir to tli<* 
chyle, and is called ranjaka. 

c. In the heart it produces sense, memory, |)rid(!, and is called 

d. In the eyes it i)r(jduc(!S sight, and is called dloclKtlut. 

c. It gives the skin its shining, clear, and healthy colour ; absorbs 
applications to the skin, and is called hrojo/ui. \V\\i\ when not 
deranged pnjdnces the sense of sight, digestion, and the rtinetions 
of organs by its heating and c(»Mcocting properties. It pioduees 
appetite, and thirst, and icl.iitis the Ixjdy soft, giving the pro- 
per colour to th(* Ixxly ; and also joy, pride, memory, hv.. IJile 
varies in diU'erent seasons ; in July and August it is ineniased ; in 
ScptendxT mid Octoix-r it is liabh; to be diseased ; and in Marcth 
and April it is dimiMislM-d. 

When deranged, the internal (ire or heat of tlu; body is diminish- 
ed, as also its colour, and digestion. In this ease \\h\ nourishing 
chyl(! frasa) is not properly separate<l in th(! organ (tailed Amassia, 
and produces tlw indigestable dejetttions called unnty or more pro- 
perly white; slimey discharges. If llic slime bo mixed with air, 
bile, and phlegm it deranges the seven dhatu. 

'I'he increase of the; live elements, and their live (piallties, <»f 
which the body is composcul, will lu; best understood by lollowing 
the course; and (diang(;s of tin; foixl when (iatiMi. 'V\\r. food by means 
of ])rdn vdijii reaclx'S the stomach (aniassht,)^ where; it is softenc^d 
and mixed with the phlegm in the stomach, and Ix^comes red and 
sweet, IJy (In; air situated in the navel {s(tninn<i riiijii), tlu; lire is in- 
creased, and it digcHts the food in the; stomach, wlii<'h Ix'comes frothy 
and sour, it \\\v\\ passes to tin; place of liih; (grinni), which is si- 
tuated between the stomach and sniall intestiin^S. When well con- 
cocted by the bile situat(Ml th(M-e, th<; fo(xl becomes pungent, being 
mixed with the chyle. It tlnm passes to the pnlidss'id, or place; in 
which digestion i/ ])erfectod, and is separat(!il from its iMi|)ui'iti<;s. 


The impure fluid part passes by means of vessels into the bladder ; 
and the solid impurities by means of the apan vayu, passes into the 
molasia, or large intestines. The pure part of the digested food is of 
a milky colour, and is conveyed to the heart by means of the domon- 
nic vessels, where it is mixed with the blood. Charaka calls these 
vessels the chyle carrying vessels {rasyani). 

Should the fire be too strong it burns the food, and it becomes 
sour, and generates bile. Wlien the fire dries the food, it produces a 
hard mass, which is bitter. After digestion the prepared food some- 
times becomes sour, by its mixture with substances of this quality. 
When digestion is not properly performed, the internal fire and 
strength are diminished ; the person becomes weakened, and diseases 
are produced, particularly the disease which is called ama. 

When morbidly increased in the body, bile produces a yellowness 
of the skin, much heat, a desire for cooling articles of food, and a 
loss of sleep and strength. The person cannot see perfectly, and his 
eyes, feces, and urine become yellower than usual. 

The hair of a person with such a temperament, becomes quickly 
grey, he perspires easily, his body is pale, his eyes are easily inflam- 
ed, and he is impatient, perverse, opiniative, vain, and consequen- 
tial ; is amorous, his conversation unguarded, is addicted to false- 
hood, is fond of abstruse studies, &c. Bile is deranged by anger, 
grief, fear, covetousness, malice, great fatigue, fasting, by eating 
roasted articles of food, by excessive venery, by sour, salt, and hot or 
heavy food, by mustard oil, or cakes ; by certain kinds of pulse, as 
mustard seed ; by vegetables, fish, flesh, curdled milk, butter-milk, 
spirits, and heat of all kinds. 

Zrd. The Phlegm (Kofa), is the impurity of the chyle, and 
it is conveyed by the prana vayu along the domonic vessels, and 
mixes with the rest of the phlegm in the body. It is cooling, 
moist, sweet, and when imperfectly prepared it is salt, and mixes 
substances together, &c. It is white, heavy, oleaginous, and glis- 
tening, and possesses the quality of tomohguna in excess. It is 
principally found in the stomach, in the breast, in the heart, at 
the root of the neck, in the head, in the eyes, in the throat, and 
tongue ; and is found in the joints, in vessels, and all moist parts. 
There are five kinds described : — 

a. In the stomach {amasid) it softens the food, and lubricates 
them together, and is called Kledoka. 

b. Abalambana, is situated in the shoulder-joint, and neck, and 
it strengthens these parts, and also the breast. 

c. In the tongue and throat, it produces the various tastes, 
and is called, Rasana. 


d. In the head, it keeps the brain, the eyes, and other senses 
moist. It retains their respective qualities, and is called Strehena. 

e. It keeps the joints moist and ready to perform their actions, 
and is called slesona. 

If not deranged it retains the body in its proper state, produces 
its glistening appearance, and moist state. It strengthens the joints, 
produces the heaviness and strength of the body, and enters into 
the formation of semen. The temperament it produces is indicat- 
ed by a greenish colour, and the person is fortunate, is of a fine 
colour, and is fond of sweet tilings. He is grateful, patient, and 
is without covetousness. He is strong with a white eye, his hair 
is black, and he dreams of water. 

When morbidly diminished it produces impurities ; the body 
dries, the internal heat is increased, digestion is diminished, the 
joints move with difficulty, the person is incommoded with thirst, 
weakness, and watching. In this state it leaves its natural situ- 
ations, and passes to other parts of the body. It is deranged 
by sleeping during the day, taking no exercise, using much 
sweet, salt, sour, or cooling substances ; as also oleaginous and 
heavy articles of food, as milk, and the like ; barley, various 
kinds of rice, the flesh of the buffalo, and those animals wliich 
live in water. It is also deranged by eating always the same 
food, or eating too often, or cooling things of all kinds. This 
humour is also deranged by the seasons ; in November and De- 
cember it is increased, in March and April it is liable to be de- 
ranged, and in May and June it is diminished. When much in- 
creased it produce indigestion, loss of appetite, langour, lassi- 
tude, and vomiting. 

It is supposed that the phlegm is contained in the parts above the 
navel, bile in the trunk above the pelvis, and air in and below the 
pelvis. In the morning phlegm predominates when the body feels 
cool ; in the middle of the day, bile predominates, when people feel 
hot ; and in the evening air is the strongest : at night the same order 
is observed. When these divisions meet, phlegm and air are the 
strongest. In like manner the age of man is divided into three 
periods ; to the 15th year phlegm is strongest ; to the 50th, or man- 
hood, bile is the strongest ; and after that, or in old age, air pre- 
dominates. In like manner where these periods meet, phlegm and 
air are strongest. 

The same changes are observed in the seasons, and in the period 
of digestion of food, and physicians should be careful of them in the 
employment of remedies. On this account hot things should be 
given in the morning or to the young ; cooling things in the middle 


of the day, or to adults ; and tonic and pungent food in the evening, 
or in old age. 

The seven dhdtu and the impurities remain at rest and incapable 
of action until acted on by air (vayu), and are wafted by it over 
all parts of the body, as clouds are wafted about by the wind, and 
through its influence they perform their respective actions. The 
air (vayu) presides over the ten senses, and is therefore the 
natural lord of ail the actions of the body ; it acts quickly and 
strongly ; often deranges bile and phlegm, and produces many 
diseases. It is always present in the body, gives strength, and 
retains it in a state of health. It is diffused every where over the 
body, as well as in the world, of which it is the ruler, performing 
all the actions in it. 

Sometimes the different humours are increased in quantity, either 
separately, or in combination of two or more together ; but bile and 
phlegm cannot pass from their own receptacles by themselves, with- 
out the assistance of air, which is the only active humour, as a high 
wind striking upon water, throws it about, so vital air acting upon 
the other humours increase them in quantity, and they are thrown 
about out of their proper receptacles. Thus, when air, bile, phlegm, 
and blood are increased, they pass from their own receptacles and 
mix with the other humours. Sometimes they are diffused over the 
whole body ; at other times to only a part which is irritated, and 
then form disease, like the cloud which accumulates over a part, 
throws down rain there. 

If air is much deranged, it leaves its own receptacle, and passes to 
another situation, producing noise in an unusual situation. Bile in 
like manner produces heat, a burning sensation, and dryness ; when 
phlegm is increased, and is changed in its position at the time of 
its passage, it destroys appetite and digestion, and produces langour 
and vomiting. In cases where air, bile, plilegm, and blood are de- 
ranged, and accumulated in the abdomen ; they diminish appetite 
and strength, produce gulmoh and bradrodri, or large abcesses in the 
abdomen ; also costiveness, cholera, dysentery, &c. 

K deranged, air passes to the receptacle of bile, the medicines for 
this disease are to be employed for its cure ; and bile, if deranged, 
passes to phlegm. This is to be cured by removing diseased bile. 
If phlegm passes to the locality of air, this is to be cured in the 
usual way. 

Brmnha, the creator of the world, is full of the rajaguna, and 
resembles air ; while bile resembles Vishnu, and is like him full of sat- 
waguna. In like manner phlegm resembles Siva, with his inactive 
qualities, and is the destroyer of the body. 


When these humoiirs accumulate in the bladder they produce 
diabetes, stone, disuria, and other diseases of the urine. When 
they accumulate in the penis they produce strictures, swellings, &c. 
In the anus they produce fistula-in-ano, piles, and the like. In 
the scrotum and testicles, they produce different forms of Hydrocele. 
If towards the head they produce the various diseases of the head, 
eyes, &c. ^^len collected in the blood and flesh, the humours pro- 
duce leprosy, different kinds of cutaneous diseases, and inflammation. 
K to the fat they produce different kinds of tumours and swellings, 
particiilarlj'^ of glandular parts. In the bone the)" produce inflamma- 
tion, and other like diseases. In the feet elepliantiasis, rheumatism, 
and the Kke. Wlien diffused over the whole body, fever and other 
diseases of the body, as small pox, &c., are the consequence. 

If such derangements of the humours remain for some time their 
effects may appear afterwards, and slowly produce the peculiar 
symptoms of disease. 

Section XL 

Essential Parts {Dhdtu.) 

The Essential Parts, or the supporters of the body, consist of the 
liard and soft parts, and fluids of the body. 

These are tlie chyle (rasa), blood (rakta), flesh (mdnsa), fat 
{meda), Iwne (osthi), marrow (majja), and semen (sakra). These 
«even essential parts of the body form the fetus, nourish, and 
sustain life, and retain the system in a healthy state ; they give the 
soft feel, the colour, and the strength of the body, and the action 
of the senses. When diseased or diminished, the body wastes, and 
the person dies. Thus will the period of life vary with the kind of 
food which is used. Good chyle produces good health, and with 
it bravery, strength, and a fine colour of tlie body, and retentive 

a. Chyle (rasa) that mov^s in the body is obtained, and is sepa- 
rated from the four kinds of food which is digested, and is 
said to be the essence (sara) of the food. It has a glutinous, 
cooling, and liquid appearance ; is sweet, and is of a white co- 
lour. It is principally situated in the heart, liver, and spleen ; 
^nd by means of the vessels caUed damanee, it is conveyed to the 
different parts of the body by the samdna vdyii; and nourishes 
the dhcitu, and is changed by the bile (ranjaka) into blood (rakta) in 
the liver. This kind of bile is supposed to redden the fluids, when 



h is called blood. The chyle thus changed mixes with the blood, h\ 
means of the samdna vdyu. If the Bile be either too strong, or not 
strong enough ; or the food is not properly digested, it becomes 
pungent, leaves a sour taste in the mouth, and like poison produces 
disease. The chyle then passes along to the heart, to nourish and 
increase the dhatu and parts of the body, as fields are irrigated by 
canals of water, which moisten, and aiiord them its qualities-. When 
chyle is much increased it produces nausea, and an increased secre- 
tion of saliva. There are two varieties of chyle ama (chyme), 
slightly impure, and pahiua or chyle in its pure state which 
nourishes the body. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the uses of the chyle, some 
supposing that it nourishes the parts directly, others suppose that 
by means of vital air (Pran-vayu), it is conveyed to the damanee 
vessels by which it is sent to the blood, and mixes with it in 
the spleen and liver, where it becomes red, is purified by the bile, 
and remains there for five days and a half. It then passes to 
the flesh, and remains there some time, and is purified by the bile 
(pitta), or a kind of internal fire, and is conveyed to the different 
parts of the body, which it retains at its proper temperatin-e, and 
nourishes the flesh. In the same way it passes to and remains in the 
fat, bone, &c., which it nourishes, and purifies with one part ; while 
another impure part (mala) is rejected. Perspiration is the impu- 
rity of the blood in the fat ; as the tartar is the impurity of the teeth ; 
and other secretions have impurities which are in like manner 
thrown off. The last dhatu to which the chyle passes is to the semen,^ 
which has no dregs : so that the chyle, like sugar, requires different 
processes to purify it, and at each stage it throws down impurities. 

The chyle retains the person in good spirits, increases the blood,. 
&c., and if not properly prepared, it becomes sour ; and deranges the 
the dhatu. If diminished there is pain in the breast, the person 
shakes, has swimming in the head and moistness in the eyes, with 
thirst. In one month the chyle changes to blood, flesh, fat, bone, 
and marrow, from which semen, and the menses are produced. 

h. Blood (rakta). The blood is derived from the digested parts 
of the chyle, and by being concocted by the bile becomes red, when 
it is called blood ; which combines, and nourishes the other essential 
parts of the body (dhatu). 

The blood is thin and limpid, like water, has a peculiar smell, is 
of a red colour, and light. These qualities are derived from the five 
elements ; as the smell from the earth, the fluidity from the water^ 
redness from the fire, mobility from the air, and lightness from the 
ether (akasa)» When blood predominates it produces the redness 


of the eyes and body, and fullness of the vessels. In a healthy state it 
keeps the body of a good colour, increases strength, and the flesh 
or bulk of the body, nourishes the organs, and moves, lives, and 
retains their being. It preserves vitality (jiva) which it distributes 
over all the body ; but in different quantities, being derived from 
the heart as its fountain. 

The blood is known to be in a healthy state, when the nails, 
eyelids, palate, tongue, lips, pahns of the hands, and soles of the 
feet are of a reddish colour, and of a shining appearance. It retains 
the fullness and hardness of the abdomen, gives the yellow tinge 
to the skin, reduces the heat of the body, and renders it heavy, 
and listless. 

The blood is changed and produces the menses, which differ from 
the pui'e fluid, being formed by the internal fire of the body, and 
flowing continually three whole days during every month ; from the 
12th to the oOth year of age. 

When the blood is diminished in quantity in the body, the skin 
becomes dry and rough, the vessels feel lax and feeble ; it increases 
the internal heat of the body, and produces fevers, and other diseases; 
in which sour and cooling food and drink are desired. 

Blood is never deranged by itself, as whatever acts unfavourably 
on it produces first its eftect upon the air, plilegm, and bile, and 
then it acts on the blood. On tliis account the diseases of the blood 
are cured, by first curing the derangements of the humours. 

c. Flesh (mansa, muscles). Is produced by air (vayu) thicken- 
ing the blood, which is digested by heat. This increases the firm- 
ness of the body. The air passes through the body, and being ac- 
companied with the proper degree of heat, forms the large canals, 
and divides the flesh into different muscles ; in which the vessels 
are lodged that contain blood. By means of these, it proceeds 
as the lily rises from the ground, and is nourished by water, &c., in 
its progress upwards. When the blood is digested in the flesh, 
with the internal fire, its essential parts nourish the flesh, and its 
dregs produce the wax of the ears, &c. 

When dimmished and dried up in the abdomen, cheeks, and lips, 
pelvis, thighs, breasts, armpits, nates, and neck ; it produces pain, and 
the principal vessels are diminished in size. When it predominates 
it increases the size of the buttocks, cheeks, lips, thighs, arms, and 
calves of the legs, and gives a general heaviness to the body. 

d. Fat (meda) is generated from the blood in the flesh, and is 
in large quantities round the eyes, throat, and breast, when pro- 
perly digested by the action of its internal fire. It produces 
perspiration, keeps the body shining, and hard ; is oily, and heavy ; 

G 2 


and is the cause of the growth of the body, its obsity, and strengths 
It is diffused over the body, but its chief seat is in the abdomen. 

When the fat is diminished the spleen may be easily felt, the 
joints seem dried, and moving them gives pain. In such cases 
animal food is always desired. When fat predominates, the body 
appears smooth and glistening, the abdomen and sides are in- 
creased in size ; cough and asthma are produced, and the body 
has a disagreeable smell. It is supposed that the essential part of 
the blood and fat produce bone. 

e. Bones (osthi), and cartilages (toruna) as new bone, are usually 
considered under the same head. These give form to the body, 
and to them all the soft parts are attached. When the bones are 
all united together, they form the skeleton (kankala). Bone, with 
blood are the parts from which the marrow of long bones, including 
the brain and spinal marrow, are formed. When digested the ex- 
cretions (mala) of bone form the nails and hair. When the ele- 
ments of bone are diminished in the system they become painful, 
the teeth and nails crack, become loose, and the body becomes dry. 
Where bone predoixrinates, another portion grows over the old 
bone ; and a more than usual nmnber of teeth are formed. 

Some authors say there are 300 (Susruta), others 306 (Cha- 
raka), bones in the body. This difference is owing to their counting 
the cartileo-es with the bones. The bones are connected together 
by capsular ligaments. The Bones are : — 

\st. Extremities. 

True Numher. 

Up. Lr, 

¥mgers and toes 14 14 

Metacarpus and meta- 
tarsus 5 5 

Heel bone 1 

Carpus and tarsus 8 6 

Fore arm and leg 2 2 

Patella .. 1 

Arm and thigh 1 1 

30 30 

60 60 
Number of bones of the 

extremities 120 

Number — Sanscrit Authors. 

Up. Lr: 

Bones in the fingers and 

toes 30 30 

fjong bones of each hand 

and foot 8 8 

Wrist and ankle 16 12 

Heel 2 

Fore arm and leg 4 4 

Knee 2 

Arm and thigh...., 2 2 

60 60 
Bones of the extremi- 
ties* 120 

* Sesamoid bones are not counted. 


2nd. Head and Trunk. 

True Number. 

Brought over ... 


es of 


Bones of the skull 
Temporal bones .. 
External Cartilages 

the ear 2 

Cheek bones 2 

Jaw bones 2 

Palet bone 1 

2 OS nasi, and 1 carti- 
lage 3 

Teeth of adult 32 

r 3 Hyoid Car 

I tilages 
Throat^ 1 Arytenoid 


I I Os Hyoides J 
Neck, cartilage? of the 

wind pipe 9 

Bones above the neck ... 

Clavicles 2 

Vertebrae 24 

Sacrum 4 

Scapulae 2 

Breast bones 4 

Cartilages between ster 

num and clavicle 

Enciformed Cartilage .. 


Sternal Cartilages 24: 

Cartilages, tubercles, &c. 24 

Coccyges 2 

Sacrum I 

Annominata 2 





Number — Sanscrit Authors. 

Brought over 


Bones of the skull ... 


Ears, cartilages 


Jaws, upper and lower 



Teeth in Adult 





Bones above the neck 

(Akoka) or clavicles 2 

('24 Vertebrae ... ' 
4 Bones of the 

Back J sacrum, 


Breast bones "| 
between the 
Breast J sternum and 
2 Pieces enci- 
formed carti- 


24 Sternal car- 



Y 8 

36 in 




24 Cartilages 
tubercles and 
the transverse 
processes of 

vertebrae ^ 


Coccyges 2 

Sacrum, 1 

Annominata 2 

Bones of the trunk 

117 Bones of the trunk 


Number of Bones in the 

Number of Bones in the 
300 body 


There are five varieties of bones : — 

1. Flat Bones, kapald ; as of the knee, hip, shoulder, cheek, 
palet, temple, and head. 

2. Teeth, Ruchaka. 

* Charaka says there are 32 alveolar bones, and 30 teeth, 
t Charaka says 25, with 24 ribs. 

5.4 ^ 

3. Cartilages (torund) nose, ears, neck, and eyelids. 

4. Round Bones (holla) are those of the hands, feet, back, sides, 
abdomen, and sacrum. 

5. Long bones (nalaka) as those of the arms, legs, metacarpal, and 
metatarsal bones, and the other like bones of the body. 

Bones are insensible, immoveable, and as the centre of a tree 
is the hardest, so the bones are the most durable part of the body ; 
and remain after all the other parts have decayed. 

f. Brain and 3Iarrow {majj6,.) The Brain and marrow are 
situated within the bones and nourish them, and their impurities 
are the secretions from the eyes. The Majja gives strength, and 
the shining appearance to the body. When the marrow is increased 
there is a heaviness of the eye, and of the whole body ; and when 
diseased it diminishes semen, and produces pain in the long bones. 
The essential parts of marrow and brain mix with the blood, and 
produce semen. 

g. Semen {sukra). Is the last essential part formed, and no- 
thing is produced from it in the body. It retains the body in its 
proper state of health and strength, is the generative principle, 
and during its excretion it produces pleasure ; when diminished, it 
causes pain in the penis, and testicles, and the person becomes 
impotent. When it predominates there is an increased flow, and it 
produces stone. The female has desire for the sex during the flow 
of the menses, which acts in them as the semen does in the male. 

These seven essential parts of the body (dhatu) are contained 
in seven organs called koUa, or their receptacles. 

The Blood retains all these parts in their proper state of health. 
Some Pandits believe that life is the blood, and others say that life 
is the sotwa, raja and tama gunas, with the five senses and the 

Ozah is the essential part to the seven dhatu above enumerated 
which gives them strength. It is cooling, oily, of a reddish, or slightly 
yellow colour ; is diffusible and transparent, and is the principal sup- 
porter of life. It is spread over all the body. If destroyed, the 
body will soon die. It is deranged by severe wounds, by the diminu- 
tion of any the seven essential parts ; by the passions, anxiety, much 
labour, and hunger. If it is in a healthy state the body becomes 
firm, the proper functions of the organs are performed, a good colour 
is given to the body, the external and internal functions, and the 
organs of sense are retained in a healthly state. When deranged the 
person feels languid, with a loss of strength. The body feels heavy, 
swollen, and drousy, and its colour changes. If diminished, the 
person becomes thin, with fainting, delirium, and death. 


Section III. 
Excretions (Mala) 
Are the impurities of the seven essential parts, the dreo-s of the 
chyle is plilegm ; of the blood, bile ; of the flesh, the secretions of 
the ear, nose, &c. ; of the fat, perspiration ; of the bone, the nails, 
and hair ; of the brain and marrow, the secretions from the eyes, &c. 
The semen has no dregs or impurities, but others say that (Ozah), 
an oily transparent fluid, which is formed all over the body, is the 
essential part of life, and is its impurity. This is the strength of 
the body, and is principaEy situated in the thorax. 

Alvine evacuations are the superfluous part of the nutritious food, 
wliich form the feces ; when diminished by dysentery, purgatives, 
or the like, pain is felt in the breast, and sides of the abdomen. When 
much increased it produces pain in the belly, with a gurgling noise. 
When in the proper quantity it keeps the body in a proper state ; 
and it supports the air, and internal fire in a healthy condition. 

Urine is contained in the bladder, and keeps the parts moist. 
When diminished, pain is felt in the pelvis, and little urine is dis- 
charged. When much increased there is a frequent flow with pain 
in the pelvis, and swelling in the part. 

Perspiration retains the skin in a soft and moist state. If dimi- 
nished, the pores of the skin are closed, the skin becomes dry, tough, 
and deranged in its action. For the removal of this state, oil is 
to be rubbed over the body with warmth and moisture. When the 
perspiration is increased there is a bad smell of the body with itching. 

3Iilk increases the size of the mammae and is the food of the 
infant. W^hen diminished, the mammas become lessened, and little 
milk is secreted, and in these cases medicines which increase plilegm 
are to be used. When much increased the mammse are enlarged, 
with a flow of the milk, and pain. 

These impurities will be duninished by much purging or vomiting ; 
and also eating those substances in considerable quantities which 
diminish air, bile, &c., will have this effect. One mola when cons- 
tipated, diminishes the others. In like manner disagreeable food or 
melancholy ; violent exercise, fasting, excess in venery, &c., have the 
same effect. There is however no certain quantities as they vary in 
different individuals, according to their size, &c. The increase or 
diminution of their fluids is therefore stated by comparison. When 
healthy, all the secretions and essential parts are supposed to be in 
a proper state ; and it is the duty of the physician to restore them 
to their just quantity ; if increased, they must be diminished ; and 
if diminished increased. 


Others state that oily exudations, seminal fluids, blood, dandrif, 
urine, faecis, earwax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, concretions in the 
eyes and sweat, are the twelve impurities of the human frame." 
(Menu. p. 164. Ch. V. §. 135.) 

Section IV. 

Joints {Sandhi.) 

The joints are of two kinds the moveable (cliala) and im- 
moveable (sthira). 

Of the first kind are the joints of the extremities, jaw, and ver- 
tebrae. All the others belong to the second, or immoveable class. 
The moveable joints are : — 

The 4 toes, 3 in each 12- 

Large toe 2 

The foot, knee and hip, one each 3 

In each leg 
Hand in like manner 

17 both 34 

Joints of the extremities 


The Loins 


Spinal Column 






Joints of the trunk 





Connection of vessels with 


heart and organ of 




The roots of the teeth 


Pomum Adami 














Above each eye-brows 


Carried forward 


— 59 



Brought up 



Above each temples 




Crown of the head 


Joints above the neck 


Total 210 

There are eight forms of joints : — 

a. Kara, hinge joint as those of the fingers, toes, wrist, ankles, 
knees, elbows. 

b. Udukkala, as the ball and socket joint, shoulder, hip, teeth. 

c. Samudga. Like the instrument for cutting beetlenut ; as the 
shoulder-blade, coxis, pubes, and innominata. 

d. Protara, as the neck, back. 

e. Tunnosebanee (so"\vn as with thread), sutures of the skull, 
joinings of the illium, ischium, and pubes. 

f. Biosatunda, the joints of the lower jaw, which resemble a 
crows beak (coronoid process). 

g. Mundala (round) as of the orbits, throat (larynx) and thorax; 
in which the eyes, wind-pipe, bronchse, and heart are situated. 

h. Sunkha burta in the ears, as the os hyoides. 

Section V. 

Ligaments, S^c. (^Sndyu) * 

Ligaments bind together and strengthen the frame work of the 
bones, like the strips of ratan which are employed to bind the pieces 
of a boat together, so as to prevent the entrance of water, and to 
support heavy weights. 

These Ligaments are divided into thos3 of the extremities, trunk, 
and head. 

In each toe there are 6 ligaments 30 

Soles, sides, and joints of the feet 30 

Leg 30 

Knee 10 

Thigh 40 

Hip-joint 10 

150 Opposite side 150 or 300 
The proximid extremities 150 Do. 150 or 300 

Ligame7its of the extremities 600 

* This includes nerves which are not considered separately. 



Brought forward 600 

Ligaments of the Trunk. 

In the Loins 60 

Back 80 

Chest 30 

Sides, 30 in each side 60 

Back of the Neck 36 

Head 34 



Number of Ligaments of the body 900 

There are four varieties of Ligaments. 

a. Protanobutee, long ligaments, as of the legs, feet, and joints. 

b. Britto, round ligaments and tendons, as of the penis, &c. 

c. Prithuy thick ligaments and tendons ; as along the sides, 
breast, back, and head. 

d. Susira, those with holes in them, as in amasia, pokasia, and 
bladder (bustee). 

The physician, by knowing exactly the situation of the external 
and internal ligaments, will be able to remove extraneous bodies 
which have penetrated far into their substance. 

Wounds of these Ligaments (and nerves) are most painful and 

Section VL 

Muscles (Pashee) 

Muscles cover, strengthen, and retain in their places, vessels 
tendons, bones, and joints. 

The size of the muscles differ according to their situation and 
uses. They are : — 

Bahala, or broad and large. 

Peleba, small. 

Unu, narrow 

Sthulah, thick. 

Birta, round. 

Krussa, short. 

Sthera, hard. 

Mirdu, soft. 

SlucknOf smooth and shining : and, 

Korkasha, rough. 

They are as follows : — 

In the two hands and feet 




Above the nape of the neck 


1st. In the extremities 


Each finger and toe 3 or 


In front of the foot (tarsus) 


Above the foot (metatarsus) 


Under the ankles 


In the leg 







100 two feet 200 

Two hands the same 


2nd. In the Trunk 






Frenun of do. 





Hips, 5 on each side 


Above the bladder 






Vertebral column 






Upper breast 


Place of life, and amasia 


Liver, spleen, and rectum, 2 each 6 

3rd. Muscles above the nape of the neck 66 

Nape of neck 4 

Jaws 8 

Throat and upper part of the chest 2 

Pallet 2 

Tongue 1 

Lips 2 

Nose 2 

Carried over 21 466 

II 2 


Brought up 











Above the neck and head 34 

Total number of muscles 500 

Females have. 20 more muscles, viz :— 
Five in each mammse 10 

Vagina, 2 external and 2 internal 4 
Uterus 2 

For conveying the semen and blood 
internally 3 

— 20 

In these positions the muscles vary according to their actions. The 
muscles of the penis and testicles of the male are retained inter- 
nally in the body of the female. Besides which there are spiral 
muscles like those of a shell ; the first circle being the vagina, the 
second the neck of the uterus, and the third its cavity. In the uterus 
is contained the fetus with the mouth of that organ turned down- 
wards and shaped like that of a ruefish. 

Section VII. 


The vessels are distinguished from each other by the names serd^ 
damanee and srota. The appearance of these vessels is nearly the 
same ; but they diifer from each other, by their actions. 

The navel is the origin of all the vessels, and the principal seat of 
the life (pran), as it is situated there in larger quantities than else- 
where. The navel may be said to resemble the root of a waterlily, 
from which the different vessels proceed to all parts of the body. 
The navel is thus the root of the vessels of all li\dng animals *. It is 
surrounded by vessels like the central part of a wheel which receives 
spokes from the circumference. Among these, forty principal vessels 
are enumerated. 

Sera are the vessels which convey blood, air, bile, and phlegm, 

* This idea is derived from the appearance of the vessels in their 
fetal state. 


The branches of these vessels are like those of the leaves of trees, 
which ascend, descend, and cross. They nourish the body as a gar- 
den is irrigated by a small brook. These vessels, as a river, distri- 
bute noimshment in their course, and keep the body flexible, and 
ready for action. Of the forty principal vessels, ten contain air, ten 
bile, ten phlegm, and ten blood. Each trunk is attached to its own 
receptacle dosa. They are of all sizes, and life is contained in 
different degTees in different vessels. The midling size contain 
principally air. 

The ten trunks of vessels which convey 

air are divided into 175 branches. 

Do. Bile Do. 175 

Do. Phlegm Do. 175 „ 

Do. Blood attached to 

the spleen and liver 175 „ 

Total 700 

Air vessels have 25 branches in each lower 
extremity 50 

Do. do. 25 in each upper do. 50 


The air vessels of the trunk are as follows :- 


In the anus, penis, and buttocks 


Two sides 












Two ears 








Air vessels in the neck and head 


Number of air vessels 175 

The vessels that convey bile, phlegm, and blood are the same in 
number as those which convey air. But, in the eye, bile has ten, air 
has two instead of four ; and in the ears two. The phlegm and blood 
have the same number. All vessels, therefore, are supposed to con- 
tain air, bile, phlegm, and blood, but in different proportions. 


When they contain more air, bile, phlegm, or blood, they are called 
air vessels, phlegm vessels, or blood vessels. 

^ The colour of air vessels is red, and air appears in them ; those 
of bile are blue and hot, and those of phlegm are cool, of a whitish 
colour, thick, and their contents seem to remain at rest. 

If air circulates properly in its own vessels, the person will act 
properly, and the functions of the body will be performed in such 
a manner that the individual will enjoy health ; his understanding 
will be good, and he will possess all the other good qualities of air. 
If deranged, various kinds of the disease of air, will be produced. 

If Bile is in a proper condition, the person will have a healthy 
appearance, his appetite good, the internal fire \^dll be strong and 
healthy, and he will possess other good qualities. But if deranged, 
the diseases of bile wiU be produced. 

K Phlegm acts properly the skin will be smooth, the joints healthy, 
and the strength will be good, and he wiU have the other good qua- 
lities of plilegm. If deranged, it produces the peculiar class of 
diseases of phlegm. 

Blood. Tliis fluid produces and nourishes aU the other essential 
parts of the body. If the blood is in a healthy state, the persons colour 
remains good, the siuface is sensible, and it produces the other good 
qualities of blood, and when deranged it developes the various 
diseases of blood. 

When the air vessels are alone deranged, disease is not produced, 
but when deranged, with an increased quantity of bile, and plilegm, 
disease is the consequence. By the state of the eight principal vessels 
the physician knows if the patient will die or live. There are 
two vessels in the hands, two in the feet, two in the throat, two in 
the temples, and two in the nose, which are thus to be examined. In 
the foot the vessel is beliind the maleolus internus, and is in length 
two fingers breadth ; in the hand it is three breadths of the fingers, 
in the neck two breadths of the finger, and in the nose two, at 
which the pulse is felt. The two vessels of the hand are however 
the principal ; and if their contents flow naturally the person will live 
and do well. In these situations are the vessels containing the indi- 
cations of life, and a sensible physician will examine them all, and if 
air flows naturally it will be favourable. If in any of these the semen 
is deranged in the vessel, and air flows naturally, the person will 
live, this air produces the pulse*. When the pulse is to be judged 
of, three fingers are to be put upon the vessel at the wrist -, the 

^ * Physicians feel the pulse at the wrist, ankles, temples ; and some- 
times at the nose, or neck. 


first, next the hand, represents or indicates air or Briunha, the 
second bile, or Vishnu ; and the third Phlegm, (Mahesur or Siva). 

Should air be deranged in the vessels, sometimes it will be cured 
by pressing, champooing, or opening the vessel ; or by perspiration 
or friction. These remedies must always be employed. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged, and increased in quan- 
titv, they do not remain in the same vessels, but pass into different 
channels, as into those of one of the other fluid. 

The vessels carrying principally blood, are very red ; but are 
neither very hot nor cold. Some of these vessels may be opened, 
others cannot be opened with impunity. Should they be wounded, 
the person will die, or the part will be rendered imperfect in its 

There are four vessels which should not be opened in each extre- 
mity :— 

1 Ijal4 ddra 1 

vdeep seated 3 

1 Lohetaka ) 

There are in the trunk 136 vessels, of which 32 should not be 
opened ; 4 are in the buttocks ; 3 in each side of the spinal 
column ; in the belly 4 ; and in the breast 14. Above the clavicles 
50 are not to be opened. In the neck 16 ; in the jaw two on each 
side ; 4 below the tongue, 4 near the nose, 1 in the soft palate, 
one on each side of the eyes, and one in each ear, one in each side 
of the forehead, two in the temples, two above it, one between the 
eyebrows ; and six in the upper part of the head. 

It is stated in some books that there are innumerable vessels 
consisting of those of a large and very small size, which are like 
decayed leaves in which the interstices of the leaves have been 
removed. They are said to form 3^ cotees* of vessels, or 300 
lacks of all sizes and figures. These all arise from the navel. 


Damanee vessels f . 

These include vessels and nerves ; by which the different func- 
tions of the body are performed. 

* One cotee is equal to one hundred lacks, 

f A tubular vessel of the body, as a vein, nerve, &c. Other shastres 
say that they proceed from the turtle situated in the navel with four 
legs; ten vessels from the proximid extremity, ten from the lower, two 
from the mouth, and two from the anus (Tantra). 


There are 24 of these vessels, which for the most part proceed 
from the navel. There are 10 that proceed upwards, ten down- 
wards, and two laterally. The upper ten perform the functions of 
hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, and smelling. They also perform 
breathing, gaping, sneezing, coughing, laughing, speaking, and cry- 
ing ; when these vessels approach the heart, the ten are divided into 
three each, forming thirty branches. Two of these are di\dded into 
twelve, of which two convey air, two bile, two phlegm, two blood, 
and two chyle. Eight others perform hearing, seeing, tasting, 
smelling, two being allowed for each function. By two speech is 
performed, two make a noise, two produce sleep, two waking, two 
convey tears, two the milk of the female, and two in the male 
convey semen. These constitute the upper ^■essels. 

The actions of the ten lower vessels, situated under the navel, 
are to carry the air of the abdomen, for acting on the m-ine, dejec- 
tions, semen, menses, and the like. They separate all these parts 
from each other ; and by them the chyle is separated, and the body 
nourished, and retained in health. 

These ten vessels become thirty in the stomach (amasia) and 
intestines (pukasia) ; two of which convey air, two bile, two 
phlegm, two, blood, two chyle, two the solid, and two the fluid food, 
two for the urinary organs, and two for producing the semen, ' and 
two for conveying it externally, two for the menses, and by two 
the dejections are discharged. 

From these, munerous other branches proceed ; the whole body 
being enveloped by the branches proceeding from the four lateral 
trunks. These are innumerable and terminate in open orifices on the 
st!lrface, and convey perspiration, retain the body in a healthy state, 
and by their communications convey external applications into the 
system. By these vessels feeling is produced, and by them the oil or 
water is drawn into the system, and they cool, refresh, and clean it. 

Srotd (or canals). 

These vessels convey prana or vital air ; the food (onna) ; water 
(uda) ; chyle frusa) ; blood (rokta) ; fat of the flesh (mansha) ; urine 
(mutra) ; feces (purica) ; semen (sukra) ; and menses (artobo). 
From each of these numerous other vessels arise. 

Should the two vessels conveying life (prana) be wounded at the 
root ; which is in the heart, the person screams, bends forward, be- 
comes delirious, shakes, reels, swoons, and often dies. Should the 
two vessels conveying food, the root of which arises from the 
stomach be wounded, the symptoms will be flatulency, pain in the 
abdomen, loss of appetite, vomiting, thirst, blindness, and death. 


There are two vessels, which convey Chyle^ the roots of which 
are in the breast. If wounded the body dries up, and the same 
effects are produced as when the vessels conveying life are wounded : 
the person generally dies. 

There are two vessels for conveying blood, the roots of which 
are in the liver and spleen, and if they, or the roots of the other 
blood vessels are wounded, the person becomes of a pallid or gray 
colour, with fever ; much blood is lost, and the eyes become red. 

There are two vessels for convejong fiesh, the roots of which are 
the veins (sira), and skin (twak), and the root of the vessels which 
convey blood which if wounded produce swelling, di-ying of the 
flesh, and enlargement of the vessels (sira) conveying blood (aneu- 
rism), and the person dies. 

Vovfat there are two vessels, the roots of which are in the sides 
and loins, and when wounded produce perspiration, coolness of 
the body, the palate dries, the body swells, and there is thirst. 

There are two vessels for conveying urine, the roots of which 
are in the bladder, and penis ; and if wounded the bladder is dis- 
tended by the collection of urine, and the penis swells. 

There are two organs for containing dejections, one of which 
arises from Pakwasaya, and the other forms the anus. If wounded 
costiveness (dnaha), and a bad smell are produced, and the intestines 
swell, or become knotted. 

The semen has two canals the roots of which are in the breast ; 
md two from the testicles. If wounded they produce impotency, 
and the semen is discharged very slowly, and is mixed with blood. 

The menses have two canals, the roots of which are the uterus, 
and the damanee vessels, which convey the menses. When wound- 
ed, they produce barrenness, and the menses cease. 

Section VIII. 

Cellular tissue, and fascia of the Body (kald). 

The cellular tissue connects, and surrounds, the different parts 
of the body, and separates the seven essential parts from each other. 
The tissues which thus retain the different parts of the body toge- 
ther are of seven kinds : — 

1st. Mangsadhard * is situated between the muscles, and in which 
the vessels (rugs) pass, and divide into branches, to nourish 
the neighbouring parts, as the lily rises from the ground, and re- 
ceives its nourishment from the water and earth. 

* From mangsa, flesh, and dhara surrounds. 


2nd. Raktadhara * in which the blood is contained, in the spleen 
and the liver. They retain the blood, as the juice of trees is retain- 
ed, and is discharged when cut into. 

^rd. Medodhara \ is the organ in which all the fat is retained, 
the chief place of which is in the abdomen (the omentum). When 
the fat is contained in the bones it is called maja. 

Ath. Sleshmadhara % which forms the bags containing the 
phlegm ; With wliich the joints are lubricated, and rendered supple ; 
as oil is applied for the movement of wheels. 

5th. Purishadhara, in wliich the dejections are retained in the 
abdomen, it is attached to the pakavasa, and is situated between the 
liver and the intestines. 

6th. Pittadhara, or organ which receives from the stomach the 
four kinds of food, taken by sucking, dividing with the teeth, drink- 
ing, and licking. These kinds of food are digested by the heat of 

the bile (pittateja). 

'1th. Sukradhara retains the semen, which is dispersed over all 
the body with other fluids, in the same manner as milk contains 
butter, or the juice of sugar cane, sugar-candy. The principal seat 
of the semen, is two fingers breadth on each sides the neck of the 
bladder ; and the semen passes along the urinary passages, and is 
discharged in a state of pleasure. 

Section IX. 

Organs or Receptacles (asaya.) 

There are seven of these receptacles, with an additional three in 
the female. They retain the Humours of the body in their respec- 
tive situations ; such as air, bile, and phlegm, blood, chyle, chyme, 
urine, and feces. 

The receptacle of the blood is the heart ; under which the organ 
of phlegm is situated. Still lower down (distid) is situated the 
stomach (amasaya) between the breast and navel. Under which is the 
(pittasaya), receptacle of bile ; below which is the receptacle of air 
(pavanasaya), or place for the excretions § ; and below that is 
the receptacle of urine (vasti or bladder). The female has three 
more receptacles ; the uterus, and two receptacles for milk, or the 

* Rakta blood, and dhara retains. 

t Meda fit, and dhara retains. Maja brain, saroia marrow. 
X Slet,hma phlegm, and dhara retain. 

§ Charaka divides these into large and small intestines, and gives each 
a name. 


Section X. 

Orifices of the Body. (Bahisrofa.) 

There are nine orifices in the body of the male ; the mouth, two 
nostrils, two ears, two eyes, the anus, and the urethra. 

Females have the orifices of the two mammae, and the vagina, 
more than those of the male. 

Section XL 

Skin. (^Tivak). 

The skin is said to be in a state of health when it is soft, and has 
much hair. The skin consists of seven layers, or membranes ; as milk 
when boiled, forms a coating like that of the skin. The skin gives 
the seven different kinds of colour to the body. 

1st. Avabhashini (cuticle) this is the external layer, and is trans- 
parent. Its thickness is about the eighteenth part of a grain of rice. 

27id. Lohitd is the sixteenth part of a grain of rice in tliickness. 

Zrd. Swetd is a membrane of a white colour, and is the thick- 
ness of the twelth part of a grain of rice. 

Ath. Tdmrd is of a copper colour, the thickness of an eighth 
part of a grain of rice. 

6th. Vedini is the sensible part, and is the thickness of the fifth 
part of a grain of rice. 

Qth. Bohini is the thickness of a grain of rice. 

These membranes are not found in the head or fingers, but are 
distinguishable when there is much flesh in the part examined, as 
the belly, extremities, &c. 

1th. Mdngsadhara. These parts of the body are innumerablej 
and retain the muscles in their places. 

Section XII. 

Supplimentary Parts. 

Principal tendons (kandara) are sixteen in Number : — 
To each foot two 4 

Do hands 4 

Neck, and front of the body 4 

Back 4 

Carried up 1^ 

I 2 


From the tendons of the extremities the nails proceed. Those of 
the neck bind it to the trunk, and it is a tendon which extends to 
form the penis. 

The back and buttocks are bound together by mere tendons ; 
which pass down and form the testicles. 

There are also 16 Jala (like a net) and are formed of vessels, 
&c., which strengthen, and bind the joints ; and six kurcha which 
form bundles of parts. 

Sebani (sowing or sutors), there are five sutors in the head, 
one in the frenum of the tongue, and one in the frenum of the Penis. 

Section XIII. 

Dissection of the Human Body. 

All the Rishls are said to have recommended the dissection 
of the human body, as proper and necessary. Menu, the great 
legislator, and the one most respected by the Hindu sages, says 
(85) "one who has touched a corpse, is made pure by bathing"; 
and again (77) " should a Brahman touch a fresh human bone 
he is purified by bathing ; and if it be dry by stroking a cow, or 
by looking at the sun, having sprinkled his mouth duly with water." 
Charaka^ one of the munis, and Physicians say, that a 
practitioner should know aU the parts of the body, both ex- 
ternal and internal, and their relative positions with regard to each 
other. Without such a knowledge he cannot be a proper practitioner. 
Susruta, a Rishi of the highest rank, says that a jogi (a holy 
man) should dissect, in order that he may know the different 
parts of the human body ; and a surgeon and physician should not 
only know the external appearances, but internal structure of the 
body ; in order to possess an intimate knowledge of the diseases to 
which it is liable, and to perform surgical operations so as to avoid 
the vital parts. It is by combining a knowledge of books with prac- 
tical dissection, that the practitioner will alone attain an intimate 
knowledge of the subject of his profession. 

The body which is to be examined by dissection should be that 
of a person who had neither been destroyed by poison, nor had died 
of a long disease, as the structure of the body will be altered by 
the deleterious substance taken, or destroyed by the ravages of 
disease. In like manner the person should not have been very old, 
and all the members should be in a perfect state. 

When a proper body for the purpose has been selected, the 
dejections are to be removed, the body washed, and placed in a 
frame work of wood, properly secured, by means of grass, hemp, 


or the like. The body is then to be placed in still water, in a situa- 
tion in which it will not be destroyed by birds, fishes, or animals. 
It is to remain for seven days in the water, when it will have become 
putrid. It is then to be removed to a convenient situation, and 
with a brush, made of reeds, hair, or bamboo-bark, the body is to 
be rubbed so as, by degrees, to exliibit the skin, flesh, &c., which are 
each in their turn to be observed before being removed. In this 
manner the different corporial parts of the body already enumerated 
will be exhibited ; but the life of the body is too etherial to be dis- 
tinguished by this process, and its properties must therefore be 
learned with the assistance of the explanations of holy medical 
practitioners, and prayers offered up to God, by which, conjoined 
with the exercise of the reasoning and imderstanding faculties, con- 
viction will be certain. 


Vital Parts (3Iarma). 

The description of these parts, and the consequences of their 
being wounded, afford a convincing proof of the great practical 
experience of the Hindu writers. The advantages of having a good 
and attentive medical attendant, compared with that of an ignorant 
one, is emphatically declared to be as great as the difference of 
the individual, being restored from weakness and deformity, or 
even from death after much suffering to perfect health. 

In Susruta the dangerous parts are all named and described ; 
and the necessity of avoiding them in operations pointed out. The 
consequence of wounds near the great toe in causing tetanus ; in 
the palm of the hand, in producing such a degree of hemorrhage as 
will require amputation of the arm ; of the effects of wounds of the 
testicle and groin, and of the fractured bones of the head and breast, 
which are tobe raised or removed, &c., are all stated in this prac- 
tica Iwork. 

There are five kinds of Vital parts : — 

Flesh has (mangsa marma) 

Vessels (sira marma) have 

Nerves and Ligaments (snayu marma). 

Bones (osti marma) 

Joints (sandhi marma) 

Carried up 


Brought forward 
The following are the varieties of vital parts : — 

Flesh has 11 

Vessels 41 

Tendons, nerves, and ligaments 27 

Bone 8 

Joints 20 

Varieties of vital parts of the body. 107 

These parts are also divided as follows : — 
In each leg there are 11, in both 22 

In each arm 11, do. 22 

In the abdomen (udara) there are 3, and in the 

thorax 9 12 

In the back there are 14 

Above the trunk 37 


Vital parts of the distid extremities. 

1. Kipra. The space between the great toes, and the one next 
it, if wounded or bruised, the person will die with tetanus. Hence 
a bite of a serpent is very dangerous in this part. 

2. Talahridaya. Under and behind the 4th and 5th toe. If 
wounded death will be produced with great suifering. 

3. Kurcha, above the Kipra, and on each side of it. If wound- 
ed there will be an unsteadiness of the foot. 

4. Kurchasira, under the ankles, it will produce pain and swell- 

o. Gulpha, the ankle joint, which produces pain, and the joint 
becomes stiff, and the person lame. 

6. Indrabasti, along the anterior and posterior part of the leg. 
If blood flows largely, the person will die. 

7. Janu, or vital part in the knee. When hurt, it will produce 

■ 8. Ani Marma. Three fingers in size above the knee. When 
wounded it will be followed by much swelling and stiffness of the 

9. Urbi, middle of the thigh. If wounded much hemorrhage 
will follow, with death. 

10. Lohitaka, a little above the last, and below the groin. 
When wounded, from the great hemorrhage, paralysis of that side 
will occur. 


11. Vitapa. if the part between the testicles and groin be 
wounded, the person will become powerless with a loss of 

Both upper extremities have the same vital parts as the lower, 
differing only slightly from each other. 

Vital parts of the Trunk. 

1. Guda. If that in the anus be hurt, it will soon kill the person. 

2. Basti, or urinary bladder, if wounded the person will soon 
die, excepting after the extraction of the stone. If one side be 
wounded, a fistula will form, but the person will not die. Should 
the vital parts in both sides be wounded, the person will die. 

3. Ndbhi, between amasia and Pukasia, when wounded where 
the vessels originate, the person will die. 

4. Hridaya or heart, which is between the two breasts within 
the thorax. If wounded the person will soon die. 

5 Stanamula is in two parts, situated below the breast ; and 
is two fingers breadth in size. If wounded death will be produced 
by the severe cough, and asthma thus produced. 

6. Stanarohita, above the breast two fingers breadth, if wound- 
ed severe cough and asthma will take place, by the visera being 
filled up with blood. 

7. Apaldpa, in the axilla. When wounded under the axilla, a 
great discharge of blood and pus will precede death. 

Vital parts of the Back. 

Should the loins on each side of the back {Koteekotornd) be 
wounded above the sacrum, from the blood lost, the person will 
become of a yellow or bad colour, and die. 

1. Apastamba. The two vessels which convey bayu in the chest. 
If wounded cough and asthma will produce death. 

2. Kakundara. The side of the spine near the buttocks when 
woimded is followed by a loss of feeling, and the person cannot 
move the inferior parts of the body, which become paralized. 

3. Nitamba. When the sensible parts of the two buttock? 
have been wounded, the lower limb shrinks up, and becomes weaken* 
ed, and the person dies. 

4. Parswasandu is situated on each side of the trunk and lower 
part of the abdomen (iliac region) ; when wounded the person 
will die, from the flow of blood from the organs. 

o. Vrihati, on each side of the spine, near the breast ; the 
man if wounded there, will die from the great hemorrhage. 


6. Angsafalaka^ at the upper part of the spinal column, when 
wounded, the arm becomes insensible, immoveable, and dries up. 

7. Angsa. If the shoulder joint be wounded it disables the arm. 

Vital parts above the trunk. 

There are 37 vital parts above the trunk ; of which two are on 
each side of the trachea. There are four vessels called neela (blue) 
and two (manya) ; which if wounded or bruised the person cannot 
speak, or the voice becomes changed, and he loses his taste. 

2. Sir a Matrika, on each side of the neck, there are two 
vessels ; if wounded the person will soon die. 

3. Krikatika, or the joint between the head and neck, if 
wounded, the head is always in motion. 

4. Bidura, under the lobe of the ear, if wounded the person 
becomes deaf. 

5. Fana, should the inside of the two nostrils be wounded, he 
cannot smell. 

6. Apanga, below the extremities or above the eyebrows, if dis- 
eased or wounded the person will become blind. 

7. Abarta, above the eyebrows, if wounded, they produce blind- 
ness, and diseases of the eye. 

8. Sangkha, the temples, if wounded the person will soon die. 

9. Utkhapa, above the temples, if wounded, the individual will 
live as long as the instrument is in the wound, but if removed he 
will die. Should it be allowed to remain, and medicine be given 
to discharge the instrument it may drop out of the wound, and the 
person may live. 

10. Sthapani. Between the eyebrows, the same effects will be 
produced as in the last case. 

11. Simanta, the five joints of the head, if wounded, will pro- 
duce fear, insensibility, madness, and death. 

12. Sringataka, should the vessels at the union of the eyes, 
nose, ears, and tongue be wounded, the person will soon die. 

- 13. Adhipati, inside of the upper part of the head, at the 
passage of the vessel along the bone (lateral sinus) wounds will 
soon destroy the person. 

In operations, sensible parts are to be avoided and a surgeon 
and Physician should know aU these parts. 

When a member is cut off, the parts contract, and less blood will 
often flow ; but if wounded in a vital part it will generally cause 
death, by the number of vessels that are divided, while the deranged 
air produces much pain. The person dies in such cases, as a tree 


will (lie if the roots be divided. Hence if the vital parts be wounded, 
as in the palm of the hand, the arm is to be amputated to save the 
individual's life. Should a person live after such injuries, the parts 
will be left in a state of weakness, and his recovery will depend 
entirely upon the skill of his medical attendant. 

K a bone of the head or breast be broken, it is to be raised, or 
removed by the assistance of instruments. Wounds of the legs 
or arms will not be fatal, if the vital parts have escaped. In these 
vital parts the qualities of the moon, air, strength (tej), and raja, 
satwa, and tama gun, and also life (Jivatma) are retained in consi- 
derable quantities. Hence, the fatal effects wliiv.1! usually occur from 
injuries of these parts. The senses become imperfect or destroyed, 
the understanding becomes changed, and various kinds of pain are 
produced in such woimds, followed by death. When tlie ftital 
termination of wounds of vital parts is prevented at the time 
of the injury, death will be produced, some days after, with much 
siillering and weakness. In those situations, where injui'ies do not 
produce fatal consequences, but an impei-fect action of the part, they 
are cured by the skill and care of the surgeon. By wounds in such 
situations death is produced on the instrument being withdrawn, by 
the escape of air (vayu), &c. If wounded near a vital part, and 
there is a bad surgeon, the person will become a cripple. 

There are five varieties, or degrees, of vital parts. In one 
variety the person when wounded dies quickly, of which there are 
19 ; another in a fevv^ days, of which there are 33 ; one when an 
external substance enters, it produces a fatal effect, as soon as it 
is withdrawn, there are 3 such parts ; another kind produces 
lameness, 44 are of this kind ; another produces only pain, of which 
there are 8. 

When any of these parts are injiu-ed, it destroys the individual, 
from the portion of life it contains. Those that produce death 
suddenly, have the quality of fire and, like it, quickly destroy. The 
kind that destroy life only on the instrument being withdrawn, 
which had inflicted the wound, is in consequence of the part having 
the qualities of air (vayu) : In tliis case, the external instrument 
closes up the air, &c. ; and as soon as it is removed they escape, and 
the person dies. That which produces pain and lameness has 
the qualities of the moon ; as it is cool, and steady, and retains life. 
That which produce:^ pain has the quality of fire and air ; by 
increasing which, the pain is produced. Some Pundits suppose that 
pain is produced by the injury of the five elements. 

When the fix-e varieties of sensible parts, the vessels, &c., 
are wounded ; the effect is increased by the number, and the 


74 . 

person dies; If only four are wounded, he will live a few days. 
When three are wounded, and the instruments removed, the person 
will die soon after its extraction. If two are injured, an imperfect 
action of the part will be the consequence ; and if only one be in- 
jured, there wiU only be pain. 

These four varieties of vessels are generally contained in sensible 
parts ; and retain the body in a healthy state : but if the sensible 
parts are wounded, the air is increased ; it passes through the four 
species of vessels, produces much pain, and causes fainting, and 
death. Should an external substance be required to be withdrawn 
from a wound, the surgeon must first carefully observe the sensi- 
ble parts, and then remove the instrument. If the vital parts are 
wounded towards their centre it will produce death in a few 
days ; and it will produce an imperfect action of the part, when 
wounded on one sidcr Those vital parts which produce death 
on the instrument being discharged, when wovmded near tlie 
edge, will give much pain. The other parts give much pain when 
wounded directly j but will produce little pain if wounded on 
one side. 

The same symptoms and consequences will take place should 
the parts be lacerated, crushed, or burnt, as when wounded with a 
cutting instrument,. 


Spiritual part of the body. 

Life {Trand) consists in the combination of the soul {bJmtatmd 
purusha, jlvatma) ; the mind (manah) ; the five senses (Indriya) ; and 
the three qualities of goodness, passion, and inertness, (Satwa, Raja, 
and Tama) 

The soul (purusha) is a shadow or emanation from God (Paramat- 
ma, Ishwar), the eternal, who is without beginning or end, is invisi- 
ble, immortal, and is only known by reflection. When it bedews the 
five elements it produces the living body, and becomes by its actions 
evident. It is liable to decrease, and is influenced by medicine. 
There is no difference between the human soul and the soul of the 
world j this being only the exterior and condescending manifesta- 


t\on of God, while the human soul is its reflection into itself, and 
its elevation above itself is the Di\dne soul. The presence of the 
soul is necessary to animate the body ; is full of knowledge and hap- 
piness, and is possessed of judgment. It produces waking and sleep- 
ing ; and combined with mind is like a coachman who directs the 
senses, and regulates the body, suffering from its wickedness, or 
<^njopng its beatitude. The soul is always in a state of purity, when 
separated from the body ; but neither acts useful ty, nor otherwise, 
useless when united with mind, and the female energj^ (prakriti). 

When the soul enters the embrj^o it forms the knowledge (vidya), 
and ignorance (avidya), wickedness, &c., of that individual. In some 
medical works the soul is represented to exist in beasts, animals, 
and demigods according to its conduct in former states of existence. 
When the soul (Jivatma) has bedewed the body with its twenty 
four qualities, it performs all the corporeal functions, and sensible 
actions ; as vision, hearing, touch, &c. ; and by it we speak and act. 
If it acts on good works, the person will be good, and his soul 
will go to heaven after death. 

When the soul is united with the mind (manah) ; it produces 
desire, activity, enmity, happiness, grief, misery, intelligence, 
f'xertion, judgment, memory, dexterity, and useful knowledge. 
It produces expiration and inspiration, closing and opening the 
eyelids, understanding, reflection, consideration, memory, the 
exercise of the arts, and performs the action of the senses. 

The mind (manah) is a quality or power of the soul by which 
the person thinks and reasons. It is incomprehensible, and is known 
by its actions through those of the senses. As it is single only, one 
sense can act at the same time, as it requires the presence of the 
mind for the comprehension of any thing, and the understanding 
with ideas of its own operations. 

The mind is chiefly situated in the head, between the eyebrows ; 
others suppose that it is in the heart, and resembles the light of a 
lamp, by which the person knows, sees, hears, tastes, and moves. 
It proceeds from itself, as the silk worm weaves its thread from it- 
self, and forms its own house, which it regulates, and in which the 
different qualities (guns) are produced. When disposed to separate 
fi'om the body it is drawn back by these qualities, as a loadstone 
r< 'tains a piece of iron, by their mutual influences ; in which situa- 
tion it remains immoveable. (Tantra). 

Some Pundits say that the soul (Jivatma ?) and the mind (manah), 
are the same essence ; as there can be no soul without mind, nor 
iiiind without the soul. 

The five elements form the five organs of sense, (IndrJya) as the 

J 2 

nose, ^rs, &c. ; the five objects of sense (Indrij^drtha), as soimd 
smell, &c. ; and the five perceptive judgments. Above these is placed 
the mind, which is incomprehensible by them, and is alone rendered 
evident through the action of the senses. These are deranged by too 
great or too little exercise, while moderate exercise retains them in 
good health. 

From these remarks it appears that the soul, the emanation from 
the deity, united with the mind and senses, perform all the vital 
actions of the body. The body, mind, and soul are considered^ 
therefore, as the three pillars which support the living system^ 


Nature of Temj)eramenfs. 

The opinion of the Hindus as to the formation, and conditioiT' 
of the world, afforded a natural means of explaining the tempera- 
ments, or peculiar qualities, of the body. The predominance of 
one or more of the humours ; and the qualities of goodness, passion, 
and inertness, explained the peculiarities of habit, and character -^ 
and, as more shades were observed, in these the simple excess of 
one or more of these agents, were explainedby their peculiar mixtures 
which produced the dispositions of the Gods, sages, demons, and the 
lower animals. The latter being only supposed to be inferior states 
of the animal body, which in a higher condition form man. These 
explain the theory of the temperaments found in Hindu Medical 

At the time of the mixture of semen and female blood whatever 
humour, whether air, bile, and phelgm, is in excess produces that 
particular temperament. Hence there are seven temperaments, 
one being produced by a.n excess of air, another of bile, and a third 
of pLlegm ; a fourth, fifth, and sixth, from an excess of two of these 
humours ; and a seventh temperament is produced by an excess of- 
tiu-ee humours, air, bile and phlegm. 

1. When air is in excess the person is not inclined to sleep, or 
to become warm. His disposition is bad, and he becomes a thief ; is 
proud, and has no honor ; is always singing and dancing ; his hands 
and feet split, his hair and nails are dry, and he is always angry and 
boisterous. He speaks untruths, he is always grinding his teeth and 
biting his nails, he is always impatient, is not a firm ftiend, is 
changeable, and forgets good actions. His body is slender and dry, 

/ 7 

lie alwaj's walks fast, is always in motion, and his eyes are always 
rolling. He dreams that he is flpng about the air, friends are few 
and his riches of little value. Such persons as have an excess of air 
liave the disposition of the goat, jackall, hare, camel, dog, vulture 
crow, and ass. 

2nd. A person with an excess of bile perspires much, and he has 
a bad smell. His skin is of a yellowish colour, his flesh is soft ; 
his nails,, eyes, pallet, tongue, lips, and the palms of his hands, 
and soles of his feet are of a copper colour ; his fortune is bad, 
and his hair becomes soon gray, the upper part of his head 
bald, and his skin wrinkled as if by age. He eats much, and 
dislikes warm articles of food, is soon angry, and is as soon pacified 
is of moderate strength, and does not live long. His memory is 
good, he is a good man of business, and speaks accurately, and ta 
the purpose. His appearance is fine, and in company he excells 
in speaking. He dreams of gold, and yellow flowers, fire, lightning 
and falling meteors, dislikes saluting a person, and is angry at 
others not doing so, is never content, &c. His disposition resembles 
serpents, owls, cats, monkies, tigers, and bears. 

3rd. Phlegm in excess produces a light greenisli or blue colour 
of tlie body. The person's fortune is propitious, he is pleasant to 
look oil and liandsome, likes sweet tilings, is grateful, constant, just, 
and forgiving, and is not covetous, is strong and understands with 
difficulty, and is an implacable enemy. His eyes are white, his hair 
is fine, black, and waving. He is wealth)-, and his voice is strong 
and loud. He dreams of lilies, geese, and large fine tanks. The 
angles of his eyes are red, his colour pleasing, and his members' 
are well formed. His regard mild, his disposition is very good 
(satwaguna), and he is charitable. He is active, honors respect- 
able persons, and is kind to them ; and knows the sciences. He' 
retains his friend, and health remains constant ; he is careful, but 
gives much. He is of the nature of Bramha, Indra, Shiva, and 
Varuna ; of lions, horses, elephants, cows, and bulls, and of the bird 
upon which Vishnu rides (Gajiira) (something between a man, and a' 
bird like a goose). 

Wlien two or three humours are in excess, they^ are known by 
the combination of the two or three classes of symptoms. 

Some suppose that the dispositian is derived from the elements 
of the body. In this case air, fire, and water resemble the temper- 
ments of air, bile, and phlegm ; and the temperament of earth 
produces a large and strong body, and the person ean suffer mncli. 
When there is an excess of pure etiier the man is holy, lives long, 
and the external openings of the body are large. The disposition 


of individuals are either satwa, raja^ or tama ; that is good, 
passionate, or inert. 

When the qualities of the Gods predominate in the embryo, the 
following will be the indications. When the qualities of the God 
Bramha predominates in the body, the person will remain clean, 
religious, and learned in the Vedas ; is charitable, hospitable, per- 
forms ceremonies, and prays to his Guru. 

If the quality of Indra be in excess in the body at conception ; 
the individual will be great, magestic, and powerful, and employs 
many dependants. 

If the qualities of neptune ( Varuna) be in excess he is always 
desirous of cool things, is patient under suffering, is of a yellowish 
colour, and his hair is like that of a lion. He speaks pleasantly or 


The qualities of the God of riches {Kuverd) predominating, 
the person will be a peace maker, have much wealth, have 
many children, will be careful, rich, and fond of collecting 

With the disposition of the God of music (^Ganddharvd) predomi- 
nates, the person will have a desire for good smelling things, and 
flowers, and will be always wishing to dance, sing, and play. 

The disposition of the angel of death ( Yamci), or judge after 
death, are as follows : The person acts agreeable to orders, and acts 
properly, has no fear, has memory, is always clear, is not angry, is 
not ignorant, has no hatred. 

The person with a disposition of the sages (Rishis) is always 
pronouncing the names of the Gods ; follows the orders of the 
shastres, and always remains pure and prays frequently. He has 
touch knowledge, especially of the arts. When the Satwa gun 
predominates in the embryo, the individual will possess these qua- 

The bad in disposition are those in whom the qualities of the demons 
(^Asuras) predominate. These persons will be very'^ rich, and inspire 
terror ; they are great warriors, fierce, and always inclined to oppress 
people. The eat once a day, and require good things and never 
perform the usual ceremonies, on such occasions. 

With the qualities of Serpents^ such persons are always hot, 
are jugglers, fearful, fierce, forget persons, and do not act fairly. 

Birds. A person with this disposition is not inclined to change 
his work ; indulges in lust, is always eating, angiy, and restless. 

Rakhyasa or Giants. Such a person is constant to one work, he 
produces fear, and calumniates^ acts unfairly' to others, and has 
much pride. 


Pihsdch or devil. The person always wants to eat the fragments 
of others meals, is of a hot disposition ; rejoices in wickedness, is 
courageous, and has no shame. 

Preta (demon). His disposition is difficult to discover. The per- 
son is always laz}-, and always wishing to act improperly, is covetous, 
and is not generous. The above six disposition have maoh passion. 

Persons with much of the qualities oi Beasts {Pashu gana), have 
a bad memory and act badly ; they are always dreaming tliat they are 
with women ; do not work themselves, and c.itice others from work. 

One with the disposition of Fish is always changing, has no sense 
is always fearful, always wants water, and will injiue others. 

Men having the disposition of Trees, always wish to remain in 
one place, are always eating, will not work. 

A physician is to notice such dispositions, and in his practice to 
act so as to remove an excess, or increase a deficiency. 



There are three ages, childhood (Balya), manhood (madhya), and 
decrepitude (vcirddlmkya). 1st. childhood extends to the loth year, 
and is distinguished by three stages :— 

a. Period of suckling to 1 year. 

b. The period in vvhich milk and rice are the food ; which extends 
to the second year. 

c. When the food is rice ; which extends from the 3rd to the 15tl» 
year, during which time Phlegm is in excess. 

2nd. Manhojd (madhya) extends from the 16th to the 70th year; 
and is divided into four periods. 

a. Vriddhi or growth, which extends from the 16th to the 20th 

b. Jauvana. From the 20th to the 30th year. 

c. Sampurnata, from the 30th to the 40th year ; when all 
the humours, senses, strength, (bala) are in their full developement. 

d. Hani, from the 40th to the 70th year ; when all the powers 
of the organs are gradually diminishing. Bile is at this period in 

3rd. Decrepitude ( Vdrddhahyd) extends from the 70th year till 
the person's death ; during which the humours, senses, strength, and 
animation diminish daily. The muscles become soft, and flaccid, 
the hair turns gray, and falls off, the body becomes bent, and the 


person is afflicted with coiigliing, asthma, and other such diseases. 
He cannot perform any work ; and other signs of decrepitude appear ; 
like an old house in the rainy season with many props. In this 
period of life, air is in excess, and nervous diseases prevail. 

It is supposed the male at 25, and the female at 16 years of age, 
arrive at their perfection in figure and strength. 

In youth and in old age, the application of fire, caustics (actual 
and potential cauteries), blisters, &c., and the use of strong purgatives 
are to be avoided ; or when required they are to be administered in 
a weaker form than usual, and administered by degrees. There are 
likewise fat, tliin, and middle sized individuals. In the first the 
humours are to be diminished ; in the second increased ; and in the 
third the humours are to be preserved in the same state. Some of 
these thin persons are strong, and fat individuals weak. Among 
all the principles of our treatment the strength of the person should 
first be observed ; as without it, the administration of many medi- 
cines, and the performance of operations is improper. 


0}i death {JSIrityu) 

Death is the separation of the soul from the body ; of which there 
are one hundred and one ways in which a person may die ; one of which 
■sX the time appointed, is natural death, which takes place about the 
hundredth year of age ; the others are accidental, which occur 
from numerous causes, as bad living, intemperance, poisons, fire, 
lightning, drowning, sin, &c. ; these are to be guarded against 
.by care, medicines, and prayers. Man is like a coaclnnan driving 
his own carriage ; if this be well made, and if he continue to drive 
-cautiously, it wiU go a long time ; but, if he drives it upon bad 
roads, the wheels will ^^t injured, and the carriage wiU be soon 
worn out. 

Should he indulge too much in the gratification of the senses, he 
will die like a deer, which is supposed to be deluded to its destruction 
by the sweet sounds of the lute which the hunters use ; should he 
indulge in lust, like the Elephant ; in sight, like the butterfiy in ap- 
proaching the lamp ; in smell, like the bee which is inclosed and 
crushed in the flower, which has attracted it by its smeU ; in taste, 
like the fish by the fisherman's hook : So beware of indulging too 
much in any of the pleasures of sense, else it will lead, in like 
manner, to your destruction ! 


Death is always near ; and when it occurs, nothing but the sins and 
virtuous actions which have been performed, accompany the soul*. 
" When a person leaves his corpse, like a log or a lump of clay, 
on the ground, his kindred retire with averted faces ; but his virtue 
accompanies his soul. Continually, therefore, let him collect virtue, 
for the sake of securing an inseparable companion with which he 
may traverse a gloom, how hard to be traversed ! For, in his passage 
to the next world, neither his father nor his mother, nor his wife, 
nor his son, nor his kinsmen, will remain in his company : his virtue 
alone will adhere to him. Single is each man born ; single he dies ; 
single he receives the reward of his good, and single the punish- 
ment of his evil deeds f ." 

The wise and foolisli, the great in rank, the low in condition, 
all die in the same way. As a rich man has more foresight than the 
poor and ignorant, so the former is more anxious about his death, 
which must happen to all ; but it is the holy man who has least 
dread of its occurrence, as being more prepared than others for the 
necessary change. 

After death, the body is like a house without a tenant ; and the 
five elements slowly separate and join their like ; the atoms of 
earth join the earth, the watery mix with water, &c. Death is there- 
fore called in Sanscrit Panchatwa, or separation and passage to the 
five elements. To promote this separation of the elements after death, 
which would be defiled if buried, and to purify them in their passage 
from the body, so as to enable the earth, air, fire, water, and ether, 
of which the body is composed, to join the mass of the same ele- 
ments which compose the world, the bodies of Hindus are burnt, 
" What then dies ? not the body, for it only changes its form ; 
and certainly not the soul ! Why then regret the death of relations 
and friends, if they have passed through life with propriety ! such 
grief is indeed natural, for it is universal, but it is the offspring of 
our igorance and our selfishness. 

As the body is continually changing in its progress through life, so 
death is merely one of these changes. The body is frail, but the 
soul is incorruptible. Some say that an infant is born, that a person 

* " A mansion infested by age and by sorrow, the seat of maladies, har- 
rassed with pains, haunted with the quahties of darkness, and incapable 
of standing long; such a mansion of the vital soul let its occupier always 
cheerfully quit" Menu, Ch. vi § 77 p. 183. 

t Menu Chap. IV § 239, 240, 241, 243. The same idea is thus ex- 
pressed in another Sanscrit work. " The wise man meditates on the ac- 
quisition of knowledge and riches, as if not subject to sickness or death ; 
and cultivates virtue as if death had already seized him by the hair." 



is dead ; that this one is the murderer, and that body the murdered i 
but these are foolish exclamations ! The body is alone destroyed, 
not the soul ; as it only changes its position, like a person who 
casts off his worn-out garments. Cutting instruments may wound 
him, water may purify him, and air may dry him up, but the soul 
remains always the same. Those who are born must die, and who- 
ever dies must be born again ; and as the elements were invisible 
and separated, before the formation of the body, in like manner 
they are again separated and dispersed upon its dissolution. 

At the moment of death the material elements of the body sepa- 
rate, and the vital soul, which has an invisible body (linga sharira), 
resembles the form of the body it had inhabited, and retains the 
organs of sense and of action. On separating from one, it joins itself 
to another, and according to the actions the person had performed 
in his former state of existence, so will be his future condition. 
As a seed of an inferior or superior order, so will the plant be ; 
thus may the soul animate a man who will grow old in a de- 
formed and diseased body ; with a mind wicked and miserable. 
This union of the liberated soul, and its juncture with the seed 
of another body, takes place immediately ; as a leech on leaving one 
piece of grass, must immediately attach itself to another. Thus 
that immutable Power, by acting and reposing alternately, revivifies 
and destroys, in eternal succession, this whole assemblage of im- 
moveable and locomotive creatures. 

Beatitude is to be obtained by the coercion of the members, by 
abstaining from hurting and afflicting, or giving pain to sentient 
creatures ; when the individual becomes fit for immortality." Menu, 
§ 60. When the vital soul has been purified by the good deeds which 
have occurred in the body, it is absorbed into that supreme essence, 
the divine soul of all beings, which withdraws his energy, and placidly 
slumbers. Menu adds — " Let him not wish for death let him not 
wish for life ; let him expect his appointed time, as a hired servant 
expects his wages." (Chap. VI. § 45, page 178). 



The Hindu sages suppose that diseases are either produced by sins 
committed in a former state of existence ; b}'^ derangements of the 
humours ; or by tlie combination of these two causes. The former 
class can only be removed by certain sacrifices, prayers, penances, 
and gifts ; the second class only, are those which may be removed by 
the emplo}Tiient of remedies. By this means, the physician knows 
that when a disease does not yield to the employment of proper re- 
medies, it must belong to the first class of diseases, and will be only 
cured by the means prescribed in such cases. The third class of di- 
seases are produced by a combination of sins and derangement of 
humours ; these require for their cure the employment of prayers, 
and of a proper course of medicine. 

The means employed by the physician for curing diseases, will be 
considered under the following heads. 

Istly — Hy geology or regimen. 

2ndly — Materia Medica and Pharmacy^ or preparation of Medi- 
cal agents ; and, 

3dly — Surgery^ or all manual applications for the cure of inju- 
ries and diseases. 



The Hindu Legislators appear to have been comdnced, at a very 
early period, of the importance of a knowledge of the means of pre- 
serving health, as we find various laws were enacted for this pur- 
pose ; and in order to enforce these precepts among a rude people, 
incapable of appreciating their importance, and disinclined to obey 

K 2 


them, religion was employed to afford its powerful assistance. This ex- 
plains the numerous precepts of Hygeine which we find in the sacred 
works of the most ancient people ; and which necessarily vary in their 
nature with the climate, and the character and habits of the people. 
In the sacred works of the Hindus, these laws are so numerous 
that it is impossible that any single individual should follow them. 
On this account they are probably more generally neglected than 
they would have been had the catalogue been less numerous. A fact 
much to be regretted, since the climate requires so much more at- 
tention to Hygeine than a more temperate one. The most important 
Hygeian precepts will be considered under the heads of relative and 
personal precepts. 

Section I. 

jRelative duties. 

Climate of India. — The extensive country known among the an- 
cients by the title of India within the Ganges, has been famous^ 
from the earliest ages, for the wisdom of its sages, the richness of 
its productions, and the fertility of its soil. It is now named Hin- 
dustan *, and is bounded by the River Indus on the west, and north 
by the Himalaya mountains ; on the south by the Indian ocean, and 
on the east by the hills and forests of Assam. From the magnifi- 
cent range of Mountains in the north, Hindustan consists mostly of 
extensive plains, which possess a rich and black loam, consisting 
of clay with a considerable proportion of silicious sand, fertilized by 
various salts, and by decayed animal and vegetable matter where it is 
watered by the Ganges. In other parts of the Panjab, in Bengal, and 
the adjacent provinces, there is a considerable extent of clayey soil. 
In Sind and Gujerat the soil is sandy, and in Malwa a rich deep black 
mould prevails. The soil is generally unproductive in Gundwana, 
andOrissa ; and near the coasts, of the Malabar and Coromandel sides, 
the soil is sandy and generally very poor, while the Table land of 
the Peninsula of India is generally fertile. The eastern part of Hin- 
dustan is intersected by numerous branches of large rivers, which 

♦ The word Hind^ from whence Hindu and Hindustan are derived, is 
of Persian origin, from Hindu, black, or dark and st'han, a place, or 
country of blacks. Others suppose it may have been derived from Hind^ 
the supposed son of Harris the son of Noah. 


irrigate the rich plains of Bahar, and at not a very distant period 
seems to have formed, from its rich deposits, the large, flat and fruit- 
ful province of Bengal, to which the following remarks principally 
apply :— 

In the Hindu medical works three climates are mentioned, the 
moist, the hot, and the mixed, or temperate. 

The moist comitr}- ( Anupa) is distinguished by having much water 
upon its surface, by being intersected by rivers and being irre- 
gular in its surface, with high mountains, and tall trees. In such 
a climate the air is cool, and the wind temperate. There lillies 
and other water flowers abound ; geese, ducks, cranes, and other 
such birds are common ; and fish and serpents are numerous. In 
such a situation the inhabitants are unhealth}', and are short-lived. 
There diseases of air and phlegm abound, and the inhabitants are 
fat, indolent, and weak. In such situations the juices of the 
body require to be dried by the use of hot, dr}', and light food, in 
small quantities ; so as to strengthen the internal fire. 

The second or Hilly country (Jangala), is characterized by the 
heat of the air, and by the prevalence of hot winds, by large and 
arid plains covered with dwarf trees and prickly slirubs, growing 
at a distance from each other. In such a country there is little 
water upon the surface, and it can only be obtained by digging wells. 
In such a climate the bamboo, the akanda (Calotropis gigantea), the 
kul (Zizyphus Jujuba), Yagyadumur (Ficus glomerata), the Gab and 
Kenduka (DiospjTOs glutinosa and Diospyros melanoxylon), and the 
like trees are found. The inhabitants of such climates are remark- 
able for having little muscle, for having large bones, and being good 
workmen. The diseases of air and bile are most frequent -, but the 
climate is healthy, and the inhabitants are long-lived. 

When the two above climates are found in the same country it 
is called mixed, or temperate (Sadlidrana). The heat and cold are 
more equable, the derangements of the air, bile, and phlegm are 
equalized, and the climate is favourable to life. The inhabitants of 
such a fortunate region are stronger, more vigorous and healthy, 
than in either of the other two climates. It is, however, worthy of 
remark that a person who is attentive to his regimen may live with 
impunity in any of the above climates. 

When a person is born in a particular climate, and has air, bile, 
and phlegm deranged, on going to a worse one, the derangement of 
the humom-s increases and will destroy the person ; or if he 
journies to another and better climate the tendency to disease will 
be removed. 

Whatever is the custom of a climate as to food, clothing, &c.. 


is to be followed, when the change will not produce any bad effect. 
If the disease is recent, and the individual strong, it will be cured 
easily ; but this will be retarded or promoted, by the predisposition 
of the climate and season to affect such diseases. A complicated 
disease will always be cured with great difficulty. When one 
remedy does not produce the expected good effect, another should 
be substituted for it. But if a remedy does some good, it should 
be continued, in preference to a hundred others which have not been 
tried. If no other treatment can be devised in such severe diseases, 
the one adopted should be continued. The remedies must be varied 
according to the climate, seasc«i, age, and constitution of the 
affected person. If this is not observed, bad effects will follow, and 
other disorders will be produced. 

Time (kala) like a God is produced perfect in root, stem, and 
branches. It has neither beginning nor end ; or is like a wheel which 
is always turning. It produces life and death, and the good and 
bad qualities of every thing, excepting that indistinguishable some- 
thing, called the ultimate elements of the world (Param^nu), from 
whence another world wiU be ultimately formed. 

2nd. Of Time and of the seasons. Time is divided as foUows :— 
15 winks of the eye are equal to a kashtha ; 30 kashtha 1 Kala ; 20 
kaMs 1 Muhiirta ; and 30 Muhurtas to a day and a night ; 15 days 
1 Pakhsa or fortnight ; one of which is the dark (Krishna) and the 
other light (Shukla) ; 2 Paksha 1 month (masa); 2 months are equal 
to one Ritu or season ; 3 Ritu 1 Ayana ; 2 Ayana 1 year ; and five 
years make one Yug. The sun forms the distinguishing qualities of 
the seasons. It dries the Earth, which is softened by the moon ; and 
with the assistance of wind it promotes the growth, and life of 
organized matter. 

Seasons {ritu) are divided into uttardyana, when the sun is sup-- 
posed to be north of the equator; and Dakhsindyana, the six 
months when it is supposed to be south of the equator. 

The seasons are six in number, each consisting of two siderial 
months each. The succession of them is always the same ; but the 
vicissitudes of climate in them will depend on the position of the 
Equinoctial colure. Sometimes the year is reckoned by Ayana, 
from September (Shravan), and January (m^gha). 

a. Cold Months, Shishira, (Magha and Phalguna or January and 
February), during which warm clothing is to be used. Air is in excess 
during this season ; when the broths of animals, fish, amphibious 
animals, and substances mixed with ghee, are to be taken. The wine 
called Sidhu is to be used, and honey mixed with water ; milk and 
different sweetmeats j fat, and new rice j and warm water is always to 


be used. The body should be well rubbed with oil, which should also 
be applied to the head. The person should sleep in a room near the 
centre of the house, so as to be warm, and removed from the wind. 
Warm clothing should always be used during this season. The 
food should be in small quantities, and hot and dry substances 
should be avoided. 

h. Spring Months^ Vasaiifa (March and April). All orga- 
nized bodies are generated during this, or the spring season. The 
-air is then clear, flowers are numerous, and the country looks beau- 
tiful, with the new leaves on the trees ; and man is cheered by the 
song of birds and the hiun of bees. The south wind now begins to 
blow. In this season the phlegm predominates, and its diseases ap- 
pear. The internal fire is diminished. Emetics and purgatives should 
be employed, and hea^^, oily, and sweet substances are to be avoid- 
ed, and sleeping in the day time should also be guarded against. 
Bodily exercise should be used. Tepid water should be used for 
every purpose, and the body should be rubbed with sandal and other 
fragrant woods. Use barley and wheat, the flesh of deer, hares, and 
wild fowls. Drink sidhu and Mada (wine) and reside in a gar- 
den with women. 

c. Hot Months, Ghrishma, (May and June), The hot season, in 
which the rays of the sun are powerful, with warm wind from the 
south, which makes this season oppressive and unpleasant, increases 
air, produces debility, and affects even the understanding. The earth 
becomes hot and dry, the rivers diminish, the water is warm and light, 
and the earth appears to smoak. Birds and deer proceed in search 
of water ; and the juice of plants is raised, and their qualities are 
diminished ; creepers, grass, and the leaves of trees are diminished 
and fall off", dried and decayed. 

During this season the diseases of air prevail. In it use cool 
liquids and food prepared with ghee. Drink different sherbets, 
•and use broth of wild animals and birds ; eat rice with milk and 
ghee ; by which means a person wiU not lose his strength. Little 
wine is to be used, and always mixed with much water. Salt, acid, 
and hot things are to be avoided. Do not take much exercise. 
Reside in a cool garden with a large tank and flowers ; avoid ex- 
cesses in venery. Sleep during the day in a cool room, and at 
night repose in the upper rooms, and use the hand pankha (fan) 
sprinkled with sandal wood and water. 

d. The Rainy season, Varshd (July and August). During this sea- 
son the sky is loaded with clouds ; the wind easterly, with much light- 
ning and thunder ; new grass and leaves appear ; the rainbow is beau- 
tiful J numerous graceful creepers of the class of convolvulus appear, 


of various colours, white, blue, and pink. The banks of the rivers, 
and the trees upon them are broken away by the force of the torrents ; 
the tanks and lakes are adorned by varied coloured lilies ; much 
clear water continues upon the surface of the earth, and vegetation 
proceeds rapidly. There are many clouds which obscure the sun 
and planets, and much rain falls. Towards the end of the season 
there is little thunder. The clouds diminish the light and heat, 
and with the water of the moon (dew), reduce the juices of living 
animals, and their strength. Water is impure, during this season ; 
the body is soft, the cold damp air aifects the strength of the inter- 
nal fire, and the food is burnt in the body, by the increased 
quantity of bile. 

In Varsha the appetite is diminished by the derangement of 
the humours, caused by the heat and moisture ; and new water 
has an acid quality. The food should be sparingly given, and 
should neither be too hot nor very cold ; sleeping in the day time 
and exposure to the climate are to be avoided, as also the use of 
river water. Too much exercise, exposure to the sun, and venery 
are to be avoided. Water mixed with honey is to be used, and in 
a cloudy day take food mixed with salt, acids, and ghee ; barley, 
wheat, and old rice are to be used, with the broths of wild animals 
and fowls. The wine of grapes, and fresh water which has been 
boiled, are to be drunk. Anoint the body with fragrant oil, and bathe 
daily ; use light and white clothes, and live in a high and dry house. 

5 The Moist Season, Sharat, (September and October). During 
this season the sky is overcast with white clouds, and the tanks are 
full of water lilies. The earth is covered with salt, and many trees 
are rooted up and die. The surface of the earth appears irregular. 

During this season the sky is clean, with white broken clouds ; 
the air is sultry, the moisture on the ground dries, the sun's rays 
increase in strength ; and by the changes in temperature bile and 
cough produce diseases. In this season the water is pure, and may 
be used freely for bathing, and for drinking. Vegetation is 
vigorous, the country beautiful ; and food produced during this 
season is not good, but is improved by keeping, if it admits of this. 
The lakes are covered with lilies, reeds, and white flowers. Ducks, 
&c., abound. 

Diseases of the Bile prevail in this season. The food and drink 
to be used should be light, cool and sweet ; with tonic and bitter 
articles. Such food as wild fowls, hares, and animals of the same 
kind ; mutton is also good, with rice, barley, wheat, and the like. 
Use purgative medicines and blood-letting ; while exposure to the sun 
and heat and night air are to be avoided, more particularly the east 


wind ; sleeping during the day, too, is to be avoided ; as also fat, oil, 
fish, the flesh of amphibious animals, and acids. The clothes should 
be light, and clean. 

6 Cold season, Haimanta (November and December). The water 
during this season becomes clear, cool, and heavy. The rays of the 
sun dimmish in influence ; and phlegm is increased, as is exemplified 
in its discharge from the nose, from colds. 

The Bilious diseases, which were common during the last season, 
diminish during the present, in which healthy, cool, northerly airs 
prevail. A mistiness hangs over tanks and rivers, like clothes which 
cover the body. The cows, sheep, buftaloes, and elephants look clean, 
and several trees such as priyangu, punnaga, &c., are in flower. 

The seven last days of one season, and the seven first of the new 
one, are called ritusandhi (the junction of seasons). During this time 
the regimen of the former is gradually to be left off, and that of 
the succeeding one substituted. 

Diseases from Bile are cured by the cold season ; those from phlegm 
diminish in the hot season, and from air during the moist months. 
The morning is like the spring season, noon like the hot, and even- 
ing like the rainy season. The same changes occur in the night ; the 
first watch being like the rainy season ; the second like the moist ; and 
the morning watch, like the cold season. In these times, air, bile, 
and phlegm increase like the seasons ; and in the process of digestion 
they increase in the same manner ; during the first stage phlegm 
predominates, then bile, and lastly air. 

The irregularities of the seasons produce an unfavourable effect on 
health, and both food, water, and medicines lose their good effects, 
and various diseases are produced. It is during these irregularities 
that plagues appear, devils rage, and sin prevails. Poisonous air often 
produces the same effects. The odours of flowers mixed with poison- 
ous air produces derangements of phlegm, difficult breathing, vomit- 
ing, discharges from the mouth and nose, headache, and fever. There 
is an influence of planets and stars, from the bad situation of dwelling 
houses, the place in which persons sleep and sit, and the diseases 
of the horse upon which he rides, is liable to effect the rider. These 
are to be prevented by changing the person's residence, by prayers, 
by the removal of sin, by different sacrifices and ceremonies, by 
the intercession of Brahmins, and by visiting holy places. 

In these remarks we have the evidence of considerable correct- 
ness of observation ; as the increased communicating power of moist air, 
the unhealthy nature of certain situations, for preventing or curing dis- 
eases ; in which a change of situation is very properly recommended. 
But these remarks are mixed up with false statements, from the de- 

9Q ' 

sire of' the writer to explain all difficulties by superstitious fan- 
cies ; thus whenever a child is attacked with sickness, it is supposed 
to be produced by the attack of certain devils ; such as graha, asura, 
rakhyas, bhuta, &c. ; to relieve which different prayers (mantras) 
and ceremonies are performed, with generally the addition of certain 

When a disease continues long, the situations of planets and 
stars are calculated ; by which the long continuance of the disease 
is explained, and for the relief of which certain ceremonies and gifts 
are performed. 

The heat of the fire cures diseases of air and phlegm. It also re- 
moves passing pains. It promotes the dejections, and removes 
shivering and discharges from the nose, mouth, and eyes. It in- 
creases the diseases of blood and bile, and during sleep retains 
the humours in a good state ; it improves the colour of the body, 
strengthens it, removes dozing, and promotes happiness and in- 
ternal warmth. 

The heat of the sun when very strong, is drying ; and promotes 
perspiration, faintness, giddiness, thirst, and the heat of the 
body. It increases the bad smell of the body, deepens the dark 
colour of the skin ; and increases the diseases of the bile, and 

Shadows remove the bad effects of heat, as they have a sedative, 
cooling, and pleasant quality. 

The smoke of fire increases bile and air. 
Dew and mist increase phlegm and air. 
Moonlight cures diseases of blood and bile. 
Rain increases strength, is cooling, increases semen, sleep, lan- 
guor, phlegm, and air. 

Easterly wind increases phlegm, is cold, has a saltish quality, and 
is heavy. It diminishes appetite, increases laziness, the heat of 
the body, and strength. It produces diseases of the blood and 
bile, is bad for those with sores, or who are affected with poison, 
and diseases of phlegm. It removes the derangements of air. It is 
good for persons fatigued, and it diminishes the form of consumption 
produced by phlegm. It also give strength, and softens the body. 
A Southerly wind is pleasant, does not produce heat, and has a light 
and sedative quality. It is good for the eyes and strength, it 
cures diseases of blood and bile, and the air is not deranged by it. 
Westerly wind increases internal heat, dries the body, and di- 
minishes the bulk of the body and strength ; it produces a roughness 
of the skin, diminishes the strength, and health. It dries up phlegm 
and fat. Northerly wind is soft, cooling, light, agreeable, and slightly 


sedative. It promotes the dejections, and increases diseases of air, 
bile, and phlegm. In healthy individuals it increases the phlegm, and 
the strength. It is good for severe cough with bloody sputa, for 
diseases from poisons, and does not derange the humours. 

The air from Pankhas, removes faintness, thirst, perspiration, 
ftitigue, and heat. The Tul Paukha (common hand pankha) and 
chowry and cloth pankahs, cure deranged air, bile, and plilegm j are 
cooling, and increase happiness. 

There are three prevailing seasons in Bengal, the cold, hot, and 
rainy seasons. From the end of February, and during March and a 
part of April, may be considered as spring mouths, and are the most 
agreeable of any of the year. Towards the end of March, and during 
the months of April, May, and a part of June the weather is very 
hot ; and in the northern and more inland provinces a violent hot 
wind blows from the west, loaded with ahuost imperceptible par- 
ticles of sand. In this season the weather is so oppressive as to 
confine the inhabitants to their houses, during the great heat of 
the day. Vegetation is destroyed, and these provinces are reduced 
to a burning tract of sand ; while the air of the neighbouring 
mountains remains cool and pleasant, during these hot months. 

In the upper provinces the rains begin in April and May ; but 
in the plains they do not commence till the beginning of June, and 
continue to full till the end of July. The rain disperses the 
accumulated heat, which would otherwise be insupportable. During 
the months of August and September the rain falls less frequently 
and copiously, and the long day and high altitude of the sun, with 
an atmostphere loaded with moisture, render the weather excessively 
oppressive and sultry ; particularly when the air is calm, which is of 
frequent occurrence, as the Monsoon changes at this time. The cold 
season commences in the month of October, when dews are heavy ; 
the cold increases, and during the months of November, December, 
and January, it is often intense in Bengal and Behar. In these pro- 
vinces the cold has generally a damp disagreeable feel, whereas, in 
the northern and western provinces, snow and ice are common on 
the Mountains, and the air is dry and bracing. 

From such an extensive country, and variety of soil and climate, 
the vegetable and animal productions are of the most varied des- 
cription in the different latitudes, heights, and exposures ; and man 
himself affords great varieties in his physical and mental powers in 
the different situations and climates in which he resides. In the 
Northern Provinces of Hindustan, the men are tall, strong, and 
active, and are distinguished by their courage and mental qualities ; 
as we advance to the more sultry and moist climate of Bengal, the 



inhabitants become of lower stature, possess greater agility, and are 
capable of enduring great fatigue, have little courage or mental 
aptitude, but great cunning and retentiveness. They are generally 
of a fair olive colour, handsome in their youth, and in after life in 
proportion to their rank, and healthy and guarded occupation ; but 
become of a dark olive colour and plain exterior, in proportion as 
they inhabit low and damp houses, live on unhealthy food, and are 
much exposed to labour, and to the inclemency of the weather* 
In general the head and face of the Hindu are small and oval, the 
nose and lips prominent and well formed, the eyes black, and the 
eyebrows regular, and full *. The females are distinguished for the 
gracefulness of their forms, the softness of their skins, their long 
and black hair, dark eyes, and delicate persons. These peculiarities 
are marked in youth, but rapidly fade. The fairness of the skin 
also differs — depending on that of the parents, and on the occu- 
pation and exposure of the individual to the sun, &c. 

Section II. 

Personal Duties. 

The practitioner should give instructions to persons not only as to 
themanner of curing, but also of preventing the occurrence ofdiseasef . 

The following remarks will be considered under the heads of 
duties — a rising from bed in the morning ; b cle aning the mouth ; 
c anointing the body ; d exercise, shampooing, and rubbing the 
body ; e bathing, f clothing, g food, and h sleeping |. 

* The intelligence of the Bengalis is much more marked in the higher 
classes than among the lower. In the former, the brisk and intelligent 
boy, that receives instruction readily, is fickle and restless; and from the 
short period he attends school, from the enervating nature of the 
climate, and the vitiating influence of Hindu Society, is too often trans- 
formed into the stupid and sensual man. 

•\ Bodies are cleansed by water, the mind is purified by birth, the 
vital spirit by theology and devotion, and the understanding, by know 
ledge (Manu. p. 161. ch. v. §109. 

I So careful were the Hindu authors of the regimen of the sick, that 
they even noted the hour at which the disease commenced, the length of 
time to he devoted to sleep in diiferent diseases ; how often the pa- 
tient is to clean his teeth, and wash his mouth ; and the kind of house 
in which he should reside. Such particulars captivate the iguorant pati- 
ent and his friends, who fancy the practitioner possesses a great extent of 
knowledge from the care with which these trifles are attended to, while 
they often neglect important indications. 


a. It is proper to rise from bed sometime before sun-rise, to 
perform the duties of nature, with the face towards the north. 

b. After these duties the teeth are to be cleaned with a piece of 
a fresh branch of the nim or catechu tree, and the mouth and eyes 
and face are to be cleaned with water. Should these not be got, 
branches of any other kind of wood, not hollow, may be used. 
Persons are not to clean the teeth when it produces vomiting, 
when the food is not properly digested (ajirna), in diarrhaea (atisar), 
in shiil, in diseases of the teeth, during the first eight days of fever, 
in asthma (shwasa), when the mouth is dry, in cough, in epilepsy in 
fainting, in headache, and in diseases of the eyes. The teeth shoidd 
not be cleaned before the tenth year of the child's age. 

When a powder is used for cleaning the teeth it is to be formed of 
honey, long pepper, black pepper, and dry ginger, &c. This is used 
daily, and a soft brush of the above wood may be used. Cleaning the 
teeth promotes appetite and happiness. 

For cleaning the tongue, a piece of gold, silver, or wood ten 
finger's breadth in length, with a thin edge, may be used as a scraper. 

The mouth is to be washed with water, ghee, oil, or the like ; 
which strengthens the teeth, and promotes appetite. 

c. The Hindus, and all Asiatics, anoint their bodies daily with 
oil, more especially their heads, ears, and feet ; which they suppose 
is conducive to health, by increasing good fortune, improving 
the colour and softness of the skin, increasing happiness, sleep, life, 
strength, and curing perspiration, bad smells, and lassitude. It 
also diminislics the diseases of air and phlegm, increases the seven 
dhatu, and improves the marrow, and tlie colour of the skin, and the 
organs of sense. It also cures diseases of the feet, prevents painful 
cramps of the fingers ; and as long as the head is kept moistened 
with oil, it prevents headache, improves the hair, and prevents its 
becoming gray. In all cases in which bathing is to be avoided, 
the anointing of the body will be advantageous to the person's health. 

Mustard, or any other fragrant oil, is used for anointing the body. 
Anointing the face with sweet smelling oils, as females often do, 
retains the eyes healthy, and the face soft and pure, the mouth and 
lips like the lily, the eyelashes beautiful, and the skin clear like 
light. Using such, increases riches, children, and other desirable 
objects. Anointing the ears prevents deafness, &c., and the diseases 
of the nape of the neck, and of the condyles of the jaw. Anoint- 
ing the feet improves the eyesight, and prevents the feet from 
cracking. The Body should not be anointed at the beginning of fever, 
when the food is not digested, or after purging, vomiting, and 
enemas. The Hebrews, in like manner, especially their females, 


made much use of oil ; and it was considered by them as a mark 
of esteem, and honor to offer oil to those that went to see them, so 
that they might anoint their heads *. The modern method of anoint- 
ing the head at the coronation of kings is derived from this custom. 

The hot climate and slight clothing, and exposure to a burning 
sun, increases the action of the cutaneous vessels, and renders the 
skin hard and dry ; and if perfect cleanliness is not observed, it be- 
comes incrusted with its own discharges, and with foreign matter 
which irritates the part, and prevents the proper action of this unpor- 
tant organ. To prevent such a consequence, oil is ordered to be rub- 
bed over the surface before it has been washed, by which it is ren- 
dered soft, and pliant ; it also promotes an equable perspiration, and 
an excessive degree is avoided which would weaken the body. 
Whenever the Hindu feels indisposed, the body is anointed with oil, 
on the same principle that Solomon, in his Proverbs, speaks of admi- 
nistering ointment, " which rejoices the heart, which may be a heal- 
ing medicine to the navel, &c". In this case the oil was mixed with 
other vegetable oils to render its effects more permanent. The 
metallic oxyds were sometimes added so as to form ointments, 
liniments, and plasters. The latter medicines giving them a due 
consistence by their drying effects on the oils. 

Several oils are prepared with those medicinal plants which are used 
internally, and are applied externally in different cases of disease ; 
especially in old fevers, spasmodic, paralytic, rheumatic diseases, 
in affections of the mind, as madness, &c. ; and these oils are sup- 
posed by the Hindus to be thus used more advantageously than 
when given internally. Medicines keeping the feet and the outlets 
of the body clean, promote health, and are good for the eyes and 
skin. After the person has adjusted his dress, prayers are to be 
offered up to the gods. 

d. Exercise increases strength, prevents and cures diseases, by 
equalizing the humours; it prevents fatness and laziness, and strength- 
ens the firmness of the body. It removes grief, increases the 
internal fire, and the body becomes lighter, more vigorous, and 
ready to work. If daily used, it prevents the bad effects of indi- 
gestible and unusual articles of food, and fat food so desired. 
Walking is always to be used, particularly by those persons 
who live on rich food ; such exercise is to be used evening and 
morning, especially in the cold and spring months, while fatigue 
is avoided. 

Persons with diseases ofthe blood and bile, with fever, difficulty of 
breathing, dizziness, asthma, fatigue, and all kinds of cough, and 

* See Luke vii. v. 46. 


dryness of the body, should avoid exercise. When the mouth is 
always dry, with difficulty of breathing ; in diseases of the air and 
bile, in boyhood and old age, after eating, and before the food is 
thoroughly digested, or when there are sores upon the body, exer- 
cise is to be avoided. When reduced in flesh by lust, such exercise 
tires and increases fever, phlegm and thirst ; and increases diseases 
of the blood and bile. Should much exercise be taken, it produces 
cough, fever, and vomiting ; after exercise quietude is proper, as it 
increases strength, cures a superabundance of fat, and removes the 
feeling of fatigue. 

e. Shampooing cures diseased phlegm, air, and fat ; the members 
are retained healthy, as well as the skin, and it increases internal 
heat. Rubbing the body is pleasant, cures amasiay improves the 
skin, and the body feels light ; it also cures itching, small pimples, 
diseased air, and impurities in the abdomen. If the body be rub- 
bed with a brush, the fire of the skin will be increased, and perspi- 
ration then cures itching, and small tubercles. The nails, beard, 
mustachoes, and hair are to be cut every fifth day. The hair is to 
be combed and cleaned, which improves health. 

/. Bathing. There are several kind of baths (sweda). The fol- 
lowing are the most common: — 1st. Cold bathing removes the inor- 
dinate heat of the body, fatigue, perspiration, itchiness, thirst, and 
promotes happiness and pleasure. It removes the impurities of 
the body, clears the senses, removes drowsiness and sin, increases 
semen, retains the blood pure, and increases the internal heat. If 
warm water is poured on the head, it is not good for the eyes ; but 
the use of cold water strengthens vision. Bathing in very cold 
water in the winter deranges phlegm and air, and during the hot 
season warm bathing increases bile and blood. Bathing is not 
proper in diarrhoea {atisur), in tlie beginning of fever, in diseases 
of the ear, or in those of the air, in swellings of the abdomen, in 
indigestion, and after eating. Bathing the feet is to be used for 
removing impurities, local diseases, and fatigue. It retains the 
eyes clean, increases semen, and prevents the approach of devils. 
Independent persons, such as rich merchants, bankers, talukdars 
and others, generally bathe at 10 or 11 o'clock, and after perform- 
ing these ceremonies they breakfast. Shop-keepers, day-labourers, 
&c. eat, at 10 o'clock, a handful of rice which has been moistened 
for half an hour in water, or a handful of gram moistened, and do 
not generally bathe till after 12, 2, or even 3 o'clock. There are 
some who bathe twice or thrice a day, but they are few in number. 
This description applies to the male inhabitants of towns. The 
higher class of females seldom bathe in rivers, but do so in 


tanks, in their respective gardens; or in warm water, between 10 
and 1 1 o'clock. "Widows of the lower class are not strict, and do 
not observe the rules of the Shastras regarding bathing.* 

The cold bath is used in some inflammatory fevers, and in mad- 
ness {unmddd) ; and locally in some external inflammatory swellings 
{vrand) . 

2nd. Avagdha sweda, or warm water bath. It is prepared with 
several medicinal plants, and is used either locally or generally ; for 
relieving pain, in different kinds of fevers, spasmodic affections, &c. 

3rd. Vapour Baths {TJshmd sweda) are much employed by the 
Bengahs, more particularly for removing pain. They are made by 
heating a quantity of water in an earthen pot, over which a hd had 
been placed. The patient is first well rubbed with oil, and then 
sits on a chair over the pot of hot water, with a covering of 
clothes thrown over both. When any particular part of the body 
is pained, this only is exposed to the steam bath, and in other cases 
medicinal plants are added to increase the good effects of the remedy, 
as milk, nim leaves, and other such drugs. 

4th. TJpandha sweda or hot cataplasms of medicinal plants. 
These are made into a paste, heated, and applied locally to relieve 
pain. In other cases these medicines are applied locally, with hot 
vapour. A tube is used to convey the vapour to the diseased part. 

5th. Tdpa sweda is the frequent application of a hot hand, a 
heated cloth, or a bag filled with hot sand or salt.f It is used 
for relieving local pain, and for promoting the warmth of the body, 
when it becomes cold, in any disease. 

After bathing apply Simnd, or antimony, to the edges of the 
eyelids ; which improves the sight, clears the itchiness, or any 
unhealthy humors of the eyes, and prevents the bad effects of the 

* The Hindu men and women may be seen proceeding towards the 
sacred Ganges in the cool of the day, the one with his small copper 
lota, the other with her antique earthen pot perched upon her head, 
amidst the rustling of the beautiful palm trees, which almost hide the 
graceful cupolas of the neighbouring temples. After washing their 
heads with some of the mud and water of the Ganges, they proceed 
to clean their teeth with the branch of a tree which they have brought 
with them. They then wash their bodies, using mud for soap, fill their 
vessels with water, and return home. 

f In some cases the earth is heated, and a plantain leaf is extended 
over it, upon which the person lies. 


glare of the sun, and the diseases of the eyes in general. Persons should 
not use Surma who have sat up during the night, who are much 
fatigued, who have vomited, who have eaten recentl}^ or are feverish. 
Medicines are sometimes added for increasing some particular 

g. Clothing. After bathing, the body is to be well rubbed with 
a piece of clean cloth, which produces a good colour of the skin. 
Silk, and warm red clothes diminish the diseases of air and phleo-m 
and should be used in the winter season. The clothes should be 
light, cool, and thin during the hot weather. In rainy and cold wea- 
ther, warm white clothes of a medium thickness are to be used. Care 
must be taken always to wear clean clothes, which is good for the 
skin, looks well, and promote happiness and longevity. 

A piece of cotton cloth tied round their middle is all the clothino- 
the poorer classes of natives ha^■e ; it is only when they appear in 
public that they add the turban, or piece of cloth to cover their heads 
and shoulders. The turban defends the head from heat and cold 
and prevents the determination of the humours to the head. If 
the person continually he will live long, and his head wiU 
remain clear, and cool. A single piece of coarse cotton cloth, seve- 
ral yards in length, is the usual dress of females. Such clothes, 
particularly with the addition of ornaments, prevent the approach 
of the Rakshyasa^ or devils, increase strength (ojas), improve good 
fortune, and retain the heart happy and contented. Sandals are 
to be put upon the feet to strengthen, and to protect them. 

A paste of sandal wood, and other fragrant drugs, is then to be 
rubbed over the fore head, chest, and upper extremities. A prayer 
is oflered up to God, and gifts presented to the Brahmins. 

The Umbrella protects the person from rain, wind, and dust ; it 
diminishes perspiration, protects him from the influence of dew, 
retains the colour of the skin and eyes, and promotes health. A 
stick protects the person against beasts, and it prevents fatigue. 

h. The Native Houses are well adapted for the climate, being 
raised from the ground by prepared earth ; with which the walls are 
likewise formed, and a thick thatch covers it, and extends beyond 
the walls so as to form a protection from the heavy rains. They are 
usually well ventilated in consequence of a space being left between 
the walls, and the thatch. These houses are divided into apartments 
to suit the convenience of the family, and the mud walls and thatched 
roof keeps them in an equable temperature. In consequence of the 
unsettled state of many parts of the country, the houses of a family 
or tribe are usually built in the form of a square, or a series of 
squares, for their mutual protection. The open central space is 


9S ' 

usually kept clean, and is covered above, in days of festivity, when 
the prescribed ceremonies are performed to their tutelar Gods, 
placed in a separate house on the north side of the square. In some 
parts of the country their houses are made of sun-burnt or fire- 
burnt bricks, and the houses are often two, or more stories high. 
In many parts of the country the houses or villages are fortified 
to protect them from wild beasts, and from their enemies. 

i. Diet, The Hindu medical writers usually commence the cure 
of a disease by arranging the diet that is to be followed by the sick 
person. So much do the Hindu Physicians rely upon diet that they 
declare that most diseases may be cured by following carefully, 
dietetic rules * ; and if a patient does not attend to his diet, a 
hundred good medicines will not remove the disease. The general- 
ity of diseases being supposed to be produced by derangement of the 
humours, if one or more are morbidly increased in quantity, their 
indications of cure are commenced by promoting the just balance 
of the elements and humours, by a judicious choice of aliments, and 
by such means as assist the vital principle on the completion of 
the assimilation. On this account they have not only been careful 
in describing the regimen, but also the food and drink for the 
different seasons, and even the vessels in which tliey should be 

Food gives strength, and colour to the body, and the essential part 
of life {ojas). It also supports the heat of the body, increases and 
diminishes the humours, retains these in their equilibrium ; keeps the 
person happy, the senses active, and the memory i;etentive> while 
it supports life, and promotes longevity. 

The different articles of food which are employed to nourish 
the body will be considered under the head of general remarks on 
food derived from the vegetable, and animal kingdoms ; with a few 
remarks on condiments ; under which will be considered articles 
derived from the mineral kingdom, including water and medicinal 
liquids. The form in which food is taken into the body will vary its 
effects upon the system ; but some articles of food are always whole- 
some, even from birth to old age ; as water, milk, rice, ghee, &c. 
A second kind is always dangerous to health as fire, escharotics, and 
poisons ; the one burning the part, the second destroying it, and 
the third killing the individual. 

* Or as Raglivi expresses the same opinion, as the heading of one 
of his chapters " de ciboruin delcctu, sive de inethodo curandi niorhos 
(juamplures per opportunum ciborum genus, sine ope remediorum. 
Op. omnia, T. 11 p. 530. 


Some substances are injurious to the sjstem when mixed and 
pi-epared in a particular manner, when they become like poison : 
Thus pumpkins, mushrooms, bamboo-shoots, plumbs, dried vegeta- 
bles, unleavened bread, goats or sheeps flesh, pigs flesh, salt, spirits, 
wlien eaten, or drank with milk, resemble poison. Sometimes 
articles of food act on the humours favourably or unfavourably, ac- 
cording to the state of the body. One article will be good for deran- 
ged air, and anotlier bad for deranged bile, &c. Again the state of the 
article will modify its effects. Red rice, which grows in the cold sea- 
son, wheat, barley, and other grain of the same kind are good, and pre- 
serve health ; whereas rice which has sprouted, tndsh kaldy (Phaseolus 
radiatus), fat, honey, milk, j agree, when eaten with the flesh of do- 
mestic or amphibious animals, or with fish, are so bad as to resemble 
poison. Milk with honey, and vegetables in general should not be 
used together. Pepper and a kind of vegetable called kaka'machi 
are notto be used ; as also honej^, and hot water. When animal 
food is to be used, the bile is to be carefully evacuated, or it will 
derange the person's health. 

Butter-milk, with honey, ghee, a variety of fishes, and the flesh 
of deer, arenot to be eaten together ; fish and milk, or its prepara- 
tions, or fish and sugar, and its preparations ; hogs-flesh prepared 
with honey, are to be avoided ; plantains with butter milk, curdled 
milk, or milk with sour fruits, before or after eating, are improper. 
Pigeons fried with mustard oil ; honey mixed with rain water, and 
kept in brass pots for ten days, should be avoided. These remarks 
are particularly applicable to boys and strong persons, and those 
who take violent exercise. 

2nd. Food may act unfavourably by the quantity which is taken. 
Thus honey and ghee, oil and marrow, or honey and water, oil and 
ghee, or fat, are bad when eaten in large and equal proportions. 

3rd. The following mixtures of articles possessing certain tastes 
are improper, as sweet and sour articles, sweet and salt, sweet and 
pungent, sweet and bitter substances, or bitter and salt articles. 
Such mixtures should therefore he carefully avoided ; as they form 
bad chyle, and thus the appetite &c. is deranged. Such mixtures, 
however, will not injure the health of the young and strong, those 
who live in a pure air and take much exercise ; and those ac- 
customed to their use, by whom they may be eaten in small quantities 
with impunity. But in ordinary circumstances, when their bad 
effects are felt, recourse must he had to the use of emetics and 
purgatives, and such medicines as have a tendency to equalize the 
humours. The articles of food which are wholesome from mixture, 
and preparation ; are those which derange air, and diminish bile. The 

M 2 


opposite articles of food which moderate air, and derange bile, are 
unwholesome. By improper mixtures wholesome articles of food 
may become as poisons. But the kind of food to be used must be 
varied according to the age, habits, and seasons as well as to the 
individual's idiosyncrasy. 

There are four forms in which food may be taken — one 
kind is taken without being chewed as drinks (pita) ; another is 
lapped (lirha) ; another sucked (chtishya) ; and another kind of food 
is chewed (katita). 

According to Charaka there are six varieties of food. 

1. Soft food (bhojya) as rice, &c. 

2. Soft sweetmeats (bhakhya). 

3. Hard food (charbya), that requires chewing to prepare it 
for digestion. 

4. Drinks (Peya). 

5. Liquids that are lapped (lehya). 

6. Food that is sucked (Chushya), such as mangoes, sugar- 
cane, &e. 

Food and medicines are also- divided into six different classes,, 
according to their effects on the senses. These are into sweet, acid^ 
salt, bitter, pungent, and astringent. These tastes are however^ 
modified by disease. 

a. Sweet articles of food increase the semen, the milk, and the 
fat ; while they improve the eyesight, asthma, worms, and affections 
of the throat. They also increase phlegm, the strength of the tissues, 
and humours ; retain the body in health, and promote longevity. 
These substances are good for the soul, and cooling for the body. 
They cure derangements in air and bile, promote appetite, and 
are useful in correcting the effects of poison. 

h. Acid articles of food promote appetite, are cooling before, and 
heating after eating. They are agreeable to the taste, promote diges- 
tion, and increase bile and phlegm. They increase the blood, and 
restore irregularities and derangements in the air, bile, and phlegm. 
When they have been often taken they produce weakness, and 
emaciation of the body, and sometimes they produce blindness 
(nyctalopia). Acids act quickly, and produce itching, irruptions over 
the body, a palor of the skin, and a swelling of the body, with 
thirst, fever, and boils. 

c. Salt articles of food relax the bowels, promote digestion, 
and increase appetite. They also promote perspiration, remove 
derangements of the air, bile, phlegm, and blood ; produce a glossi- 
ness of the surface of the body, diminish or cure aphrodisia, are 
cooling, and heal sores. They are, however, bad for the eyes ; and 


if long continued, tliey derange the liumours ; the skin becomes 
covered with irregularities upon its surface, followed by leprosy, 
weakness, and by symptoms produced by poisons having been taken 

d. Bitter food is not pleasant to the taste, but is dry, and light 
to the stomach ; increases bile and air, and produces dryness, heat, 
and diseased milk. If taken before eating it improves the appe- 
tite, removes worms, thirst, poison, leprosy, epilepsy, nausea, heat 
of the body, and fever. It corrects too much bile, and phlegm. 
It also improves the flesh, fat, marrow, urine, and dejections ; in- 
creases memory, is cooling, and is good for the palate and throat. 
But if always eaten it has a bad effect, deranging the humours, 
and producing diseases of air. 

€. Pungent articles of food are of a drying nature, increasing 
the appetite and milk, and diminishing thirst and fever. They cure 
diseases of phlegm, diseases of the throat and head, itchiness, and 
internal pain. But if eaten for some time in considerable quantities 
they produce thirst, weakness, shaking, pain over the body, and 
derange the spleen. 

/. Astringent articles of food are cooling, and cure diseases of the 
bile and phlegm. They increase air, particularly flatulence, they clear 
the blood and flesh, and are heavy to the stomach. Tliey produce 
costiveness, and stop diarrhaea, and tliicken the dejections ; they re- 
move diseases of the skin, and heal wounds and sores. But if taken 
for some time they produce costiveness, a swelling of the abdomen, 
thirst, and weakness, and retard the circulation of fluids in the 

For ensuring good digestion the patient's passions must be 
regulated. He must sleep at night in a protected room ; must 
use warm water to bathe with, and take bodily exercise. Such 
observances are considered to be most necessary to health. 

I. Articles of jood derived from the Vegetable Kingdom. 

There are seven parts of vegetables employed for food. These 
are the leaves, flowers, fruits, wood, branches, roots, and mushrooms. 
They are more easily digested in the above order, which is followed 
in the Hindu medical works. I prefer the order in which the dif- 
ferent articles came into use as the food of man. 

Fruits. The form and size of fruits would soon fix the attention 
of mankind, and with the culmiferous and leguminous vegetables 
would form the primordial food of man. In Hindustan there are 
a great variety of indigenous specimens of these articles of food. 
The following are the principal : — 





Punica Granatum, Dariraa. 

Phyllantbus emblica, A'malaka. 

Annoiia squamosa, Sleshmataka, or siiL 

Prunus, Badari. 

Pyrus, Simbitika. 

PjTus Cydonia, Tahar. 

Feronia Elephantum, Kapittha. 

Citrus acida, Matulunga. 

M Maugifera, A'mra. 

Terminalia Chebula, Haritaki. 

A Species of Bread { .^^.^ocarpus Lacucha, (Rox,) Lakucha. 

fruit tree, j ^ ^ ^ 



Custard apple. 




Wood apple. 



Hog plumbj 


Carissa Carandas, Karamarda. 

Psidiura pyriferum, Parabata. 

Tamarindus Indica, Amlika. 

Eugenia, Jamborosa Jambiil. 
J Artocarpus Integri- Kanthaphal or 
( folia, 

Bromelia Ananas, 

(Coeos Nucifera ;) 

Phoenix dactj^lifera, 

{Borassus flabeleifor- )^ rp -i 
mis. j 



Rose apple, 

Jack fruit. 

Pine apple, 

Date tree, 

Fan Palm, ^ ^^^^^^ 

Pamplemus, Plantain, &c., &c. 

The following varieties of oranges, lemons, citrons, &c., are indi- 
genous to Hindustan, and were well known to the Greeks and 
Romans. They increase bile, improve the appetite, and cure dys- 

There are several varieties of oranges (Kamala), but they are not 
distinguished by different names. 

There are different sorts of Lemons, (Nimbu,) such as Limpaka, 
K^gaji, Narangi, Batabi, Kamala, &c. 

Drupes. — These fruits are of the genus Amygdalus, &c. 

Prunes. — Apricot, Prunus Armenaica ; Clierr}^, P. Cerasus &c. 

Cucurbitaceous fruits or Gourds. 

Water Melon, 
Sweet Melon, 
Common Cucumber, 
Bottle Gourd, 

Cucumis Melo. 
C. Momordica, 
C. Sativus, 
C. Lagenaria, 
C. Pepo, 



Sasha B. or Khira. H. 


Kmiira. B. 


Squash Gourd, C. Melopepo, Saphari Kumra. 

Fig tree, C. CitruUus, Tarbiij. 

These fruits have from the earliest times constituted an impor- 
tant part in the diet of the Hindus. 

Vegetables. In general vegetables are not easily digested, as they 
increase air, bile, and phlegm, produce worms, and constipate the 
bowels. They are rendered more wholesome when boiled and 
seasoned. If employed alone for food they derange the system, 
affecting particularly the colour of the skin and eyes, and diminish- 
ing semen, blood, and memory. 

The leaves of the chihi, bastaki, simishannaka, tcmduUyd, and 
maiidukaparni, are considered the most wholesome kind of vegeta- 
bles. They are usually prepared by being boiled in water, fried 
in ghee, and then seasoned with salt. In some cases they are 
dressed with butter, and tonic compounds called Ticta barga ; 
such as Prapunnara (a kind of Cassia), Somaraji (Serratula Anthel- 
mentica), Patola (Tricosanthes dioecia), Varttaki, (Solanum melon- 
gela or the eg^ plant, &c. 

The Esculent roots are very numerous. The following are the 
chief varieties. The Arum Colocasia ; A. Marcrorhizon, and A. Pel- 
tatum ; the roots of the different varieties of lotus (Nymphoea Lotus), 
&c. (Shaliik) Nelumbo (Padma) ; Yams (Dioscorea) ; Spanish 
potatoes (Convolvulus Batatas), beet root ; onion ; garlick ; leeks ; 
white and red Carrots ; raddishes, &c. 

The generality of European pot and salad lierbs are found indige- 
nous in Hindustan. The following are a few of these : — 

Cauliflower (Brassica), broccoli, parsley (apium petroselium), 
spinage (spinacea oleracea), common lettuce (Lactuca sativa), 
Garden cress (Lepidum sativum), endive (cichorium endivia), 
mustard (Sinapis nigra et alba), with many others. The properties 
of each of these are given in the Hindu medical works, with their 
effects on the different humours, and on diseases. 

The Graminivorous seeds form a numerous class which afford 
the chief article of diet to a large proportion of the inhabitants 
of Asia. Tlie principal varieties of corn and pulse were derived 
from Asia, and they are peculiarly fruitful in Hindustan, and 
from their hard consistence they may be kept in a good state 
for long periods. Rice (oryza sativa) in the form of paddy, 
when covered with its husk, in a dry situation will keep for 
years perfectly fresh and good, and may be transported from one 
part of the country to another with great facility. A large popu- 
lation almost entirely live on this grain, of which there are numer- 
ous varieties. The shall rice, when of a red colour, cures diseased 


air, bile, and phlegm ; clears the eyes, increases the strength, 
semen, and urine, and removes thirst. Atapa, or Sun-dried rice, in- 
creases the diseases of air, bile, and phlegm ; is heating, increases 
the perspiration, alvine evacuations and urine. It is considered indi- 
gestible, and weakens the body. When the plant has been trans- 
planted, the rice is rendered lighter, and more easily digested. 

New rice is heavy, increases phlegm, gives an oleaginous ap- 
pearance to the body, and promotes the secretion of semen. 

Old rice is pleasant to the taste, is drying, improves the 
appetite and internal heat. It is light, and increases air. The rice 
of sixty days growtli, which is produced in the rains, or in the 
months of August and September, is considered as forming the most 
wholesome food ; and is called Shashtika. A small red rice, called 
Raktashali, is considered wholesome ; and the kind called Kanguka, 
is considered good. There are twenty other varieties, which are 
distinguished by the size, and colour of the grain. 

Parched rice is much used, and is considered nourishing, increas- 
ing appetite, and curing the diseases of phlegm. When the parched 
rice has been preserved unhusked (khai) it is considered more whole- 
some, increasing appetite, removing tliirst, vomiting, dysentery, and 
great fatness. It also removes the diseases of bile and phlegm. 

Rice-water, and rice and milk, are also considered very whole- 
some. The particular qualities of each preparation are given at 
length in the Hindu Medical writings. 

Wheat {godhuma) has been used, and lias been an article of food 
from time immemorial in Hindostan. Several varieties are cultivated 
with success. It is considered nourishing ; increases the appetite, 
flesh, and strength, and the seven humours, improves the general 
health, and increases the semen. It cures the diseases of air and 
bile, and increases phlegm. 

Barley (Yava) is considered nourishing. 

Sesammn seed (Til) is now principally used as a condiment. 

Leguminous Seeds, or Pulse. The list of these seeds is very 
long ; the following are some of them : — 

-Pea, mattar (Pismn Sativum,) ; Bean (vicia ) ; the diiferent 
varieties of Dolichos, the black seeded (D. Lablab,) the D. Labea, 
the D. biflorus, or horn-grain, and the D. Catjang. The Phaseolus 
communis (common bean), and the P. maximus ; P. nanus ; P. 
minima ; P. mungo, &c. The chick pea (cicer arietinum) ; the 
Cytisus (cajan) ; the Frigonella (Tsenum Grsecum) are enmnerated 
with many other excellent varieties of pidse. They should be eaten 
after being well boiled^ or in the form of porridge, or soup. 

Animal Food, — It is probable that for many ages the use of 


the flesh of animals was unknown, from the want of weapons and 
the strength and activity of the animals ; but when this kind of food 
was brought into use, it seems to have been considered as a great 
luxury. In these ancient times, the chief of the household usually 
acted the parts of the butcher and cook. The flesh of animals was 
then considered as agreeable to the taste, increasing the bulk of 
the body, and the strength, and curing the diseases of air. It is also 
said to be hea\'}^ to the stomach, and when digested is sweet. The 
writers of the more ancient shastres lived in a cool air, and were 
accustomed to an active life, which required the use of more animal 
food than is proper in Bengal. This was probably one reason of 
the superiority of the ancient Bralmains over their more degenerate 
descendents ; who are small in stature, and incapable of those 
mental and corporeal exertions which raise a people in the rank 
of nations. The indigestible nature of the flesh of some of the 
animals of the country, with their unclean habits, rendered them 
objects of disgust. Pork, even in Europe, is sometimes unwholesome, 
producing diarrhaea, griping and vomiting, and sometimes resem- 
bling the effects of the most violent poisons. The flesh of this and 
other animals is not so digestible as in more temperate climates, 
where their food is of a superior quality. The want of exercise and 
food during the greater part of the year, renders the flesh of such 
animals peculiarly unwholesome ; and seems to have induced the 
Hindu Legislators to inculcate the transmigration of souls. Such 
an opinion must at once have prevented the general use of 
animal food. It was most probably introduced into Greece by 

It is stated that, during the three first Yugas, cow's and buffaloe's 
flesh were used for food. Its prohibition is thus accounted for : — A 
prophet had a favourite cow killed by his scholars during his absence. 
On his return he was much displeased, and directed that, in future, 
should a Hindu use the flesh of the cow during the kali yuga he 
should loose caste. Another legend states that a prophet, in perform- 
ing a religious ceremony which required the offering of cow's flesh, 
with gur, honey, and oil, used such powerful prayers that the cow 
rose up out of the sacrificial fire. It was, however, found that a 
part of the animal was wanting ; on enquiry the Brahmin's wife 
confessed that she had taken a part of the sacrifice to eat it. On pro- 
ducing it, two vegetables were found growing from it (the Lashun, 
garlic ; and Py^j, onion). The flesh thus recovered was put up on 
the cow, and it adhered and completed the animal, which was, in 
consequence, directed not again to be eaten. Cow's flesh is said to 
cure the diseases of bile, sores in the nostrils accompanied with 



want of taste, and prevents relapses in fever. The flesh of calves 
cures the diseases of air, and increases phlegm. Besides the flesh 
of cows and buffalows, deers, hares, hogs, goats, and sheep were 
used by the ancient Hindus as food. The flesh of animals are 
digestible in the following order, the first being the least so ; the 
pig, tiger, cow and deer. 

Flesh boiled with oil is heavy, increases bile, and is heating. 
Dried flesh removes fatigue, is of use in diminishing bile, in curing 
the diseases of phlegm, and sores in the body. 

The flesh of domestic animals was not given to the sick as it 
was considered heating. On this account the flesh of wild animals 
was substituted, as they "were supj)osed to be more whole- 
some, such as deer, of wild fowls, &c ; the fat in these cases 
being carefully removed. Animal fat and marrow were sup- 
posed to cure diseases of air, and increase the diseases of blood, 
bile, and cough. Broths were made of the flesh of these ani- 
mals, and given to invalids ; they cured old fevers and in- 
creased strength, improved the voice and eyesight, increased the 
strength and semen, and cured boils. They strengthen the joints 
and promote their cure when wounded. If given with rice, broths 
cure old fevers, strengthen the individual, while they lighten the 
heart, and cure the diseases of bile. The Hindus are directed, 
at the same time, to abstain from hard and indigestible food, such 
as curds, milk, oil, jagree, with various kinds of pulse and 
leguminous plants. 

Animal Secretions, — Milk is heavy, cooling, and sweet, gives 
a shining appearance to the skin, strengthens, fattens, and increases 
semen ; it cures the diseases of air, bile, and phlegm. Goafs Milk is 
sweet and cooling ; it is binding, promotes the internal heat ; cures 
ractapitta (Hoemorrage) and diseases of air, bile, phlegm, and blood ; 
as Goats eat many medicinal plants, drink little water, and are very 
active. Sheep's Milk is sweet and heavy, and increases phlegm and 
bile. Buffalo's milk is drying and heating, but cures swelling of the 
abdomen, and diseases of air and phlegm. Mare^s milk is saltish, 
sweet, and light. Woma^i's milk strengthens the soul, increases flesh, 
and the consistence of the circulating fluids : it should only be 
drunk fresh. Cold's Milk is pleasant, and very wholesome. It is 
cooling, sweet, promotes semen, cures diseases of air, blood, and bile, 
and promotes memory, strength, and longe^dty. Early in the morn- 
ing this milk is heavy, and constipating. It is not good when the 
cow is near calving, or when there is no calf ; the best milk being 
when the calf and mother are of the same colour, particularly when 
of a white or of a black colour, with erect horns -, and when the cow 


has eaten the leaves of the sugar-cane. Milk that has been kept a 
day is heavy, and constipates ; and fresh milk increases the secretion 
of phlegm from the nose. Wlien boiled and drunk warm, it cures 
diseases of phlegm and air ; when allowed to cool, it cures the 
diseases of bile. The milks of goats and asses are not so wholesome 
as that of the cow. They should not be drunk fresh ; and salt may 
be added or the milk may be boiled. 

2. Curdled Milk is formed by adding a little sour milk, or dai, to 
milk rdiich has been boiled and cooled. It should be allowed 
to stand for a night before being used. It is cooling, increases 
the internal heat, and is useful in the cure of agues, diarrhcea, 
dyspepsia, and strangury ; it increases the phlegm, and the secretion 
of semen. 

3. Butter-Milk (Ghol) is made by stirring about curdled milk, 
until butter is obtained ; or this is produced in the ordinary way. 
It is good for persons who have take poison, who are labouring 
under diarrhea, dyspepsia, vomiting, strangury, jaundice, piles, 
spleen, or ague. It diminishes fat, phlegm and air. Fresh Butter 
is sweet and nourishing ; it is cool, agreeable, diminishes bile and 
air, and promotes the secretion of semen. It cures consumption, 
chronic cough, asthma, ulcers, piles, and tetanus. It increases 
strength, and is good for children. Ghee is made by boiling butter 
for a few minutes to dissipate the watery part, when it may be kept for 
a long time. It is sweet, and softens parts. It is useful in madness, 
epilepsy, and ague. It diminishes air and bile, and improves 
the appetite, memory, and the beauty of the body. It also pro- 
motes longevity, and preserves the eyesight. Ghee which has 
been kept ten years and upwards is called old ghee, which 
is said to cure sudden blindness (timira), morbid discharges from 
the nose, eyes and mouth ; difficulty in breathing, fainting, 
leprosy, and epilepsy ; diseases of the vagina, pains in the ears, eyes, 
and head ; old fevers, carbuncle, and diseases of air, bile, and 

Flesh of Birds. Their general properties are, that tliey cure the 
diseases of air, bile, and phlegm ; improve the colour of the skin ; are 
slightly hea\'y, and sweet ; increase the semen, memory, and appetite ; 
and give consistency to the alvine evacuations. The principal 
of these are partridge ; jungle-cock ; common cock ; peacock ; pi- 
geons ; water-wagtail ; taylor-bird ; duck ; paddy-bird &c. 

The flesh of animals and birds is not good the second day, 
when they are tainted. Such as have been drowned, or killed with 
an arrow, as this may have been poisoned, are digested with 
difficulty, and produce diseases, particularly of air, bile, and phlegm. 

N 2 


The upper (atlanted) part of the male, and the lower (sacral) part 
of the female are the heaviest. The flesh of female quadrupeds, 
and male birds, is the lightest. The flesh of large animals which 
work much, and eat little, is heavy, in the following order : head, 
shoulders, spleen, skin, liver, fore-feet, and hind-feet, tail, testicles, 
abdomen, and urinary organs. The humours are heavy in the 
following order : — blood, flesh, fat, bones, marrow, and semen. 

Such Birds as live on flowers are thin, and increase the bulk of 
the body ; such as live on fish, increase bile ; and such as eat rice, 
remove the diseases of air. 

Flesh should be eaten the same day it has been killed ; rice should 
be prepared lapidly, and a man should live with a young wife, use 
milk, ghee, and boiled water which has been allowed to cool, as they 
promote health and strength. The opposite articles have a con- 
trary effect on the health ; as putrid flesh, exposure to the morning 
sun, new curdled milk, sleeping in the morning, &c. 

Fish produces a shining appearance of the body, is slightly heating, 
and sweet ; and increases the air, urine, and alvine secretions. When 
white, fish increases the strength, phlegm, and bile; it is of advan- 
tage to health when the person labours under diseases of air, 
when used by wrestlers, by those accustomed to violent exercise, and 
those who are tired. Black and small fish are light, and constipate. 
They increase the appetite and strength, cure air, and are of 
use during convalescence. White l^sh increases air, bile, and 
phlegm, gives a shining appearance to the skin, is digested with 
difficulty, and produces a laxative effect upon the bowels. Fish 
roes are pleasant and increase air, phlegm, and semen, diminish 
the appetite, and produce a bitter state of the stomach. 

Fish when boiled is heavy, and cures the diseases of air ; it in- 
creases the strength, removes fatigue, enlarges the muscles, and im- 
proves vision. Dried fish constipates, and weakens the body, and is 
digested with difficulty ; when roasted, fish is heav^^, increases the 
semen, flesh, and strength. In such cases fish should be prepared 
with oil. These properties of fish are increased and modified, 
by mixing them with other articles of food, as with the leaves 
of certain trees, pumpkins &c. Rui is the best of all fish, 
and others in the following order ; bekti, chital, shol, garai 
jhenya ilish, baul, gagara, gaika, balsguni, chenga, kai, pati, 
tell, chuna, chanda calsa, dainkona, chingri. Turtles were used, 
and were stated to cure diseases of air, to increase strength, semen, 
and memory, and to improve the eyesight. 

The following are supposed to be the proportionate nutritive 
qualities of certain articles of food : — ■ 


Rice is eight times lighter than cakes. 

Milk „ „ flesh. „ 

Flesh „ „ oil. „ 

Sugar, Saccharum Offlcinarum, has been known in the east 
from the earliest antiquity ; it is the sweet cane of Scripture 
" brought from a far countrj^," and offered up by the Jews among 
other sacrifices to Jehovah (Isa. xlr. are 24. ; Jer. vi.20.) Tlie fresh 
juice is cooling, increases semen and urine, is pleasant, increases, 
strength, and cures the derangement of air ; it improves the dejec- 
tions, and diseases of blood and bile, is sweet,gives a shining appear- 
ance to the skin, increases happiness and flesh, and is heating. 

After the juice has been exposed to the air for some time, it is 
hea\y to the stomach, is heating, cures derangements of the air and 
phlegm, and increases the shining appearance of the skin. Gur or 
the inspissated juice, is sweet and pleasant to the taste, and gives 
strength, and a shining appearance to the skin. These qualities are 
improved by keeping, when it removes derangements of the air and 
bile, and purifies the blood. It is hea\-y to the stomach, increases 
semen, purifies the urine, increases the strength and flesh, and 
produces intestinal worms. Sugar is of use in diseases of the blood 
and bile, in fainting, vomiting, and thirst. 

Oils — There are numerous plants which furnish a large supply of 
oil from their seed, which is extensively employed by the Hindus 
for the purpose of unction, for their subsistence, and as an offering 
to their Gods. Besides the oils extracted from the different palms, 
and the madhura, (Anise) it is obtained from the almond (Pistacha 
vera, or Pistachio nut) ; sesamum indicum ; sinapis alba et nigra, or 
mustard oil ; S. Orientale, the til oil ; Ricinus or Palma Christi, the 
RamTila of the Hindus, and the Huts-elli of the Mussulmans, &c.i. e. 
castor-oil ; the tillee, or linseed oil ; curumbo oil ; and Coringa oil. 
Other oils are also used in medicine, but they possess the same qua- 
lities as the seeds from which they are extracted. On this account 
they are used for the same diseases. Vegetable oils are bitter and 
sweet, and are good for the skin, and alleviate all diseases. Oil is 
heating, when taken internally ; it increases the diseases produced 
by bile, and constipates the bowels, and lessens urine. 

Liquids. — These may be considered under the heads of water, 
and medicinal drinks. 

Water — The Hindus were veiy careful about their drinking 
water, and ascribed the appearance of many diseases to bad water. 
Pure water has no taste and is considered as cooling, relaxing 
the body, and improving the senses, and the general health. 
They considered the water of wells, or natural springs in the sandy 


beds of rivers, as the most wholesome, as they promote digestion and 
strength ,• the river and fountain water at the bottom of high 
hills, was considered less wholesome ; and the most unhealthy was 
considered to be the water from brooks, and tlie stagnant water 
of tanks, and reservoirs : this water was supposed to produce 
indigestion, obstructions, and lethargy, with a predisposition to 

Bain Water, when preserved in a clean vessel, was supposed to 
cure the diseases of air, bile, and phlegm, and improve the health. 
It keeps the mouth clean, and improves the state of the tongue, teeth, 
and memory. It was considered to be heavier during the rains than 
in the cold, and hot weather. Hail-water was considered peculiarly 

Water was supposed to be improved by boiling, and its effects 
were varied according to the quantity dissipated by evaporation. 
Water which has been boiled and drunk cold cures air, bile, and 
phlegm, also cough, fever, and constipation. It removes great 
fatness, and increases the internal fire. 

Water mixed with the other elements produces six tastes, or 
sweet, sour, salt, pungent, bitter, and astringent. When the food 
contains a large proportion of water and earth, they produce a sweet 
state of the stomach. The sweet, sour, and salt articles, diminish 
air ; the sweet, bitter, and astringent, diminish bile ; and the pun- 
gent, bitter, and astringent, diminish phlegm. 

Medicinal Drinks. — The usual drink for the sick, is water in 
which a little of the infusion of cinnamon and cassia has been mixed. 
By others the drink is varied with the nature of the disease. When 
air is deranged, water in which the infusion of such medicines as cure 
this class of diseases, as long or black pepper, sugar, &c. is to be ad- 
ded. When bile is deranged, pure water is either given, or its cooling 
qualities are increased by the addition of the infusion of ushira, 
or kaskas ; gandhatrina, a fragrant grass ; Sugar-cane, Ikhyu ; kusha, 
a kind of sacred grass &c. When phlegm is deranged, the infusion 
of cinnamon, black or long pepper, cloves &c. is to be added. 

. In fever, produced by derangement of air, bile, and phlegm, the 
fresh juice of the kau, a kind of grass, is recomm.ended instead of 

In hemoptysis (Rakta Pitta), the fresh juice of the Kashanda 
(pumpkin) and pomegi'anate are the best additions to the drinks. 
In cases of swelling, or Dropsy, an infusion of dry raddish (mulaka), 
ginger, soot, &c., are to be used. In Leprosy the infusion of catechu 
(khadira) is to be used, with the infusion of black pepper, and sugar 


Condiments. In weak digestion, water mixed with camphor, or in- 
fused in native mint (Fading,) is to be used. Beetlenut, camphor, 
cloves, long pepper, pepper, dry ginger, and other spices are mixed 
with slacked lime, surrounded with the leaves of pan, and chewed as 
a condiment. It cleans the throat and voice, promotes digestion, 
keeps the breath sweet, improves the senses, and gives an agree- 
able appearance to the person. It increases semen, and should be 
used after vomiting, bathing, and sleeping. The Hindus also use 
as condiments, nutmeg, cloves, cardaraum seeds, cinnamon, tur- 
merick, mustard, sandal-wood, debdaru wood, ginger, black, 
and long pepper, capsicmn, coriander seed, aniseed, assafce- 
tida &c. 

Wines. Within the first year after the debarkation of Noah from 
the iVrk, he made wine from the grapes of Mount Ararat (Gen. ix). 
The vine also thrives well in the northern parts of Hindustan, but 
not in Bengal. It is only in the northern parts of Hindustan that the 
grape is sometimes converted into wine, from the fermentation 
being too quick, and from the heat and moisture of the lower pro- 
vinces. The grape is considered cooling and aperient, by the 
native practitioners. All wines are moderately strong, and are 
divided into sweet, and sour. They all increase bile, and dimi- 
nish phlegm, and air. They are also tonic, stimulating, in- 
creasing the acuteness of the senses and appetite, and promoting 
digestion and health, when properly used. There were different 
kinds of wines used by the ancient Hindus, which received dif- 
ferent names according to the fruits, flowers, and other substances 
from which they were derived. The wine which was made from 
the grape was called Siddha ; from raisins ^ kismis)mdrdhivika ; from 
the flowers of the Bassia latifolia, madhwaka ; from jagery or gur, 
goura or sui^d. 

In the Veda sha'stras the use of wines and spirits are forbidden ; but 
in the Tantra they are allowed, and the worshippers of Shiva indulge 
in their use. 

When digestion has been completed, the state of the stomach will 
depend on the qualities of the food or medicine which has been 
taken. W hen bitter and astringent articles of food or medicine have 
been eaten, they produce a bitter state of the stomach ; soiu* food 
produces a sweetness after digestion ; and sweet and salt food pro- 
duce sweet eructations from the stomach. 

During the rains, light and stomachic food with bitters should be 
preferred, while liquids and oils are not to be used too freely ; the 
drinking water should be boiled, and drunk with a little honey. In 
cloudy days exercise is not to be taken in the open air ; the bedroom 


should be warmed with fires, and all persons should sleep upon a 
charpay, during the night. In Autumn (sharat) bitter and sweet arti- 
cles of food are to be preferred, and light and clean water is to be 
used freely for drink. Exercise is to be taken in the evening ; and 
deranged bile is to be cured by bleeding or purging. Sherbets and 
spirituous liquids, especially such as relieve the increased secretion 
of bile, are be used. 

In winter (Shishira) saline, bitter, pungent, and warm articles, 
prepared with ghee and oil, are to be taken for food. Meat is to be 
used, and the drink warmed, and accompanied with spirituous 
liquors. The warm bath and frictions with oil are to be used, and 
exercise taken in the morning. 

In spring (Vasanta) sour, sweet, oily, and saline articles are to 
be used. The drinking water is to be boiled, and spirituous 
liquors are to be mixed v/ith it, to diminish the increased phlegm. 
The warm bath, and foot exercise are also to be used. 

During the hot season (Gr/shma), sour, pungent, and strong warm 
substances are to be avoided, and rice, barley, and curries of light 
vegetables are to be used. Food possessing warm qualities is to be 
avoided, and the breakfast should consist of cooling fruits and 
sherbets. The Cold bath is to be used, and thin light dresses are to 
be worn. The surface of the body is to be smeared with cooling 
aromatic applications, cool water should be used for drink, and 
sleep is to be allowed during the day. 

The highest classes of Brahmins, as officiating priests, attend 
rigidly to the performance of religious ceremonies, and generally 
bathe in the morning at sunrise. After performing the ceremonies 
of their guardian Deity, they take for breakfast small sweet cakes, 
or a handful of moistened rice, at 10 or 11 o'clock ; as they must 
always purify their body by washing, before eating. They dine 
on boiled rice, peas, and vegetables, and some of them have 
fish curry at 1 or 2 P.M. * 

From eight to eleven o'clock, supper is prepared, and consists of 
the same food as at dinner. The middling and higher classes mix 
a small quantity of milk and ghee with what they eat at dinner and 

In some houses instead of boiled rice at night, unlevened flour- 
cakes are eaten, with a little ghee spread over it. They are often 
eaten with vegetable curries or boiled peas, or with the flesh of kids, 

* The months of October, April, and January are considered holy, 
when not only the priests, but many others, who are desirous of an easy 
entrance into heaven, repair to the river side to bathe, immediately before 
sun rise, and to perform the morning ceremonies. 


pigeons, and other birds. These are often eaten with butter by the 
rich. Shop-keepers eat late, and sleep for an hour or two after mid- 
day. Their drinks consist of plain water and sugar-candy, or sugar 
and water, to which lime-juice is sometimes added. 

The principal precepts with regard to personal duties are — use 
boiled water for drink, sleep all night in a cool, dry and elevated 
situation, and take exercise ; wash the eyes with cold water, which 
will keep them cool, clean, and diminish heat ; and anoint and 
keep the body clean by frequent bathing. Rest after labour will 
increase strength, prevent fatigue, and promote the freshness of 
the body. 

The diet of the sick is to be regulated by the nature of the sick- 
ness, the constitution and strength of the individual, and the 
situation, period, state of the appetite, &c. 

k. Sleep. " Early to bed and early to rise," is one of the old and 
most approved maxims of the Hindus ; which indeed is peculiarly 
applicable in a hot enervating climate like Bengal, where the night 
air is so pernicious, and the mornings so cool and healthy. The Hin- 
dus sleep on a pretty large mat, with a small sized pillow for the 
head, generally upon the plain ground, or upon a charpay. The mat 
is to be soft and clean, and not circular ; the head is to be turned 
towards the east, or rising of the sun ; or south, towards Yama, 
where the person goes after death, and where is the residence of the 
gods. Care is taken not to turn the feet towards their father or 
mother, or superiors. To have refreshing sleep, the mind of the 
person should be tranquil and contented. This will also be pro- 
moted by music, and rocking ; by anointing the body with oil ; by 
the use of the bath ; by eating new rice, milk, ghee, and the like ; 
by sherbuts and spirits, and such articles as improve the health ; 
by sleeping upon a large mat, in a comfortable house, and at the 
accustomed time. Sleep keeps the humours in a healthy state, im- 
proves the colour of the skin, the health, appetite, and strength. 

Watching increases air, dries the body, and diminishes cough and 
fat, and retards the action of poison. Sleeping during the day in- 
creases cough and fVit, and should be avoided in those in whom phlegm 
is increased, and during the spring, in the rains and winter months, 
&c. It may be indulged in during the hot season, when the habit 
has been acquired and when the air is deranged. 

The Hindus generally rise at 6 o'clock in the morning ; but be- 
fore getting up in the morning and going to sleep, they repeat 
certain prayers. The person next proceeds to perform the duties 
of nature, and then washes his face, mouth, &c. They brush their 
teeth with a small fresh branch of a bitter tree or plant ; afterwards 



they change their night-clothes, and go to their business. The 
smoking of tobacco is used morning and night, at bed time, and after 
dinner and tifiin. It should be smoked slowly by means of a long 

Materia 3Iedica. 

The following remarks on Materia Medica will be arranged under 
the heads: 1st, general remarks on simple Medicines ; and 2nd, 
regai'ding the most common preparations and uses of Medicine. 

Section I. 

General remarks on Simple Medicines. 

The Hindu medical writers have recorded many observations on 
the properties and choice of medicines, the situations in which they 
are to be found, the time at which they possess their peculiar pro- 
perties in the highest degree, and the manner of preparing and pre- 
servino- them. "These medicines are very numerous ; but from the 
few and indistinct remarks w^hich are recorded of some of them, 
they cannot always be identified. 

The follov-^ing remarks will be arranged under the heads of the 
vegetable, animal, and mineral kingdoms. A list of the principal 
medicines will be given in the next Chapter, arranged according 
to their effects. 

A. Simple Medicines from the Vegetable Kingdom. The belief 
of there being a remedy for each disease, led the Brahmins to 
make a very careful examination of the vegetable kingdom ; and a 
large number of Medicines w^ere discovered, some of which were 
very powerful. The success which followed the employment of 
these remedies in the cure of diseases was invariably supposed to 
rest on individual sanctity, and the divine pleasure which imparts 
it. Hence the great difficulty of obtaming information ; as it is be- 
lieved that if such secrets are revealed to others, the medicine loses 
its effects, not only in the hands of the person to whom its qualities 
have been revealed, but also of the person who had known them be- 


fore. It is from such selfish motives that the properties of many 
valuable medicines have been lost. There are nine such secrets 
which should not be revealed to any one : — these are the age of a 
person ; his wealth ; family occurrences ; his bad actions ; or those 
which reflect shame, or dishonour upon him ; his intercourse with 
his wife ; his prayers to his tutelar gods ; his charities ', and the 
virtues of nostrums the ingredients of which are knov/n to him. 

The simple vegetable medicines are procured from the bark, 
roots, leaves, flowers, fruit, seeds, juices, gums, and wood of plants. 
These medicines are arranged in the following order : — 

1. Bdnspdti, or those trees which contain fruits without flowers. 

2. Vrikshya, those which contain both flowers and fruit. 

3. Virut, creepers with flowers in clusters. 

4. Oshad/ii, those plants which die after the ripening of their fruit, 
as rice, &c. 

The effect of medicines from the vegetable kingdom will vary with 
the period at which the medicine is gathered, according as the air is 
agitated with wind or not, as it is in the sun or shade, as taken during 
the day or night, during the cold or hot weather, during dry or rainy 
weather, and also according to the interval between the time when 
the medicine is gathered and that when it is used. 

Medicines from this kingdom should not be procured either from 
the jungly, or from a country covered with water ; neither from 
a dry and sandy ground, nor from one that is unequal or has 
many holes, stones, or broken vessels upon it. Situations in any 
way destroyed by insects, or in which white ants have their nests, as 
these are supposed to remove the strength of the earth, or where water 
drops from a choppered roof, where bodies have been burnt or 
buried, where persons have died, or sacred situations are not 
proper places for raising medicinal plants. Soils in which there 
is much salt are also unfavourable for the growth of medicines ; and 
plauts that grow at unseasonable times, or when very old, and those 
which water forms, or insects have injured are to be thrown away. 

The soil most favourable for the growth of medicines is of a soft black, 
yellow, or red colour ; is equal, or heavy ; is situated near water, 
and where trees grow luxuriantly, and the grain is moist and glisten- 
ing : in such situations the soil has its proper quality of taste. Those 
of water are found where the place is sweet, and the plants glistening. 
The qualities of fire are greatest, when the soil has several colours, 
and where the earth is light, the trees small and growing at a dis- 
tance from each other, and where the young leaves of grass, as they 
burst through the earth, are of a light yellow colour. The qualities of 
air predominate in dry places, of a grayish colour, like the ashes of 

o 2 


wood. In such situations the earth is light, the trees are few, 
email, dry, and have holes in them, with little juice. The qua- 
lities of ether (cik^sh) are in excess in such situations as are of a green- 
ish colour, are soft in the centre and equal, with many holes. The 
water in such situations is without taste, and the mountains and 
trees are large. 

The rays of the sun and moon produce the colour, &c., of plants. 
Thus the yellow colour of trees is produced by the sun, and such me- 
dicine should be gathered during the hot period of the day. Emetics 
are to be gathered at such times, from soils possessing the qualities of 
ether and air. The moon produces the white and cold plants, which 
should be gathered during the cold season, when the qualities of 
these plants will be most energetic. They will then be sweet, moist 
like oil, and cold like water. Purgatives are thus to be gathered in 
a soil possessing the qualities of taste and smell. 

The physician should observe the lucky days and hours, and the 
most favourable period of the moon's age, in order to ensure the 
cure of the disease. The Stars which are predominant on parti- 
cular days are to be observed, particularly those which occur on 
odd days. Medicines which are to be exhibited internally, are 
to be taken for the first time on Mondays, Tlmrsdays and Fridays. 
They are also to observe the most favourable periud of the moon's 
age, and that fortunate stars are in the ascendant *. 

Before a medicinal plant is gathered in the morning, a prayer 
should be said by the person with his face to the north. The follow- 
ing is such a prayer, which is supposed to remove any devils which 
may be hiding near. 

* O God ! if any devil be lurking here — begone ! whether it be 
Vetal, Pishacha, Rakshas, or Sliri sarpa (the devil of serpents).* 
As the shrub is being gathered, the person is to say : * O, shrub ! 

as Brumha, Indra, and Vishnu plucked you, for the same reason 
I now removj you.' 

B. Simple Medicines derived from the Animal Kingdom. 

These are skin, hair, nails, blood, flesh, bones, fat, marrow, bile, 
milk and dejections. These medicines should be obtained from heal- 
thy animals, which are neither very old nor very young. The urine 
and other dejections should be obtained from the female. 

a. Skiny nails, and hair, are used for fumigations in intermittent 
fevers, &c. 

* There nre twenty-seven Stars, one of which presides over each day 
of the week. 


b. Blood. When there has been a great loss of blood, it is some- 
times exhibited internally. 

c. Flesh is mixed with oily and other medicines, and vegetables ; 
and is given in weakness, phthisis, and in nervous diseases. 

d. Bones. The ashes of bones, mixed with other medicines, are 
exhibited in nervous diseases and those of children. They are also 
used to fumigate. 

e. Fat is used principally externally, as in the form of oint- 
ment, &c. 

f. Marrow is used externally in the form of ointment, and inter- 
nally in cases of weakness. 

g. Bile is considered a stimulant, and is used in fever ; also as 
an external application, as to the eye. 

h. Milk is one of the principal articles of food. It is used in 
combination with decoctions, and given internally in diseases of 
children, and for nervous diseases. It is often used with oil as an 
external application. 

t. Urine is pungent and slightly bitterish and saltish to the taste. 
It is slightly laxative and cures diseases of phlegm, air, worms ; 
and diseases produced from poison : it is also of use in leprosy, and 
in dropsical swellings, jaundice, and dyspepsia. Cow's urine is gene- 
rally preferred. 

k. Dung. The moisture contained in cow's dung is used in in- 
flammation, and in discolouring of the skin. It is also given inter- 
nally, and prepared with other medicines. 

C. Sitnple Mcdiciiics derived from the ^Ilneral Kingdom. 

These consist of metals, (Z)/ia^?^) and inferior minerals ( Upadhdtu), 

Of Salts [Lauana\ Saindhava is the best form of Rock-salt. 

There arc four kinds of kshdra, 1 Java, (salt-petre) 2 Sarjiki 
(natron) 3 Paksiiam (Bitloben) 4 Tankana (Borax). 

I. To Yavakshar, add S^ijimati (natron or alkali) and Soha'ga 
(borax), &c. 

Sdnmdrarn, or common sea-salt, is less powerful than the black 
salt (billaban). It is stomachic, and cures air and indigestion. 

Sarvakshar or Sachal, (an impure soda) is used in splee i (gulmo), 
cholic (shiil), and dyspepsia. There are other salts, such as Vamaka, 
Udhada, &c. ; but their qualities arc the same as above. 

Salt increases appetite ; produces diseases of the blood and bile. 
It cures gulma, piles, dysentery and stone. 

Metals {dhdtu). — Iron and tin were the only metals used inter- 
nally by the Hindu Physicians ; but in the more modern worki 


the other metals are described, and were probably introduced into 
Hindustan two or three hundred years ago, probably for mercenary 
purposes ; as the Physician, before the recovery of his patient, only 
eceived his recompence for the medicine he prescribed. 

The metals now used in medicine are as follows : — Quicksilver, 
gold, silver, copper, iron, lead and zinc. 

1. Mercury (Sntam, Rasa or Parada.) 

Quicksilver is found in Thibet ; in the form of cinnabar, and in its 
native state in Nepal. 

Shiv declared to Durga that, if properly prepared, quicksilver will 
cure all diseases, even should they be of a fatal nature. Quicksilver 
is used either in its metallic state, or reduced so as to lose its 
peculiar properties. In both forms it is useful for the cure of 

Quicksilver is often in an impure state, as when it is mixed with 
blacklead, stone, poison, tin, or other impurities of the same kind ; 
another bad quality is when it resembles fire, and when it disperses 
in different directions. Good quicksilver is of a slight blueish 
colour, like water internally and externally, and bright like the sun 
at mid-day. It is also good when it has a brownish, or whitish 
colour ; but if it has a mottled appearance it is not good. 

To purify quicksilver from lead ; mix it with rice-water and expose 
the mixture to fire, which v/ill remove its bad ingredients. To purify 
quicksilver from tin ; mix it with the powder of Vishal (Cucumis 
colocynthis) and Arikotha ( Alangium hexapetalum), and then expose 
the mixture to fire. To remove the other impurities, add the juice of 
Cassia fistula. To purify quicksilver when it separates into globules ; 
mix it with the juice of datura and lime, and then expose it to 
heat. To destroy the poisonous qualities of quicksilver mix the three 
kinds of Myrobalan, and then expose it to heat. It is thus fit 
for use. 

Quicksilver is the semen of Shiv ; and being difficult to prepare, 
the practitioner is first to pray to Vishnu, &c., on a lucky day ; and 
.agreeable presents are to be made to virgins, and families of Brah- 
mins before the process is commenced. The following prayer is then 
to be offered up to Shiv. 

* O Ugra (wrathful one!) I salute you ! and O Ugra, I pay my rever- 
ence ! Goraksha, Ishwara, Sarva, Shiva and Bhadra ; I salute your 
different forms ; and ask your gracious assistance in rendering this 
medicine successful.' The quantity of mercury to be prepared 
should not be less than one pala; and some say when only a 
small quantity can be obtained, prepare two tolas. 

To purify mercury so as to render it fit for being used as medi- 

i<ti:l\>-iHi /tSb^ /^^ 

lui 2 

Iitf (y 

Fug 6- 




i BUck. Asi-c : fL : Fr ejs Calcutta 


cine, take of turmerick, brick-dust, suet, the juice of lemons 
(or congee, if limes are not procui-able), and the wool of sheep, of each 
one chhatak, and mix it with one ser of quicksilver. The mixture 
is to be well rubbed in a mortar, for one day, and wash the product 
carefully with water. 

Another means of purifying mercury is to place it in a bag which 
is then to be immersed in congee, and exposed to heat. This 
is called a dolaj antra. By this means the quicksilver is completely 
purified. See fig 1. 

Another way of purifying mercury is by sublimation. The appa- 
ratus is called U rddhicopdtanajantra ; and is used in this man- 
ner. Take vermilion and the juice of lemons ; dry it in the sun and 
then sublime. It is tlien to be rubbed with more of the lime 
or the juice of the Paribhadra (the coral tree or Erythrina fulf^ens) 
and nimba (Melia azadirachta). They are to be mixed fjr three hours 
and again sublimed. See fig 2. 

Quicksilver is also purified by evaporation, by means of Vaka- 
jantra or retort of this form. See fig 3. 

Before quicksilver is mixed with sulphur the following prayer is 
to be offered up. ' O Shiv, may you so order that this preparation may 
be so made as to enable it to cure all diseases.' When such pray- 
er is oifered up with fiiith, by a holy Brahmin, it will be o-ranted. 
Then mix six parts of sulphur with one of quicksilver, put it in a 
crucible of this form (fig 4 *) with its opening properly luted, place 
this in a sand bath, which is formed in this manner — (see fig. 5) and 
apply heat slowly. When the mixture is completed, take the crucible 
off the fire and break it ; the contents may then be used for medicine. 

There are four forms in which quicksilver is used in medicine ; 
the black, white, yellow and red forms. 

The black kind is formed by dissolving equal parts of sulphur and 
quicksilver over the fire, when the residue will assume this colour 
which is the most common form in which mercury is used in practice. 

To form wldie mercury (hydrargyrum precipitatum album). Take 
of Borax, honey, lac, and the wool of sheep ; mix, and add the juice 
of theBhringaraja (Verbesena scandens) ; then add sulphur, and mix 
for one day ; after which expose it to the heat of a sand bath until it 
is reduced to ashes. It will be white like pure camphor, and will re- 
semble the corrosive sublimate. Another kind of white mercury is 
made by mixing turmerick, brick-dust, suet, amalakf, (phyllanthus 

* The crucihle is made liy iriixing two parts of llie nslies of paddy, one 
of the earth of white ants, one [)int of iron cinders, one jvirt of white 
stone (!«afied miti) and one part of hair ; mix witii goal's niil'^, and heat 
half a day. 'liie crucible is tlien to be forined, and dried in the sun or 
fire, for use. 


emblica or emblic myrobalan) boira', (beleric myrobalan) and harftakl, 
chebulic myrobalan) chita (treacle), congee, and the juice of the 
ghritakumari, or Indian aloes, mix for one day, and then add half 
the weight of prepared sulphur. 

Another form is made with rock salt, blue vitriol, sulphur, chalk, 
alum and quicksilver in equal quantities ; mix the whole with the 
juice of the lemon. This is to be put in an earthen vessel over 
which another is to be placed and the juncture luted (Seefig 5). 
The mixture is then to be exposed for a day to the action of 
fire, when the mercury will he white and prepared for use. 

The use of the white form of mercury is very important. It cures 
rheumatism, and the eighty diseases of air, as well as the diseases of 
bile and phlegm. Should it affect the gums, a gargle of curdled milk 
should be employed. This preparation of mercury will also be found 
useful in shul, (colic,) fistula in ano, in diseases of the eye, in 
diseases of the arms, and in general debility ; as it increases 
strength, appetite, and the general colour of the body. 

The yelloio preparations of mercury are made in the following 
manner. Mix equal parts of sulphur, quicksilver, and the sundu 
plant and myrobalan. Dry the mixture and put it in a sand bath, 
and apply heat for twenty-four hours. When properly prepared 
it has a vellow colour. This preparation increases the appetite, and 
cures dropsy and dyspepsia. 

Red Factitious cinnabar or red sulphuret of mercury, when 
in powder vermilion (Hingula) is prepared as follows : mix one 
pala of sulphur, and one pound of black lead with the juice of the 
ghritakumari ; place it in a clean vessel, put a lute or coating of 
mud and cloth, or a mixture of lime and chalk over it. It is to be 
exposed in a sand bath for three days, when it will be found of a red 

It cures all diseases, even of the fatal kind. It removes weak- 
ness, improves the appetite and memory, diminishes fat, and cures 
leprosy. It requires to be given a proper menstruum and mixed 
with other medicines. The dose is then one ganja. 

Another form of mercury is prepared by mixing the black pre- 
paration in an iron spoon. Add a little ghee, and then expose 
it to heat. When melted - throw it into a leaf of the plantain. 
It is then called Rasaparpati or cake mercury and is very useful in 
dropsy, chronic dysentery, and as an alterative. 

2nd. Gold. This, as well as the other metals, is first to be 
reduced by beating to small thin plates. These are to be exposed 
to a red heat, and in this state cooled separately in oil, curdled milk, 
cow's urine, congee, and a decoction of kulattha (a kind of pea). TMs 


process is to be repeated seven times in each liquid. The 
metal is then considered as prepared for use. Some only quench 
the hot metal in the above liquids three times. It is also recom- 
mended that metals should be cooled twelve times in a mixture 
of the juice of the leaves of the tuk and akanda trees, with brim- 
stone. In other cases three parts of the metal are mixed with 
one of quicksilver and exposed to heat. Other mixtures are recom- 
mended by different authors for oxidizing the metal. 

The preparations of gold are considered as most valuable 
medicines, curing nearly all diseases, even those in which other 
medicines have been used without any good result. The general 
effect of these preparations is to increase memory, and restore 
the vigour of manhood. 

The usual manner of preparing gold for use is to mix 16 times 
the quantity of the gold plates to one of lead, and add lemon juice 
and ghritaczimari, or Indian aloes. They are to be rubbed together, 
exposed to heat, and made into boluses of the usual size. Or take of 
the mass of gold plates, mix with quicksilver and sulphur, add a lit- 
tle water, or the juice of ghritacumari^ make it into a large mass ; put 
it in an earthern pot with a mouth well secured, surround the vessel 
with a mixture of clay and cow-dung, and expose it to the sun to dry. 
It is tluis to be exposed to the fire twelve different times, until it is 
reduced to powder. Some practitioners mix lead, sulphur, and 
quicksilver together with the gold, and the mixture is then prepared 
as above. The oxide of gold thus prepared is often mixed with 
other metals ; and is considered a valuable medicine in chronic dis- 
eases, in intermittent fevers, in gonoiThoea, and in diseases of the 
spleen. It is considered an excellent tonic, improving vision, reducing 
the bulk of the body, and is good for consmnption, and pregnant wo- 
men and children. It is useful in diseases of air, bile, and phlegm. 

Silver. This metal is prepared by mixing two parts of it reduced 
to small thin plates, with one of brimstone. These are to be well 
mixed, lemon juice is to be added, and the whole surround- 
ed by a mixture of cow-dung and clay, and exposed to a high heat 
in a furnace, in the same manner as that in which gold was stated 
to be prepared. This preparation is sour, cooling, and astringent ; 
and it cures deranged air, promotes appetite, strength, digestion, 
and the colour of the skin. It also lengthens life, and is of much use 
in all chronic diseases, as it purifies the body and the dejections. 

Copper. This metal is found in the north of India. It is puri- 
fied by boiling for three days with a strong heat, the small thin 
plates in cow's urine. The metal is then to be mixed with two parts 
of brimstone and one part of rock-salt, to which the juice of the 



lemon lias bf;en added. The mixture is then to be surrounded with 
a coating of cow's duDg and clay, and exposed to the fire of a fur- 
nace, when it is ready for use. To prevent its producing vomiting 
and purging, put the mixture into a bulbous root called Surana, 
which has been hollowed out ; it is then to be covered with a mix- 
ture of dung and clay, and exposed to heat. 

The sulphuret of copper (Tiitaka) is prepared by mixing two 
parts of the thin plates with one of sulphur. It is then to be ex- 
posed to heat for two hours. The medicine will neither produce 
giddiness, vomiting nor purging. 

These preparations of copper arc found useful in fevers, particu- 
larly the intermittent kinds, diarrhoea, spleen and diseases of the 
liver and blood. It is also, useful in leprosy, colic, piles and in- 

Lead (sisaka). This metal is found in many parts of Hindus- 
tan and is prepared for use by mixing it with the juice of the dlianda^ 
tree. It should remain immersed for three days ; then wash the metal 
in water, and mix it with the juice of the leaves of the vasaka tree 
(Justicia ganderussa) and sulphur. Put it into an earthern vessel, 
and expose it to a high heat. It is then ready for use, and is re- 
commended in gonorrhfjea, chronic diarrhoea, in leprosy and in ulcers. 

Tin (Trapu and Ranga). One part is to be mixed with the same 
quantity of sulphur, mix it with the milk of the arka tree (calotropis 
gigantea), and the dry bark of the Banian tree. Rub them together 
in a hot mortar for many days. 

It is then prepared for use, and is bitter and sour to the taste. 
It diminishes fat, the diseases of phlegm, is an Anthelmintic, 
and cures gonorrhoja and jaundice. It is to be avoided in dis- 
eases of air. 

Zinc^ and other metals are prepared in the same way as copper, 
and their effects upon the system are the same. 

Sulphuret of Antimony (Rasanjana Sanvira) is generally ob- 
tained from Nepaul or Siam. It is prepared for use by placing 
it in lime water, and exposing it for several hours to the sun. It is 
exhibited in diseases of the eye, in the form of a coUyrium, mixed 
with the juice of the ripe pomegranate. It is applied to the edges 
of the eyelid to increase the brilliancy of the organ ; and it is 
also used as an emetic in the first stage of the fever, and in combi- 
nation with other medicines. 

Iron (Lauha). is found in many parts of Hindustan in the 

* This preparation ia also used for strengthening the teeth, and for 
cleaning and improving their colour, 


form of oxide, in ochres, bog ores, and other friable earthy substances. 
The two following ores are almost commonly used by the Hindus as 
medicines : — 

Sulphate of Irofi (kashisha). This is prepared for use by mace- 
rating it in a decoction of the leaves of hemp. It is bitter to the 
taste ; and is useful in epilepsy, in white leprosy, in diseases of the eyes, 
in diabetes, in amenorrhoea, and in phthisis. It is considered tonic, 
amenagogue, anthelmintic. An Iron Oxide called Sarnaynanku ? 
is prepared by mixing two parts with one part of rock-salt, and with 
lemon juice in an iron vessel. Apply heat, and rub it with an iron 
pestle, until it becomes of a fine red colour. It is then slightly 
bitter and sweet ; and is of use in gonorrhoea, in diseases of the 
urine, in worms, and in various diseases of the bile and phlegm. 
It is usually exhibited in combination with other medicines for 
improving the strength. 

There are also other varieties of iron. The Kanta (steel ?) is 
the best, and is prepared as follows : — The iron is to be made into 
three small plates — exposed to heat, and quenched in the juice of 
the plantain tree. Repeat this seven times : make a furnace by 
digging a hole one cubit in depth, and the same in circumference 
— iill it with live cliarcoal, mix the iron with half its weight of (Swind 
Maaker) the common Pyritic iron ore, mix tliem in the juice of the 
three Mirabuli — add one fourth of red arsenic (Manahsliila), rub them 
together with sour congee — expose them to heat in the usual man- 
ner with a blast furnace, which is to be well covered ; remove the iron 
when in a red hot state, and quench it in a mixture of the three 
Mirabuli — beat on an anvil to separate tlie oxidized part. Again 
expose the iron as before, so as to reduce all the iron to this oxide, 
which is used by rubbing it with cow's urine ; make it into small 
boluses, put tliem in an earthen vessel, and expose the mixture to the 
heat of a fire of cow's dung. Repeat this a number of times — from 10 
to 1000. — It should never be used unless prepared at least with 
an exposure to heat more than ten times, and it will be so much 
better if repeated a great many more times. In this state it does 
not sink in water, and there is no alterative so good as this. It is 
an excellent tonic, improves digestion and removes all diseases. 

When iron has been exposed for many years in the earth it is 
changed to a red colour, easily powdered. It is called mondulo, and is 
used for the same diseases as the above preparations of iron. 

Arsenic. — The ijelloio sulphuret of Arsenic or yelloto Orpiment 
(Haritala) is brought to India from China and the Burman domi- 
nions ; is purified by boiling it in the water of a kind of gonaro Kus- 
hundo ; in lime water ; in oil ; and in sour congee, for two or three 

p 2 


hours in each. This medicine is also purified by mixing it with 
four parts of nitre, and then subliming it. This is done by placing 
it in an earthen pot with another over it, and applying heat for a 
day and a night. 

This is a very celebrated medicine in the black leprosy, and in 
fever. It also improves the colour of the body. 

BedArse7iicy or red Orpiment (Manahshila) is brought from Japan 
and is prepared by macerating it in the juice of the Boke tree, 
or in the juice of the fresh ginger. It is tonic, and is used for 
removing diseases of phlegm, for Asthma, &c. 

White oxide oi Arsenic (Daarmuch) is prepared by being macer- 
ated in the juice of the lemon, and then boiled in the juice of the 
plantain tree. It is used in doses of the fourteenth part of a grain, 
in conjunction witli aromatics, to check obstinate intermittent fevers, 
in glandular and leprous affections, in the same way as the yellow 

Minerals (^Upadhatu). 

The minerals which are employed in medicine are mica, diamond, 
precious stones, brimstone, ammonia, a particular shell, and the 
fragrant earth obtained from Surat. 

1 . Mica (abhra) is first to be exposed to a high heat, and then 
thrown into the juice of the Justicia Gandariissa, rub them toge- 
ther, and expose the mixture to a high heat. This is to be repeated 
ten times ; when it is considered ready for use. It is reduced to 
powder, and is then said to cure all diseases. As it increases the 
the secretion of semen it is used for curing impotency, lengthens 
life, and strengthens judgment. 

2. Diamond (hiraka, vajra) there are four varieties ; white, yel- 
low, red, and black. The first is said to resemble the brahmun class, 
the second the kshattriya ; and the other two the vaishya and the 
shiidra. The large, soft, round, square, and bright, without inequa- 
lities or cracks, is considered masculine ; the small, hard, five an- 
gular, and cracked diamond is considered feminine, and the oblong 
and triangular kind is considered as neuter. The first is the best 
kind, it alone should be used in medicine. 

It is prepared by being covered with clay and cowdung, and 
exposed to heat for a day and a half. Soak it then in the urine of 
a horse, expose it to heat seven times, when it is considered pre- 
pared for use. 

Use. It lengthens life, and improves the strength and colour of 
the body ; and cures many diseases. 

Precious Stones (manikya) — these are pearls, and corals. They 


are prepared by mixing them with lemon juice for a dav. Then 
boil them in a mixtm-e of thejuice of the three mirabuli. This is 
done by exposing them in a bag, covered with a coating of clay 
and cow-dung — (See fig. 6) and reduce the medicine for use. It 
is considered a good tonic, and cures many diseases. 

4. Sulphur (gandhaka) is prepared by mixing it with lime, water, 
oil and congee, and exposing it to heat, upon an iron vessel, for three 
hours. It is then ready for use as a medicine, and is adminis* 
tered in combination \Wth other metals. 

5. Ammo7iia (nishaadul) is prepared by mixing it with lime 
water in a bag (golaaguntro) for several hours. It is used in pre- 
paring mercury, and some other medicines. It is not used by itself. 

6. A shell called (shankanabhi) is sometimes used as a medi- 
cine, in combination with others. It is prepared by being macerated 
in lime-juice. 

7. The fragrant earth obtained from Surat called Saurashtra- 
mati is prepared by macerating it in the juice of the lemon for 
several hours, and then drying it. It is of use in cases of chronic 
diarrhoea, and dysentry. It is generally given in combination with 
other medicines. 


Pharmacy, or the preparation of Medicines. 

In this Chapter, the weights and measures, with the preparation, 
and forms, and doses of Medicine will be considered. 

Section L 
Weights and Measures, 

"Weights and measures were reduced to a more exact form by the 
celebrated Maadopokoro, who is the author of the work named 
Paribhasha which treats of this subject. Four of the particles 
of dust which are seen floating in the sun's rays as it enters a dark 
room make one liksha ; — 

6 Likshas are equal to 1 Sorroko or Mustard-seed. 

6 Mustard-seeds make 1 Yava, or Barley-corn ; 

3 Barley-corns make 1 Gunja (or seeds of Abrus precatorius.) 

3 Gunjas are equal to 1 Tola. 




















10 Gunja are equal to 1 Pranaka. 
4 Ma'sa are equal to 1 Saanoo. 
2 Saanoos equal to 1 Tola or Weight of a Rupee. 

„ 1 Karsha or Aksha. 

„ 1 Shukti. 

or 8 Tolas equal to 1 Pal. 

,, 1 Karslia or Aksha. 

„ 1 Prasrita (handful.) 

„ 1 Kudava or l a Ser. 

„ 2 Kudavas=l Mansko or Sharava or a Ser. 

„ 1 Prastha or 2 Sers. 

„ 1 Pa'tra or 8 Sers equal to 1 Adhaka, and 

4 Adhaka make 2 Dronas equal to 1 Shurpa or 64 Sers 2 Shtirpas 
make 1 Ghonee or 128 Sers ; and 16 Choniesmake 1 Kharee ; and 
100 Palas are equal to 1 Tola*. 

Some authors say that there are 5 Rattis in 1 Masha (Sursutoh) 
others that there are 8 or 10 Tolas in 1 Masha. In general Practice 

5 Ratis are equal to 1 Masha in making pills, extracts, and powders. 
In decoctions and infusions 10 Rattis are equal to 1 Masha, 8 
Masha are equal to 1 Tottah or 64 Jungahs, is equal to and 8 Tolas 
are equal to 1 Pala. These are the weights which are used for dry 
medicines. Several other varieties of weights are given in other 

Double the weight of moist medicines should be taken beyond 
the dose of dry articles ; until the weight exceeds a Klioorubo, 32 
tolas, or half a seer in weight, when the dose in both should be 
the same. Should the juice of the vegetables be very strong, half 
the dose of the dry medicine should be given. Lists of medicines 
are then given in the medical works, with the dose of each variety. 

The Fluid measure consists of a pot made of bamboo, wood, or 
iron, four fingers breath in depth, and one in circumference. It is 
called korobo or fluid measure. 

Before a medicine is exhibited to a sick person, the physician 
should examine the state of the air, bile, and phlegm, the internal 
heat, the individual's strength, the age of the person, the cause pro- 
ducing the disease, and lastly the ingredients of which the medicine 
is composed. He is next to note whether or not the intestines 
have been cleared out, and after the best consideration the medicine 
is then to be administered. 

♦ A Tola in the Sanscrit MSS. is equal to ^ Tola of the modern 
weights in Medical works. 


Section II. 

Preparations of Medicines. 

Pharmacy, or the preparation of Medicines, is treated of in four 
Books, stated to have been derived from the great God, I'shwara. 

The compound internal medicines are usually stimulants, such as 
infusions of pepper, ginger, &c. Limes are the common acids 
which are used. 

The Hindu physicians participated largely in the error of employ- 
ing medicines without examining sufficiently the properties of simple 
medicines and their application in different diseases \ they sup- 
posed they augmented efficacy by multiplying ingredients, and have 
crowded their works with numerous compounds, without a consider- 
ation of the different ingredients. The exhibition of internal reme- 
dies is generally made without a sufficient reference to the circum- 
stances of the case, their comparative efficacy in particular cures, and 
the stages and modifications of diseases in which they are employed. 
They often do not specify exactly tlie proportion of the ingredients 
but a large number are used in equal proportions, although the dose is 
not always exactly specified. It will not be necessary to add many 
of the preparations. A specimen of each will afterwards be given. 

These preparations are varied according to the peculiar purpose 
which they are intended to serve. They are usually exhibited 
mixed together, without any jDroper consideration as to their nature. 
Their receipts are often carefully retained, and handed down in 
families as useful remedies, not in extensive classes of diseases, but 
in many cases as certain cures for all sorts of diseases. It beino- 
supposed that the value of the simple medicines was increased, and 
their action rendered more salutary by a proper mixture, it was 
this that led the practitioners at an early period to investigate the 
nature of these substances, and to study chemistry. Thus they 
knew the stages of vinous and acetous fermentations. They also 
performed various manipulations with that useful instrument the 
mortar, which was used either hot or cold. They also used the 
Pharmaceutical forms of infusions, decoctions, extracts, mixtures, 
&c., which improved the qualities of these medicines. 

All kinds of medicines are best recent, with the exception of 
honey, ghi, ginger, long-pepper, and belongo. These medicines 
should be kept some time before they are used as medicine. All 
other medicines should be used fresh, and have the proper smell, and 


when they are a year old they are to be thrown away. Plants 
obtained from the Himalaya Mountains are the best, and the juice 
of plants is usually the strongest ; cowherds, hunters, &c., may be 
employed to collect medicinal plants. A Brahmin, however, is pre- 
ferred, who is poor, and has performed the necessary ablutions and 

Medicines from the animal kingdom are to be taken for young 
subjects — and secretions, such as milk, urine, &c., are to be taken 
after the digestion of the food of the animal. 

The effect of these remedies is either to increase, diminish or cure 
derano-ed air, bile, and phlegm ; of these diseases, or those of the com- 
pound parts (dhatu) of the hodj. The simple forms of medicines are 
sometimes applied externally, but they are very seldom administered 
internally. When a medicine was discovered to possess some pro- 
perty its effects were not tried, but it was usually combined with 
numerous other remedies of the same kind, in the hope of augmenting 
the efficiency of the remedy by multiplying the ingredients. On 
this account the individual articles of the Materia Medica were 
rarely employed singly I 

Medicines should be prepared in a good house, and in a retired 
situation. If prepared in open situations, in boats, in bazars, and by 
the sides of roads, their qualities are liable to be injured by unfavor- 
able influences. Should a bad woman, or one menstruating, touch a 
medicine it will lose its qualities. 

Medicines given in too small doses will be like throwing a little 
water upon a large fire that rather increases than diminishes it. 
In like manner too large doses of medicine will increase the 
diseases, and will be liable to produce other diseases. 

There is no medicine with one quality, so there is no disease 
in which there is only one humour affected ; medicines, should there- 
fore be mixed according to the state of the patient, the term, and the 
virulence of the disease. If a medicine consisting of one or two 
ingredients is not found useful, other ingredients should be mixed 
with it ; and in other cases some of the ingredients should be 
removed from the prescription. . 

Section III. 
Forms of Medicines. 
The Hindu Physicians arrange Medicine, in the following order : 

1. Jivaniya, or that form which gives longevity. 

2. Vrihanhja, those which give strength, and corpulency to 
the body. 


3. KshinakaTy those which make the body thin, 

4. Rechanii/a, those which produce a laxative effect. 

5. Sanddjiiya, sedatives. 

6. Dipamija, stimulants, increasing the internal fire, appetite, &c. 

7. Valif/a, tonics, or those which increase strength. 

8. Varnif/a, that improve the colour of the body. 

9. Kanf/ti/a, expectorants, or those which clear the throat. 
iO. Uridi/a, that give a good relish. 

il. Triptighna, those which diminish appetite. 

12. Arshaghna, those which cure piles. 

13. Kushthaghna, those which cure leprosy. 

14. Kandughna, which cure itchiness. 

15. Krimighna^ anthelmintics. 

16. Vishaghna, antidotes for poicon. 

17. StanyajanancL, which increase the secretion of milk. 

18. Stanyashodhana, which purify the milk. 

19. Shukrajanana, which increase the secretion of semen. 

20. Shukrashodhana, that purify the semen. 

21. Snehopdya, that produce smoothness and softness of the skin. 

22. Swedopdya,, which produce sweating. 

23. VamcDiopdya, emetics. 

24. BerasJa?iopdya, purgatives. 

25. Hasthdpanapdya, enemas of oil, ghee, &c. 

26. Anuvdsanapdya, oily do. 
27- Surahhirachana^ errhines. 

28. Chardanigrahana^ those which stop vomiting, 

29. TrishndnigrahaJia, those wliich quench thirst. 

30. Hikkdnigranuhay those which cure hiccough. 

31. Purislianigrahana^ those which stop looseness. 

32. Mutrakrichraniya, diuretics. 

33. Kdshahara, those which cure cough. 

34. Shwdsahara, those which cure astlima. 

35. Sotahara, those which cure swelling or dropsy. 

36. Juarahartty febrifuge remedies. 

37. Shramahara, those which produce tranquility of the hu- 
mours and remove fatigue. 

38. Ddhaprashamana^ which diminish the burning of the body. 

39. Shiaprashamana, which stop shivering. 

40. Udoodoprashamana^ those which remove temporary swelling, 
as urticaria. 

41. Angamarshaprasliamana, that remove pain as rheumatism, &c. 

42. Shulaprashamana^ which cure colicky pains. 

43. Shonitdsthdpanay that stop hemorrhage. 


44. Sangasth&panay those which restore the senses, 

45. Bedandsthapana, those which remove pains produced by 
external causes, as injuries, &c. 

This is the division which is followed in Charaka, and under each 
class simple medicines are arranged. They are all given in the 
form of decoction. 

Sursutra again divides medicines into two classes, the Sangsho' 
dhana, or those which evacuate bad humours from the body ; and 
Sangshamana those which diminish the exalted action of the 
humours and restore them to the healthy state. 

The Sangshodhana are divided into two classes, viz., purgatives 
and emetics. 

1. — Powders {churjiah.) Powders, or dry medicines, are often 
used instead of green herbs on account of their scarcity. 

For preparing such medicines, dry the vegetable in the sun or 
over the fire, powder it in a pestle and mortar, and clean the powder 
by passing it through a sieve. ' 

The usual dose of such powders is from one masha to half a tola, 
and it is usually administered with water. They are usually 
employed in diarrhoea and dysentery, and as a purgative, emetic, 

2. — The fresh juice of Plants. (Swarasa.) This is a frequent 
form of exhibiting medicines. The juice, generally of the leaves, is 
obtained by boiling and then straining. 

3. — Pastes. (Kalka) These are prepared by grinding the medi- 
cine between two stones. 

Forms of Medicines. 

The manipulations are performed with that useful instrument 
the mortar, which is used either hot or cold. The qualities of the 
different medicines are modified by exhibiting them in the Phar- 
maceutical forms of infusions, extracts and mixtures, &c. 

These preparations are divided into medicines used externally, 
and those which are used internally. Of the former class are 
ointments composed of oil, ghee or the like, with the juice of the 
leaves of trees, &c. 

The internal preparations are formed of various ingredients, and 
aire administered without any reference to the circumstances of their 
administration, their comparative efl[icacy and proportions, or the 
stages and modifications of diseases in which they are to be employ- 


«d. Some of the simple medicines are very powerful and their 
action is too little known. 

Internal Medicines are usually given in the form of 1 powders, 
2 fresh juices (swarasa) ; 3 pastes (kalka) ; 4 Decoctions, &c. 
(kwatha, shi'ta) infusions (phanla) ; 5 Extracts (phanita) ; 6 
Roasting (Patrapcika) ; 7 Spirituous mixtures (Arishta, A'sava 
and Sura') 8 Pills (Valika) ; and 9 Electuaries (Avaleha) ; 10 
Oils (taila) 

4. — Infusions and Decoctions, Sfc. Infusions are prepared by 
mixing one part of the medicine with four parts of boiling water. 
They are to be infused four hours and the water strained for 

For decoctio7is (phanta, kwa'tha, shita kwa'tha) take two tola's 
of medicines to half a seer of water, or one part to sixteen parts of 
water ; boil down to one quarter ; strain and take this quantity 
twice a day. Some recommend eight parts of water to one of the 
medicine, which is to be boiled down to one quarter. These decoc- 
tions are made fresh as required and a little honey is usually added. 
Weak decoctions are prepared by adding to two tolas two sers 
of water, which is to be boiled to one half the quantity. This is to 
be taken several times a day. Sometimes medicinal powders are 
added to the decoction. 

Pdjnt/a, is a weaker form of decoction, which is frequently 
administered to afford immediate relief, seven symptoms sucn as 
Shajanga Pani'ya which is prepared in the following manner : — 
Take of Musta (Cyperus rotundus) 

Parpatika (Oldenlandia biflora) 
Chandana (Sandal wood) 
Kuskus (cuscus grass) 
Bhala Simnthi (dry ginger) 
of each an equal quantity. Two tolas of this to be mixed with 
two sers of water and boiled down to one ser ; dose, a chhalak 
occasionally. This is an excellent drink to check thirst. 

Panchana is another form of decoction. It is formed by decoc- 
ting two tolas of certain drugs in a pint of water, and reducing 
it to one quarter ; dose, a chhatak twice a day in cases of fever, dy- 
sentery, &c. 

Prakapah is another form of decoction in which medicines are 
added in powder to increase the strength of the decoction. 

Sometimes the medicine is recommended to be prepared for use 
by Maceration (shitakwatha) for a night in cold water. The water 
is then strained for use. 

The fresh juice of plants is considered the strongest form of 

Q 2 


medicine. The decoction is next, and those obtained by maceratiott 

and by infusion are the weakest. 

5.-— Extracts (phdnita). Make a decoction of medicine^ mix it 
with j agree, boil until it becomes thick, or until a small portion 
when thrown into water does not mix for some time, nor swim in 
the water ; or when a piece of it sticks upon a board when thrown 
upon it. The extract is then prepared for use. Too much boiling 
should be avoided, as it by this means loses its peculiar qualities. 

Bhavana is made by reducing the medicine to powder and 
mixing it with a decoction of the same drug, and then exposing it 
from time to time to the influence of the sun. 

6. — Roasting {Pdtrapuka). These medicine sare prepared by 
crushing them between two stones with the addition of water. When 
in a state of pulp, wrap them in the leaves of the black-berry or 
Indian fig-tree, tie it tight with a string and cover it with a coating 
of clay an inch thick. It is then to be exposed to the fire of cow 
dung until the clay is red. It is then ready for use, and may be 
exhibited in the form of powders or pillsv 

7. — Spirituous 31ixiures or Wijies (Arishta, Asava, and 
Sura) are often recommended by the other writers on medicine* 

8. — Pills ( Vatikd.) Pills are prepared in diiferent ways ; some 
are made by rubbing the medicine between stones, others by ma- 
cerating or grinding to powder. The powder is then to be mixed 
with water or syrup, and then placed in a open place at night. 
Other pills are formed by boiling and allowing the mixture to stand 
in the air or in the sun, and then forming it into balls or pills, 
which are called Modaka and Gutika. Each should weigh from 
one half to one quarter of a tola. They have different names 
and measures for preparing them according to the nature of the 
medicine and the manner in which it is to be used. 

9. — Electuaries to be sicallowed {Kavaliyd). These preparations 
are made by boiling down the decoction of the medicine to one 
quarter, mix sugtir with it and again boil for some minutes, and 
when it has arrived at the consistence of congealing quickly on 
being removed from the fire, add the usual powders. 

Electuaries to be sucked {Lehya). These medicines are made with 
syrups, powders and certain other medicines. They are very useful 
in curing dysenterj^ cough, hcemoptysis, &c. 

10. — Oils {ghi). Oils are usually prepared by mixing four 
times the quantity of milk, whey, cow's urine, &c. ; boil, and when the 
watery part is evaporated, certain fragrant medicines are added, and it 
is then strained through cloth. These oils are used as external ap- 
plications. Several such preparations of oils are used, as errhines» 


raiu continually fall upon it. Consequently medicine should be 
administered according to the strength and age, to the stage and 
nature of the sickness, and to the kind of medicine as specified in 
the shastras. It is also very necessary in preparing medicine that 
the exact proportion of the different ingredients be observed ; for 
if more or less of any one of the ingredients be used than specified, 
it will have a tendency to increase rather than cure the disease. 

Should the sick person be strong, and not too young, a whole dose 
of the medicine may be given. Thus, with such a person, when 
oil decoctions and the hke are to be given, one pala is the dose. 
To a moderately strong person three fourths of a dose are to be 
given, or 3 akshas or 6 tolas. Should the sick person be in a state 
of weak health, or be old, or an infant, half a dose should be given 
or five ratis, or one mdshd, whether it be made of oil, ghee, a decoc- 
tion, or any other medicine. Of electuaries and syrups one or two 
karshds may be given, according to circumstances. The dose is 
afterwards to be increased or diminished according to the circum- 
stances of the case, such as the frequency and consistence of the 
dejections, &c. 

Section V. 

Administration of Medicines. 

The Hindus used either iron or stone mortars, warmed or cold. 
The hot mortar was prepared by exposing it to a fire made with 
the dry litter of goats and the husks of rice. The Pestle was 
made of iron or earthenware. It requires to be quite clean and of 
a sufficient size to hold by the hand. A prayer should always be 
said over the mortar before the medicines are mixed in it. 

The Hindus, like the other ancient nations, fell into the error of 
endeavouring to accomplish too much without examining suffici- 
ently the properties of simple remedies, and their apphcation in 
different diseases. By thus supposing that they augmented the 
efficacy by multiplying the ingredients, they have been led to 
crowd their books with numerous unsuitable medicines. 

The Menstrumn in which medicine is to be given is water, honey, 
sugar, &c. ; or such substances as speedily act on all the body. 
When Vdyu (air) is deranged, cooling and heating things are to be 
mixed with the medicine ; for deranged phlegm, warm and dry 
things — and for deranged bile, sweet and cooling substances. 

In diseases of the chest, such as difficult breathing, cough, 
ulcers of the thorax, of the nose, affections of the voice, the above 

134 ' 

menstruums are not proper ; as the medicines, such as expecto- 
rants, &c., must be taken frequently so as to keep up their ac- 

The time for administering medicines is important, some requiring 
to he given before, others during, and a third kind after eating. 
The general opinion is that medicine should be taken on an 
em.pty stomach as it is then soon digested ; and like a drop of oil 
let fall upon water is taken into the system and diffused quickly 
over it. The following precepts should be recollected in the ad- 
ministration of medicines : — 

1. In short and acute diseases the medicine is to be taken 
without food. 

2. The medicine may be taken in some cases with advantage 

before eating. 

3. One half of the medicine should be taken before, and ano- 
ther after food. 

4. By the old and weak the medicine should be taken with the 


5. By others after the food. 

6. Another kind should be taken with a covering. 

7. When the disease is in the middle of the body, the medicine 
is to be taken between the two periods of eating. 

8. Another kind is to be taken with each morsel of food. 

9. Another kind is to be taken after each morsel of food. 

10. For asthma, cough, thirst, a vomiting medicine is to be 
administered frequently. 

In treating some diseases, rice is sometimes excluded ; and in 
other diseases, rice alone is allowed after the medicine — in other 
cases more rice than usual is to be taken ; in another form the rice 
is mixed with the medicine when the person is strong, with power- 
ful internal heat. Medicine should not be given after drinking 
water, after long fasting, nor in great weakness. 

When no liquid for drink is mentioned, water is intended ; 
when no part of the vegetable is stated, the root is to used ; and 
when no time is stated, the medicine is intended to be taken in the 

Before administering medicine the following prayer is to be 
offered up : 

" Oh! Bramha! Daksha^ Ashwini Kumara^— Shiva, Indra, 

1 Son of Bramha to whom he first gave the Ayurveda. 

2 The Physician of the gods. 


Prithivi/ Chandra,^ Siirya^ — Oh! Dhanwantari/ Divyadasa/ 
Kashi Raj,6 Nakula,' and SahadevaS— Oh ! Vayu,^ Mala/^ and 
all sao-es and indigenous situations of medicines, and every kind 
of de\il ! cure this disease : and Oh ! prophets, like Rasdyana, ^ ^ 
and Mriti which cure weakness and all diseases, may the present 
prove such : and Oh ! Vasuki, ^ ^ endue this medicine with the pro- 
perty of restoring health." 

To the medicine the person says — " You are Bramha and 
Vishnu, and like Shiva and Durga, may you cure diseases ! May the 
energy of the east (Indra) and that of the south-east (Agni), the 
south (Yama^^), of the north-west (Marut^"*), of the west Varu- 
na^^), of the north-west (Nairit), of the north (Kuvera^^,) and 
of the south-east (Ishana) approach to bestow the qualities for 
the cure of diseases." 

The patient must carefully avoid making faces when he takes 
a medicine, as this is like Bramha and Shiva ; and it is sinful so to 
act. As soon as the medicine is taken the vessel which contained 
it should be turned upside down. The patient is then to wash his 
mouth and a little sweatmeat is to be taken to remove the taste. 

When the medicine is digested, it produces languor, heat, and 
weakness, giddiness and faintness, diminishes memory, &c. It 
sometimes produces intoxication and thirst. ^ ' 

Care should always be taken, that a second medicine is not 

1 Earth. 

2 The moon. 

3 The Sun. 

4 One of the first great Physicians among mortals. 

5 Ditto. 

6 Ditto. 

7 Son of the Physician of heaven. 

8 Ditto. 

9 Air. 

10 Fire. 

1 1 Water of immortality. 

12 The great serpent and author of a medical work. 

13 The judge of men after death. 

14 God of air, 

15 Of waters. 

16 God of wealth. 

17 A medicine is known to be properly digested when it acts in the 
usual manner, and appears in the motions — while the body feels cold 
and light, with appetite and thirst, and occasional belching, when the 
person is in good spirits and the senses are acute. 


o-iven until the one previously taken has been properly digested 
otherwise it will not cure the disease. 

Section VI. 

Uses of Medicines. 

Charaka arranges simple medicines under the foUow^ing heads. 
They were all exhibited in the form of decoction : 

1. Jivamya, or that form which gives longevity. 

2. Frihaniyay those which give strength, and corpulency to 
the body. 

3. Kshi7iakar, those which make the body thin. 

4. Rechaniya, those which produce a laxative effect. 

5. Sanddniyay sedatives. 

6. Dijpaniya, stimulants, increasing the internal fire, appetite, 


7. Tally a, tonics, or those which increase strength. 

8. Varniya, that improve the colour of the body. 

9. Kanthya, expectorants, or those which clear the throat. 

10. Hndya, that give a good rehsh. 

11. Triptighna, those which diminish appetite. 

12. Arshaghna, those which cure piles. 

13. iC«5^^A«^^wfl:, those which cure leprosy. 

14. Kandughna, which cure itchiness. 

15. Krimighna, anthelmintics. 

16. Fishaghna, antidotes for poison. 

17. Stanyajanana, which increase the secretion of milk. 

18. Stanyashodhana, which purify the milk. 

19. Shickrajanana, which increase the secretion of semen. 

20. Shukrashodhana, that purify the semen. 

21. Snehopdya, that produce smoothness and softness of the 

22. Swedopdya, which produce sweating. 

23. Vmnanopaya, emetics. 

24. Berasjanopdya, purgatives. 

25. Hasthdpanapdya, enemas of oil, ghee, &c, 

26. Anuvdsanapdya, oily enemas. 

27. Surabhii-achanai errhines. 
Chardanigrahanai those which stop vomiting. 



29. Trishndnigrahaiia, those which quench thirst. 

30. Hikkdnigranahay those which cure hiccough. 

31. Purishanigrahanay those which stop looseness. 

32. Mutrakrichraniya, diuretics. 

33. Kdshahara, those which cure cough. 

34. Shwdsahara, those which cure asthma. 

35. Sotahara, those which cure swelling or dropsy. 

36. Juarahara^ febrifuge remedies. 

37' Shramaharay those which produce tranquillity of the hu- 
mors and remove fatigue. 

38. Bdhaprashamana, which diminish the burning of the body. 

39. Shiaprashamana, which stop shivering. 

40. TJdoodoprashamana, those which remove temporary swelling 
as urticaria. 

41. Angamarska prashamana, that remove pain as rheumatism, 

42. Shulaprashamana, which cure colicky pains. 

43. Shonitdsthdpana, that stop hemorrhage. 

44. Sanga^thdpana, those which restore the senses. 

45. Bedandsthdpana, those which remove pains produced by 
external causes, as injuries, &c. 

Sushruta again divides medicines into two classes, the Sangsho- 
dhana, or those which evacuate bad humors from the body, as 
purgatives and emetics , and Sangshamajia those which diminish 
the exalted action of the humors and restore them to the healthy 

Medicines may be arranged according as they are supposed to 
cure air, bile or phlegm, or according to their action on certain 
organs. I shall now give a list of the principal simple remedies 
in each class, according to their supposed effects. 

The following are the principal simple medicines which are 
employed for the cure of deranged air, phlegm, and bile : — 

1. List of Simple Medicines used for the Cure of deranged vdguj 


Sanskrit. Scientific Names, ^c. 



Zizyphus jujuba or scandens 



Pinus Devadaru. 



Costus speciosus. 






Capparis trifohata. 



Phaseolus radiatus. 



(Mdsha Kalai ?) 

(Dolichos pilosiis ?) 


Shringdraj Bho- 

Betula Bhoorja. 



Sida cordifolio. 


(White) Bald, 



Barleria coemlea. 



Dolichos carpopogon. 



Bignonia Indica. 



Pentaptero Arjuna. 



Crotolaria juncea. 



Premna spinosa. 



Menispermum glabrum. 



Ricinus communis. 



Plectranthus scultellaroides 



Asparagus racemosus. 



Boerhavia diffusa v. alata. 



Asclepias gigantea. 



Pothos officinalis. 



Michelia champaca. 



Siphonanthus Indica. 



Gossypium hirsutum. 



Tragia involucrata. 



Pterocarpus santolinus. 



Mimosa octandra. 



Hordeum hexastichon. 



Piper chuvya. 



Dolichos biflorus. 



Hedysarum gangeticum. 



Bignonia suave-olens. 


2. Simple Medicines used for the Cure of deranCj 



Curcuma xanthorrhiza. 



Aquilaria agallocha. 



Pterocarpus santolinus. 



Costus speciosus. 






Marsilea quadrifolia. 



Mimosa suma. 



Anethum sowa. 



Pinus longifolia. 



Mimosa octandra. 



Coesalpinia bonducella. 



Galedupa arborea. 





Suvarna, Bhat 




















List of Simple 









































The name of a plant commonly called Iiigua. 
U'lra, Datura Metel. 
Cannabis sativa. 
Gloriosa superba. 
The castor oil tree. 
Munja grass. 

The root of the Andropogon mnricatum. 
Solauum melongena. 
Cyperus rotundus ? 
Vitex trifolia. 
Cassia fistula. 

Medicines used for the cure of deranged Bile. 

Sirium myrtifolium. 

Pterocarpus santolinus. 

A drug and perfume commonly called Bala, 

Andropogon muricatum. 

Rubia manjith, Bengal madder. 

Asclepias rosea. 

Hedysarum gaugeticum. 

Asparagus racemosus. 

Saccharum sara. 

Vallisneria octandra. 

Nymph sea lotus. 

Nymphsea esculenta. 

Nymphsea cerulea. 

Musa sapientum. 

Banana or Plantain. 

Panicum dactylon. 

Sanseviera zeylanica. 

Cocculus Indicus. 

Ficus Indica. 

This is preparad by the mixture of five 
roots, the Bel, Premna longifolia. Cas- 
sia, Gmelina arborea, and the Trumpet- 

Actions of Medicines. 
There are five principal actions of medicines ; or diaphoretics, 
emetics, purgatives, (enematd) errhines, or stimulants. — Before any 
of these medicines are given, the body should be relaxed by rub- 
bing oil upon it externally, and giving some oleaginous mixture 


I. Diaphoretics. — There are four kinds of them : — 

1. — Tdpasweda, or the appHcation of heat. 

2. — Vshdsweda, or the steam of hot water. 

3. — TJpanahasweda, or the appKcation of certain warm poultices 
or plasters made of different medicines ; and, 

4. — Dravasweda, or fomentations with various decoctions. 
Of the medicines for relaxing the body ; ghee, oil, charbi, marrow, 
and such like are to be used ; of these ghee is the best, as it is 
produced from milk, which is obtained from the cow. This milk 
first yields curdled milk, then butter, and with the assistance of 
fire ghee is produced. Nothing else can be obtained from ghee, so 
that it may be considered as pure. For diseases of the bile, ghee 
only is to be given ; of air, ghee and salt mixed : and for diseases 
of phlegm, ghee, long-pepper, pepper, dry ginger and nitre mixed 
together. A weak person with a bad memory and digestion, should 
use ghee to cure them. In certain cutaneous diseases, for open 
boils, and for worms, oil is useful, particularly when the phlegm is 
deranged. To fat people, particularly when the air is deranged, 
oil should first be given, particularly when the dejections are not 
natural. Lard (charbi) is most useful for diseases of the joints, 
bones and sensible parts. 

Perspiration should not be promoted in the scrotum, throat, or eye. 
When air and phlegm are deranged in a place, or when only air 
or cough is deranged, perspiration alone is to be invited to such 
places. When air and phlegm are deranged, medicines that con- 
tain the qualities of coldness and heat, are to be used. When air 
is deranged, cooling medicines alone are to be used. 

Perspiration is not to be encouraged in very fat, very thin, or 
debilitated persons, when affected with diseases of the blood or air, 
when the diseases are incurable, in dysentery, or when the per- 
son is afilicted with large sores over the body {Kotha). Nor will 
perspiration be proper after poisons, or drinking ; when given to 
the blind, when the abdomen is swelled, or in Erysipelas {visarpa)^ 
or Leprosy, or in a bad state of the blood. In such cases milk, 
ghee, curdled milk, and honey should be given after purgatives. 

It is improper to give diaphoretics when the body is burnt ; in 
diseases of the anus, in grief or fear-producing diseases ; in pas- 
sions, in hunger, in thirst, in weakness, in jaundice, in gonorrhoea, 
in hemoptysis, pulmonary consumption, dysentery, during the flow 
of the menses, or after taking much wine ; in pregnancy, particu- 
larly near its termination, in diseases of air, or in fatal diseases. 
When diaphoretics are used under such circumstances they will do 
harm, or their peculiar effects will not be produced. 


In general, emetics are recommended when the stomach is sur- 
charged with phlegm, and purgatives when the intestines and bile 

are deranged. 

Emetics. After the oleaginous or relaxing remedies, and the 
exhibition of diaphoretics, the five varieties of the other remedies 
are to be used. The first of these are emetics. 

When the practitioner has decided on the necessity of giving 
an emetic, the preliminary relaxing medicines with honey and 
Sainphal (an impure kind of salt,) are to be exhibited. This is 
usually done the day before the exhibition of the emetic, more 
particularly when the strength and internal heat of the person are 
great. A quantity of whey, congee water or the like, should be 
taken, and the warm hand be applied frequently to the abdomen for 
an hour to soften it. 

The usual emetic is then to be given with the proper prayer. 
If it cannot be taken for the taste, in the usual way, it may be 
sucked through the stalk of a hollow reed, so that it may be thrown 
down the throat. The emetic should be taken in the morning. The 
person is to place himself upon a stool, with his thigh parallel to 
the floor, and his head back, and sides supported by friends. He 
will first feel sick, then saliva will flow from his mouth, and tears 
and mucus from his eyes and nose, followed by vomiting. The 
vomiting will be promoted by thrusting a finger or the stalk of a 
lily down the throat. The vomiting is to be encouraged until the 
stomach is completely emptied ; this is known not to be the case 
by the discharge of saliva, by the bad breath, and by the body 
being itchy. 

Emetics are to be used when the air is deranged. 

Among emetics, madana fruit is the best — and may be adminis- 
tered in the form of powder or decoction with honey and rock-salt. 

Emetics may be given in diseases of phlegm, inflammation or in- 
ternal abscesses, when the bile is deranged, &c. 

If the emetics do not act freely, use warm water internally mixed 
with long-pepper. 

The following emetics are to be used when the phlegm is deranged. 

White mustard, rock-salt, and long-pepper ; repeat the dose 
frequently until the desired effect is produced. There are various 
emetics which are exhibited in the form of powder or chocolate ; 
use warm water after these. The dose of the emetic should be 
varied with the strength of the individual. 

When an emetic has acted properly it first produces an evacua- 
tion of phlegm and bile without pain ; the breast, neck, and head 
feel clear, and the body light. The vomiting may be stopped by 


snuffing sweet smelling mixtures up the nostrils. One kind of emetic 
acts as a purgative, another restores irregularities of the humours 
(dhatu), and retains the body soft. 

Vomiting should not be excited in cases of sparks being sesn, 
or sudden blindness, or great fatigue, in spleen, or in jaundice, 
when the abdomen is swelled, for very fat or thin persons, for in- 
fants or for very old persons, particularly when afflicted with piles, 
sores or diarrhoea, in tetanus, for persons with hoarseness, with 
hemoptysis or after great losses of blood, nor for pregnant women. 
When emetics act as purgatives and not as emetics, in the same way 
as puro-atives, when they produce emetic effects, they are unfa- 
vourable. The kind of emetic must be varied according as the air, 
bile, or phlegm is deranged ; and various diseases are supposed 
to be produced when the emetic effect is not produced, such as a bad 
mouth, foetid breath, &c. In such cases the person is not to eat, 
and the emetic must not be repeated that day. Should the vomit- 
ing be too severe, it will be repressed by anointing the body with 
ghee, by cold bathing, and by taking internally a decoction of 
rasins (kismis) with sugar and water, and other agreeable drinks. 
In the afternoon, a warm bath is to be given, and light and 
nourishing food, such as ground pulse of different kinds with the 
broth of wild animals. An aperient is then to be given to act on 
the bowels, and food is to be taken in small quantities, to renovate 
the internal fire and thus repress the vomiting. 

Emetics are very useful in diseases of the phlegm, in cases in 
which poison has been taken — in diseases accompanied with much 
thirst — in diseases of the internal heat — in diseases of the mammce 

in madness, in epilepsy — in elephantiasis — in diseases of the 

humours — in fevers — in want of appetite — in boils — in diseases of 
the stomach (amashay) — in dysentry — in diseases of the chest — in 
large secretions of saliva — in sickness — in difficulty of breathing — 
when the person has lost his sense of smell and taste — in diseases 
of the lips and mouth — when pus is discharged — in diseases of the 
throat — and in bloody discharges by stool. 

The following is a List of the principal Emetics .-— 

1. Madana, Vangueria spinosa. 

2. Kutaja, Echites antidysenterica. 

3. Jimutaka, Andropogon serratus. 

4. Ikshydkti, A bitter gourd. 

5. Ddtnurdava, Achyranthes aspera. 

6. Ketavddana, A plant with white flowers, Pandanus ? 

7. Sa7'shapa, Sinapis dichotoma. 


8. Garuqa, A vegetable and medicinal substance, 

9. Pippali, Long pepper. 

10. Karajija, Galedupa arborea. 

11. Prapunnada. 'padmdta Cassia tora. 

12. Kaviddra, Hedysanun alhagi. 

13. Karvuddray Barleria cenilea. 

14. Nimba, Melia azadiracta. 

15. Ashwagandhd, Phjsalis flexuosa. 

16. Vetasi, Calamus rotang. 

17. BandhnjivakUf Pentapetes Phoenicea, 

18. Sitd, Clitoria ternatea. 

19. Shatapushpikd, Anethum sowa. 

20. Vimbikd, Momordica mouadelpha. 

21. Vachera, Acorus calamus. 

22. Mrigahhojant, Colocynth or bitter apple. 

23. Chitrd, Plumbago Zeylanica. 

These medicines not only act as emetics, errhines, &c., but cure 
all the bad humours from the stomach upwards. From Madana to 
Prapmindda, the fruits alone are used for producing the above 
effect, and from Karvaddru to C/iitrd the roots are to be used 
for the same purpose. Sometimes they are used simply, more 
commonly in combination. 

Purgatives, ( Virechajia) and Enemas (unavavana or vasti). 

Purgatives. — The day before a purgative is exhibited the patient is 
to eat light food in combination with warm water, so as to remove 
any disarrangement of the phlegm ; the next morning the body is to 
be anointed with oil and exposed to heat, so as to promote perspi- 
ration ; after which the purgative is to be given. Should a pur^-a- 
tive be given without the preparatory medicines, the person's consti- 
tution will be broken, like dry wood at the time it is warpino*. 
These will vary according to the intention of the practitioner, 
and the state of the bowels which are to be evacuated. There 
are three such situations : — 

First ; the Mridic Kashta, in which there is much bile and a state of 
looseness ; when if the bile is required to be evacuated, a small 
quantity of the medicine should be given cold. 

The second state is called Krurd Kashfa, in which the air 
and phlegm are deranged, producing costiveness, and the medicine 
acts with difficulty. In this case the medicine should be given 
warm and in a strong dose. 

The third state is named the middle state or Madhya kashla, in 


which the air, phlegm and bile are in equal proportions, and ac- 
companied with a state of bowels neither relaxed nor costive. In 
this case the medicine should be given of a temperate heat and of 
a middle quantity and quality. 

The dose of medicine should vary with the age, &c., of the 
patient. To infants give sugar with honey. When a purgative has 
been administered in the above form its action should not be sud- 
denly stopped. The patient should stay in a closed room, and he 
should not take cold water, nor use force in the evacuation. 

When the purgative has not produced the desired effect, it will 
produce derangement in the bile and phlegm. The body is hot, there 
is no appetite — and there is a heaviness in the belly, uneasiness 
in the breast, itchiness of the arms, and there is not a free evacua- 
tion of the urine. 

Wlien purgatives act too powerfully, they produce fainting, fre- 
quent mucous stools, prolapsus ani, and pain in the belly. 

When the purgatives act properly, the patient feels easy ; and 
air, phlegm and bile pass freely, and he feels happy and light ; 
air passes by the anus in the usual manner. After the action 
of purgatives, the patient should take thin and light food — as 
congee, and sometimes broths. 

If purgatives are taken from time to time in a proper form, they 
clear the understanding and senses, improve the strength of the 
organs, and of the body. They also improve the appetite and retain 
the humours in a healthy state, and retard the approach of age. 

In infancy a mixture of honey, sugar and trivrit (teori-Convol- 
vulus turpethum) is to be given, in the form of a powder. 

When a purgative acts too strongly with a discharge of blood ; 
in such cases pour cold water upon the body, and give an emetic, 
with congee and honey ; or give the oily or mucilaginous liquids. 
The enema should be prepared with honey and ghee ; animal and 
vegetable broths should likewise be given. 

Purgatives should not be given during the beginning of fever ; 
that is while the patient feels a slight appetite, and his bowels are 
not very costive. For infants and old or very fat people, purgatives 
are to be avoided, especially when the body is very hot or much 
fatigued — ^in bloody stools, and immediately after labour ; also when 
the appetite is bad, in derangements of the blood, bile and air, when 
there are sores on the body, or internally, when there is great thirst, 
after loss of blood — and in diseases of the lungs. Should a quack 
give purgatives at an improper time he will kill the person. 

Purgatives should be used in fevers, in diseases from poisons, in 
piles, in swelling of the glands, in jaundice, in epilepsy, in diseases of 


the heart, in fistula in ano, in vomiting, in diseases of the vagina, in 
colicky pains, as costiveness, and in cholera (vishvichika) in disease 
of the belly (alasaka), in leprosy, in eruptions, in gonorrhoea, in the 
enlargement of the spleen, in hvdrocele, in ophthalmia, and in 
general in diseases of the eye, especially in purulent ophthalmia, in 
diseases of the head, ear and nose — in those of the anus and penis, 
in worms, in diseases of the bile, and involuntary discharges of 
semen, &c. 

The discharges produced by purgatives are first, urine, foeces, 
bile, the medicine, and lastly phlegm. 

Of the purgatives the Trivrit, or as it is usually called Teori 
(Convolvolus turpethum), and Haritaki (Chebulic mirobalan) are 
considered the best. Of the oily purgatives, the castor oil is the 
best. In diseases of air, give Teori in powder (6 annas weight for 
a dose) with the juice of the sugar cane. 

In diseases of the bile, the medicine is administered with milk, 
and in diseases of phlegm, the same medicine is given with the 
decoction of long and black pepper and dry ginger. 

The covering of the Haritaki, is to be used like the teori, in the 
same form and dose — and to cure the same diseases. 

Castor oil is prepared by gathering the seed at the proper 
season, drying it for seven days, and taking the kernels and boiling 
them in water — the oil is to be removed for use — in other cases 
the oil is got by pressing the seeds between weights. This oil is to 
be given to children from birth to the tenth year. It is also given to 
old and weak and delicate persons. 

Purgatives may be prepared and exliibited with ghee, oil, milk 
wine, cow's urine, broths and certain forms of food. 

The action of purgative medicines will be increased by using 
warm water with some infusion, the warm or vapor bath, and friction 
with the warm hand. When the laxative effect is not sufficient, it 
is not to be repeated till the next day ; but when a sufficient effect 
has been produced the purgatives should not be repeated for 
ten days. 

The internal fire is diminished by purgatives, and as soon as 
the action is produced, light food is to be given, and a little mango 
bark mixed with congee water is to be used internally, and exter- 
nally friction so as to increase the internal fire. 

The efforts of nature should not be resisted ; but when the per- 
son is weak, and the bowels loose, the medicine is to be given 
in small quantities and frequently repeated. When the bowels are 
loose, and the patient either weak or strong, purgatives are to be 
given, and when in that state if the bowels are not freely evacuated 



the collection of the bad humours, if retained, will produce other 


A small dose of the purgative should be first given, and when the in- 
dividual's constitution is better known, a stronger one may be given. 
The following are examples of purgative mixtures : take of Hari- 
taki (yellow myrobalan) salt, a;nd long pepper in equal propor- 
tions ; grind them into a paste with water ; dose tliree drams. 
Or take of Haritakf, (Yellow myrobalan), amlaki (emblic my- 
robalan), vibhftaki (Beleric myrobalan,) in equal parts. Three 
tolas of this mixture are to be boiled in 48 of water until reduced 
to 12 tolas. To six tolas of this infusion add three of castor oil. 
Or take three tolas (9 drams) of castor oil, with six of milk. 
When the purgative is required to be taken for diseased bile ^ 
the following mixture is recommended : — 

Take of Garatwak (cassia bark) ^ tola'= 

Tejpata (cassia leaf) ,.. J „ 

Pepper | „ 

Teori (convolvulus turpethum), 

Sugar ^ 


5 » 

|>ound and mix with hot water. 

When the phlegm is diseased. Take of Pippali (long 

pepper) | tola. 

Shunt.hi (ginger) | „ 

Yavakshara (nitre) f „ 

Shyamalata (Echites antidysenterica) ... f „ 

Teori (Convolvuhis Turpethum), 1 „ 

pound and form an electuary with hon^y. 

Purgatives, or those medicines which clear the body of diseased 
humours below the stomach. 

1. Trivrit, Convolvulus turpethum. 

2. Shydma, Panicum frumentaceum. 

3. Dantl, Croton polyandrum. 

4. Dravantl, Anthericum tuberosum. 

5. Saptald^ Abrus precatorius. 

6. Shankhini, Cissampelos hexandra. 

7. Vishdnikd, Asclepias geminata ? 

8. Vavdka, Clitoria ternata. 

9. Shavalantariy A kind of Convolvulvus. 
10. Shatraha. 


This is known by symptoms of derangeinents of phlegm and bile, 
by the loss of appetite, and heaviness and itchiness, heat of the body, 
and a diminution of the internal fire. The dejections are constipated in 
such cases. 


11. Suvamaka, Cassia fistula. 

12. Chitraka, Plumbago Zeylanica. 

13. Kinihi, Achyranthes aspera. 

14. Kzcshd, Poa cynosuroides. 

15. Kasha, Saccharum spontaneum. 

16. Jelaka? 

17. Kampilaka, A variety oi teori (Convolvulus turpethura.) 

18. Ramdkd, 

19. Pdtdld, Bignonia suaveolens. 

20. Haritaki, Termiiialia Chebula. 

21. Nili7iiy Indigofera tinctoria. 

22. Eraiida, Ri^inus communis. 

23. Kuthika, > Costus speciousus ? 

24. A'ragvada, Cassia fistula. 
26. Mahdvriksha, Euphorbia. 
26. Saptacheda. 

2*7. Arka, Calotropis gigantea. 

28. Jatisatl, Halicacabum cardiospermum. 

From Trivrit to Kdsha, the roots are used : and from Jelaka 
to Pdtdld the bark is used, from Haritdki to Eranda the fruits 
of the tree, the leaves of Kuthika and Aragvada are used ; and 
the milk of the other medicines of this list is used for producing 
their purgative effect. 

There is another class of medicines which produce both vomiting 
and purging, they are : — 

1. Kashdtaki, Several sorts of cucurbitaceous plants, 

2. Saptald, (Abrus precatorius.) 

3. Shankhini, (Cissampelos hexandra.) 

4. Devaddll. 

5. Bavilikd, (Momordica Charantica.) 

The juices of these plants are used for producing their 
effects, as the organs of speech for the articulation of vowels and 

Enemata (anuvasana). This is considered as the best manner 
of exhibiting purgative medicines in diseases of the lower part of 
the abdomen, and lower extremities. Medicines may be mixed with 
these so as to cure diseases of air, bile and phlegm, as the medicine 
enters the system like water poured at the root of a tree. These 
medicines were much used by the ancient practitioners. 

The general effect of enemas is to strengthen the muscles, and 
to lessen fat. They retain the eye and surface in a healthy state — 
and will retain the body healthy till death, or even lengthen the pe- 
riod of existence. 

s 2 


The bladders of pigs, buffalos, goats, &C.5 are used for these 
iniections. For this purpose the animal should be healthy and of 
full age. Should bladders not be found a leather bag may be 

The injecting pipe should be made of gold, silver, copper, iron, 
hard wood or ivory. It should be smooth, strong and tapering like 
the tail of a cow, with a slightly tuberculated extremity, six fingers* 
breadth in length to the cross piece, from the first to the eighth year 
of age ; eight or ten from the 9th to 16th year ; and afterwards some- 
what longer. During the first years, the tube should be the size 
of the little finger, afterwards of the ring finger, then of the middle 
fino-er ; and after the 25th year, the size of the thumb. In adminis- 
tering enemata care must be taken not to introduce it in an oblique 
direction, nor too far or too short a distance, and not to press it oq 
one side. The cross piece is likewise varied in length at the difierent 
periods of life. The size of the injection should also be varied 
according to the size of the patient's hands. 

For the very young two handsfull of the liquid is to be used ; for 
a child of eight years four, and of from 16 upwards eight hands- 

There are two varieties of glysters, one without (asnehaka) and 
another with oil (snehaka). 

The following is offered as an example of a glyster in costiveness, 
piles, dyspepsia, intermittent fever, in diseases of the loins, back, 
and intestines. It should be prepared as follows : — 
Take of the decoction of. Suttee. — 

Pushkara, A kind of Costus. 

Ki'ishnapaka, Caiissa carondas. 
Madana, Datura metel. 

Dubdaru, Uvaria longifolia. 

Kushtha, Costus speciosus. 

Yashti madhu, Liquorice. 
Villa, Assafoetida 

add ten parts of milk and four of oil ; mix and administer warm. 
Various other glysters are prepared in much the same way. 

This form of administering medicine is very useful when not too 
frequently used, in fever, diarrhsea, and dysentry ; in diseases of the 
head and eyes, in tetanus ; in convulsions, and in many nervous 
and other diseases. 

Enemata are not proper in madness, in piles, jaundice, in fainting, 
for the timid or those labouring under grief, in indigestion, in vomit- 
ing, leprosy, dropsy, asthma, cough, diseases of the throat, diseases 
of air, such as swelling of the extremities, before the third or fourth 


month of pregnancy, and in the very young and old, or when af- 
flicted with nervous diseases. 

Two thirds of the usual quantity of food should be taken before 
the glyster is to be administered ; before or after eating they will 
produce vomiting. 

Before the injection is administered the body is to be cleaned 
and anointed ; the patient is to rest in the lap of a large man in a 
clean situation ; where there are no currents of air ; he is to recline 
on his left side, and in an hour the enema will operate. 

If the enema does not operate properly, it will diminish the 
internal heat, increase the urine, and will not purify the body. It 
first discharges the dejections, the bile, phlegm and air. In this 
manner it purifies the body. 

Injections by the urethra (uttaravasti). — These should be used by 
a tube fourteen fingers' breath in length, or the length of the penis, 
with an opening of the size to allow a mustard seed to pass. For 
the female the tube should be four fingers' breath in length and the 
opening capable of allowing the passage of a small pea (mudga). 
For young girls the tube should be two fingers' breath in length. 
The tube should be covered with oil and gently introduced, and by 
pressing the bladder fixed at one extremity ; crosses should be 
fixed on the tube to prevent its being introduced too far. The 
injection should be two tolas in size. These injections are used 
for diseases of the semen, the bladder and the uterus. 

When there is a burning in the bladder, an injection of honey, 
sugar, or a decoction of liquorice and cold water is given. In some 
cases injections of ghee are used ; and in others astringent injections, 
such as decoctions of the bark of the vata tree (ficus indica) and 
banian tree. 

After the introduction of the injection the patient should take 
liquid food such as barley water, congee or animal broths. 

After the evacuation by purgatives, emetics, enemata, or blood- 
letting the patient is left with the internal fire diminished, and on 
that account heavy food should be diminished still more — and 
light and nourishing food should be taken. 

4. — Errhines. 

This is a large class of local irritants ; and they are used with 
the intention of producing sneezing and exciting a discharge from 
the nostrils, by which the head is supposed to be cleared from the 
presence of bad humours. 

There are five varieties of fumes used as errhines : — 


1 ,^—Prayojika^ or those forms of smoke which are taken hy the 
nostrils at three efforts. For this purpose different spices are 
made into a powder, and a tube twelve fingers breadth in length, 
its size of the small finger, and to taper to the end which should 
be the size of the thumb. The aperture should be the size of 
a (Kobo) or small pea ; for eight fingers the tube is to be sur- 
rounded with silk cloth, over which the medicine is rubbed. The 
candle thus prepared is to be set fire to, and the fumes are to be 
drawn into the nostrils. 

2. — Snaihika, are prepared by oily substances. They are 
made with wax — different gums, such as gaguli (gum resin) with 
ghee. This is to be lighted and the fumes are to be introduced 
into the nostril. 

3. — Varechanika, those which clear the head. They are made 
with medicines which irritate the nostrils, such as black pepper, 
long pepper, and Aguru a kind of fragrant wood. They are to be 
made into a paste, with which the tube is to be covered and then 
lighted. The fumes produce the effect desired. 

4. — Vdmaniya, which cause vomiting. They are found by 
burning the skin and hair of animals — dry fish and flesh, and 
other substances which produce vomiting. The smoke should 
be taken in first by the mouth and evacuated through the nostrils, 
and when taken by the nostrils it should be passed through the 

These are the usual forms in which expectorants are given for 
promoting the secretion of the nervous membrane of the glottis, 
trachea, and air cells of the lungs. These are rarely used. In 
diseases of the throat and chest the smoke is to be taken by the 
mouth, and by the nose for those of the head, nose and eyes. 

Kdshaghna^ which cures cougli. The usual manner of exhibiting 
it is prepared with medicines which cure the cough, such as, 
Vrihati (Solanum melongena). 
Kantakcirika (Solanum jacquini). 

Long pepper. 
Black pepper. 
Dry ginger. 

The root of the Kankataka Shringhi. 

The proper errhines are five : 

1. — Nasya^ is prepared with ghee, oil, and decoctions of vege- 
table errhines. It is usually used in diseases above the neck, from 
derangements of the air and bile. 

2. — Shiroveshaniya, is prepared with medicines which clear the 
head of pent up humours — accompanied with weight and pain of 


the head. This form is likewise used in diseases of the throat 
particularly swelling — when worms infest the head and nose, in 
jaundice, in polypas of the nose — when the person can neither dis- 
tinguish taste nor smell ; oily substances are usually employed. It 
is used in diseases of the mouth, eye, and ear, caused by derange- 
ments of the phlegm. 

3. — Pratimarsha, is prepared with those errhines which clear 
the head, and is used in the form of powder. It is used in health 
in the following cases, — after waking from sleep, after fatigue, 
eating both in the morning and evening. This medicine cures 
diseases above the neck and retards the marks of old age. 

4. — Avapira is prepared with sugar, the juice of the sugar cane, 
milk, ghee and animal broths, and those errhines which clear the 
head. It is used for diseases of the heart, as in fainting — for weak 
and delicate persons. 

5. — Pradamna is prepared with those medicines which clear the 
head in the form of powder, and is introduced into the nostrils 
by means of a tube. It is used in epilepsy, apoplexy and other dis- 
eases producing a loss of sense. 

When phlegm is deranged the errhines are to be given in the 
morning ; when bile, at noon ; and when the air is deranged, in the 

Errhines should not be emplo3'ed in Raktapitta, Virakti, after 
emetics and purgatives, in swelling of the abdomen (Udara) in 
involuntary discharges of the semen, in sudden blindness and when 
the air is deranged, after eating much food, or drinking wine, after 
poisons, wounds or injuries of the head, in jaundice, when the 
person cannot sleep, and when very thirsty. 

Errhines for clearing the head of humours. 

The following is the list of medicines used as errhines to clear 
the head : — 

Sanscrit. Scientific and other names. 

1. Pippali, Long pepper. 

2. Viranga ? A vegetable and medicinal substance, 

3. Apangaka, Achryanthes aspera. 

4. Shigru, Morunga guilandina and hyperanthera. 

5. Siddhdrthaka, White mustard. 

6. Shirishay Acacia sirisa. 

7. Marichtty Pepper. 

S. Karavira, Oleander or Neriura odorum. 

9. Vimbi, Momordica monadelpha. 



1 0. Girikarnik a, 

11. Kinihi, 

12. Vacha, 

13. Jalashuli, 

14. Karanja^ 

15. Lashuna^ 

16. Ativishay 

17. Shunthi, 

18. Tallsha, 

29. Tamdla, 

20. Surdsarjaka, 

21. Ingudi, 

22. JfesAa, 

23. Sangi, 

24. Mdtulunga, 

25. Murangi, 

26. PAa/i, 

27. ^a^^ 

28. 5Aa/«, 
39. T«Z«, 

30. Madhuka^ 

31. Ldkshd, 

32. Hingu, 

Scientific and other names. 
Hedysarum alhaji. 
Achyranthes aspera. 
Orris root. 

Halicacabum cardiospermum. 
Galedupa arborea. 
Atis or Betiila. 

Flacourtia cataphracta. 
Xanthochymus pictorius. 

Name of a plant called Ingua. 
A sort of small cardamum. 
Betula Bhoorja. 
Citrus medica. 
Hyperantliera morunga ? 
Blossom of the Sacharum Sara. 
Phyllanthus emblica. 
Ophiocephalus ? 
Borassus flabelliformis. 
Bassia latifolia. 
Shell Lac. 

Sores are frequently recommended to be fumigated. For this 
purpose a tube is used eight fingers' breadth in length and the fumes 
of the medicine are to be conveyed so as to be brought into con- 
tact with the surface of the sores. 

Gargles. The quantity should be such as can be moved in the 
mouth. The patient should stand erect. He should attend to 
what he is doing, and when it is mixed with the bad humours of 
the mouth nose or eyes, it is to be evacuated and another portion is 
to be taken into the mouth. Gargles usually consist of astringent 
decoctions with honey or urine of cows, or the juice of acid fruits, 
black pepper, long pepper, dry ginger, vacha, mustard, haritaki 
ravi balm, mixed with oil, vinegar, wine, cow's urine, salt or 
honey, according to the disease, &c. They may be used either hot 
or cold, and when properly employed they cure diseases of the mouth, 
clear it and produce easiness of the part. 

6. — Emmenagogues. The remedies for restoring or bringing 
on the menstrual discharge are vinegar and acids, cow's urine, 
curdled milk, khito (a kind of pea), cow's nrine and wine. 


These medicines are not often used, and as tlie irregularities are 
often produced by weakness, tonics are frequently given. • 

7. — Diuretics. This class of medicines are used in strangury, in 
pain of the bladder, in scanty urine and in gravel and stone. The 
Principal of these medicines are : — 

Virataru, Barleria longifolia. 

Sahachara^ Yellow Barleria. 

DarbJia, Poa Cynosuroides. 

Lavang, Nutmeg. 

Kusha, Plant called maUkatha 

Kasha, Saccharum spontaneum. 

Ashivavedhaka, Plectranthus sculellaroides. 

Agnimantha, Premna spinosa. 

Vasitka, Sesbana graudiflore. 

Vasii^ciy Pothos officinalis. 

Ikshu. Sugar-cane. 

These medicines are either used in decoction or in powder. For 
this purpose the following decoctions are used with honey and sugar. 
Take equal quantities of : 


Two tolas of the mixture are to be infused in a pint of water, 
which is to be put on the fire until reduced to one quarter, when 
it is prepared. 

Parturifacients. — Medicines for promoting the expulsion of the 
foetus from the womb were not known by the Hindu practitioners. 
In cases of lingering labor, manipulation (mantha) was employed to 
promote delivery. 

Sialogogues. Medicines for increasing the secretion from the 
mouth when too dry, are often had recourse to for expelling morbid 
humours from its neighbourhood. They should never be used 
before the 5th year. The medicines which are considered as 
belonging to this class are ; calomel, (rasavdsa) and corrosive 
sublimate, (rasakarpura). The other medicines of this class are 
black and long pepper, dry ginger, rock salt, acid fruits, Vacha and 
other hot spices. 

External agents stimulating the vital powers. These act either 
externally or internally. 

The external agents are those that produce a determination of 
blood to the part ; 2nd, a secretion of semen ; and 3rd the formation 
of pustules. The following are generally used : — 






A kind of Mistering fly. 

Ilyperantliera Moruuga. 

Fresh ginger. 


These substances are made into a paste and ajiplied over the part. 
Local and internal stimulants. — Carminatives^ or those agents 
•which stimulate the stomach and intestinal tract, and lead to the 
^expulsion of flatulence. This nimierous class of medicines have 
-already been enumerated, under the head of Aliments. The medicines 
(pipaladi) are ; 

Long pepper. 
A variety of pepper. 
Fresh ginger. 
Rumex vesicarius. 
Elack pepper. 
Common canary seeds. 
-Seed of Marking-nu plant. 
Cardamum seed. 

These medicines are used in powder or decoction with or without 
other articles. 

The astringents are used for cui'ing diarrhoea and dysentery, and 
another kind of astringent tonics are of use for the cure of ulcers 
and for stopping hoemorrhage ; the principal are : — 

A 'shwamodaha^ 





Maktachan daiui, 





Panicum italic um. 
Ly<Jopodium imbricatum. 
-Orislea tomentosa. 
Rottlera tinctoria. 
-Red sandlewood. 
A kind of kino gum. 
Sulphur et of antimony. 
A kind of fragrant wood. 
Menispermum glabrum. 

For ulcers and stopping hoemorrhage the following medicines 

are used : — 

Ficus indica. 
Ficus glomerata. 
Ficus religiosa. 
Ficus infectoria. 
Liquorice root. 


Kakubh, Peutaptera Arjuna. 

Amra, jMangoe tree. 

Jambu, Rose apple. 

Madhukoy Bassia latifolia. 

Vanjula, Dalbergia ougeinensis. 

Tinduka, Diospvros glutinosa. 

Rodhra, Symplocos racemosa. 

The barks of other trees are used in the form of decoctions or 

13. Alteratives (Rasdijam), are medicines which increase 
strength and remove diseases. These medicines must be varied 
according as they are to be administered to the young, the adult, and 
the old. It is only to the two latter that this class of medicine is 
to be administered ; and before giving it, an emetic or a purgative 
should be administered ; as a cloth should first be cleaned before 
it is dried. There are four kinds of Rasayana. The first promote 
pleasure ; the second cure diseases ; the third increase memory and 
longevity ; and the fourth prevent the usual changes of life, such 
as age, thirst, hunger, and other wants. 1. Cold water, milk, 
honey, and ghee may be taken internally, together or separately, 
to restore a proper degree of strength to the body. 2. An- 
other kind of Rasayana increases the memory, and the person's 
life. Various remedies are recommended for this purpose, as the 
fruits of Sitd and Avalguja. They are to be powdered and mixed 
with sugar, kept in a vessel for seven days, and then used with 
cold water. During this treatment the person should reside in 
a close room, and continue this medicine for six months. He 
should only use rice, milk, and sugar for food, and bathe in cold 
water towards evening. His memory will thus be improved and he 
may live for a hundred years. This plan of treatment may be 
adopted in leprosy and dropsy, with the addition of cow's urine 
instead of water. With this medicine the juice of the manduka- 
parni is used, after which milk should be taken, and barley, rice, 
jesimin, and ghee exhibited for three months. 3. Another kind, 
retains the person young, prevents the hair turning gray, and the 
teeth from faUiug out. If a man use cold water, milk, honey, and 
ghee separately, or together, he will not soon have the marks of 
old age. For the same purpose other medicines are recommended. 
4. There is a medicine called Soma which produces longevity, and 
removes the marks of age. There are many varieties, but none 
are now known, as sinful persons are often in sight. Numerous 
other medicines of this class are used for increasing the pleasure 
of the society of women. These are nutritious diet, such as ghee 


and animal food. Of this class is considered good food and drink, 
good news, anointing the body, especially towards the full moon, 
the presence of young women, love songs, clear nights, betel-nut, 
wine, flowers, such as garlands round the neck, sweet smells, beau- 
tiful gardens, and a fine prospect. The powder of Viddra with 
ghee and honey, and also the powder of Amalaka with sugar, honey 
and ghee, the flower of barley, &c., with milk and the seeds of 
Atmagupta increase the person's happiness, and his desires. These 
desires will be diminished — when they are against the heart, when 
the inclination is wanting, when much bitter, hot, salt, or sour ar- 
ticles of food are eaten, which diminish the (dhatu) and desire. 
In like manner desire will be removed by its abuse, certain diseases 
of the external organs, and the division of the vessels. Some cure 
their desires through the influence of the mind, as holy fakirs 
did ; and another class of persons are born without such carnal 

14. Oleaginous applications, {Sneha,) such as oil, ghee, fat, &c., 
may be given by the mouth as a laxative, as an errhine, as an 
enema, or for anointing the body, or as injections for the ear and 
urethra, and with food. There are two kinds, vegetable and ani- 
mal oils. Of the latter cow's ghee is the best — and tel (sesamum 
seed oil) is the best kind of medicine of the vegetable variety. 
Some of this class of medicines are digested with difficulty, others 
with less difficulty, and a third kind easily. 

Ghee is good for weak persons who have a bad memory, who are 
affected with poison, and in diseases of air and bile. Oil is to be 
used externally, but it may be given internally in cases of worms, 
and in costiveness. Warm water should be taken after the oleagi- 
nous substances. 

15. Agejits acting by depressing the vital powers are Refrige- 
rants, such as cold infusions both internally and externally. Fire 
is also used. Narcotics. — Very few narcotics were stated in 
the ancient works, Sidi, (ganja, bhang) obtained from the hemp, 
was used, as also Datura. 

16. Chemical Agents. — These medicines are 1st, Escharotics 
and caustics. 2d, Lithontriptics or solvents of urinary stones or 
gravel. The escharotics and caustics will be considered under the 
next chapter on Surgery. 

Lithontriptics are sometimes employed. For this purpose the 
usual diuretics are exhibited, particularly Arjuna, (Pentaptera 
Arjuna,) and Ashwavedaka, (Plectranthus scutellaroides, Roxb.) 

When administered by an ignorant person medicine is com- 
pared to poison, is like the knife, fire, or lightning ; but when ad- 


ministered with the necessary knowledge, medicine is hke Amrita 
or the water of immortality. There are said to be two kinds of 
medicine, one of which gives strength to the body when no disease 
is present, and another class cures diseases when they are present. 
In like manner poison may be administered in the proper manner 
with great advantage in the cure of disease. 


Surgery, (Shala/^) 

The frequent accidents which must have occurred among a race 
of people devoted to hunting and agriculture, and the feuds that 
were so frequent among them, induced the Hindu sages to pay at- 
tention to wounds, fractures, and dislocations. In this manner, we 
explain the importance which the ancient writers of the Hindu 
system of medicine give to this branch of the healing art, and the 
attention which they bestowed upon it. These remarks prove that at 
a very remote period of their History, the Hindu practitioners were 
accustomed to perform lithotomy, the extraction of the dead foetus, 
paracentesis, thoracis and abdominis, &c. This proves the extent 
of <-heir practical knowledge, and the energy and boldnesss in exe- 
cuting hazardous operations which distinguished their ancient 
surgeons, and forms such a remarkable contrast to the present igno- 
rant and timorous Surgeons of Bengal. This is the more remark- 
able as these treatises were supposed to be written by munis or di- 
vine sages, who would not compromise their character by record- 
ing precepts utterly contrary to the ritual of their law, or at variance 
with the principles and prejudices of their countrymen. Indeed, 
these precepts are often completely irreconcileable with their pre- 
sent notions, which must be considered as slowly growing out of 
the altered state of society, and are unsupported by their venerable 
ancient, and most remarkable civil and moral as well as medical 

According to the Hindu Shastras diseases are cured by the in- 
fluence of prayers and medicines ; and when these are ineffectual 
it is necessary to have recourse to the knife or other such means. 
According to the shastras, surgery, therefore, may be defined to be 
that branch of Medicine which principally effects the cure of dis- 

* To remove rapidly ; or the art of removing foreign substances from 
the body, particularly the arrow. 


eases by the application of the hand alone, the employment of instru= 
ments, or the the use of topical applications. 

At the great battle of the Asuras and Devatas, Jagya was severely 
wounded in the neck, and the Aswini Kumara, or the practitioners 
of heaven, soon cured the wound. This pleased the devatas so 
much that they were received among them with much respect, and 
a share of their honors is still bestowed upon them. Bramha also 
declared that the art of cutting, healing ulcers, setting bones, and 
the use of escharotics, was the first branch of the heahng art im- 
parted by the deity to mankind ; and as the operations of Surgery 
are rapidly performed, and afford immediate relief, they impart 
holiness, riches, and a good name to the performer, and will 
ensure his passage to heaven after death. 

In the Ayur Veda, Surgery is considered as the first of the eight 
departments of the Medical Science ; and Dhanwantari was born 
to teach this as well as the other departments. He declares, in- 
deed, that surgery cannot be practised with success unless the 
practitioner is famihar with the practice of medicine of which it is 
only a branch. 

The following remarks on Surgery will be considered, under the 
heads of: — 

1st. The structure of the body, and their natural and relative 
positions, so as to enable the Surgeon successfully to perform 

2nd. The nature of surgical diseases ; including inflammation, 
ulceration, and fistula. 

3rd. Description of Surgical instruments and bandages. 

4th. The means of removing blood from the body, including 
cupping, leeches, and scarifications. 

5 th. Styptics. 

6th. Caustics, actual and potential. 

7th. Burns and scalds. 

8th. Directions for performing operations, for removing foreign' 
substances from the body, and for treating wounds. 

9th. The means of improving, and of forming new ears and nose. 
1 0th. Of fractures and of their treatment. 
11th. Of dislocations and their treatment. 

Section I. 

The importance of having a knowledge of Anatomy in those 
who exercise this branch of the heahng art, is so evident ; and has 
been already noted so fully, that it will be sufticient to refer to page 
42 for the Hindus' knowledge on this interesting subject. 


Section II. 

Nature of diseases which are to he cured hy Surgical means. 

Inflammation (Vrana*, shotha, or sliopha). Saraswata divides in- 
flammatioii into two kinds, the one produced by accidents or external 
injuries ; and the other by internal causes. Injuries of the body 
produce the first kind of inflammation, while derangements of the 
air, bile, phlegm and blood or their combinations produce the second 

Under the class of accidental inflammations, swellings of all 
kinds will be considered, as they always commence with a certain 
degree of inflammation. 

The essential symptom of Inflammation is pus, and the peculiar 
symptoms are produced by the humour that is affected. In all cases 
the inflammation commences in one point, from which it extends on 
all sides. The varieties of inflammation are produced— 

a. By diseased air. 

h. By deranged bile. 

c. By deranged phlegm. 

d. By the derangement of air, bile, and phlegm. 

e. By deranged blood, and 

f. By external or accidental causes 

a. The variety of inflammation produced by derangements 
in the air, is characterized by the swelling being irregular and soft, 
by its red or dark colour, and from its being sometimes large and 
at other times small. The pain of this variety is sometimes severe, 
and of various kinds, and it swells and ripens in different ways, the 
discharge being limpid. 

h. The second variety of inflammation, produced by deranged 
Bile, is characterized by the swelling being of a dark red yellowish 
colour, or the colour of a ripe wild fig. The part feels hot and 
painful like the application of a hot iron, and it is accompanied 
with fever. The swelling quickly forms and ripens into a yellow 

c. When the inflammation is produced by diseased phlegm the 
swelling is elevated with round edges, with a central depression. It 
is cold and shining, of a pale yellow colour, with itching pain. The 
swelling slowly forms and ripens. The discharge from the derang- 
ed phlegm is white. 

d. When the three humours are deranged, the swelling is of 

* Vrana differs from shotha by its being accompanied with less 
inflammation, and hy its not suppurating. 


(lifFerent colours and is accompanied with various degrees and kinds 
of pain, according as the one or other of the humours predominate, 
and the discharges are of different colours, but generally resembles 
bile and blood, being red, black and yellow, and of various consist- 
encies. This variety is cured with difficulty ; it is large ; some- 
times forms quickly, in other cases slowly. Sometimes it becomes 
prominent as it ripens, at other times it remains flat. 

e. When blood is deranged, producing inflammation, the swelling 
resembles that produced by deranged bile, but is of a darker red 
colour. When large it has a dark yellow colour ; and is very hot 
and painful with much fever. 

/. Accidental inflammation, produced by wounds, bruises, &c., 
resembles the other varieties in the symptoms, and only varies in 
the treatment, by cold applications being proper in this class, but 
not in the other. When the blood is deranged in this variety, it 
resembles bile, but is of a darker red colour. When air, bile and 
phlegm are much deranged, the swelling will be incurable but will 
suppurate, as also when the physician does not apply proper 
medicines. When such a patient does not eat or act in the proper 
manner the wound will not heal. By the wound of a part the air 
is deranged producing pain, and the blood of the part becomes 
mixed with the bile of the part and becomes deranged. In this 
manner, pain, fever, thirst and heat of the body occurs, followed by 
the other s^Tuptoms of deranged bile. 

Inflammation is likewise divided into three stages, the invasion, 
the acute, and the suppurating stage. In the first there is not much 
heat nor discoloration, or hardness of the part. The pain and swell- 
ing of the part is likewise slight. In this stage the inflammation 
is said to be. A' ma (unripe). In the second stage the pain is lanci- 
nating, or like the bites of ants, or as if they were running about. 
In other cases, the person feels as if the part was burnt, torn, pressed 
or bound ; the person becomes restless and uneasy, and the swelling 
is much increased and discoloured, accompanied with much heat, 
thirst, loss of appetite, and other symptoms of fever. This stage is 
called pachamdna (ripening stage). The third stage is distin- 
guished by the part becoming pale, the swelling diminishing, be- 
coming soft and wrinkled, and the skin becoming rough, scaly and 
elastic. The pain becomes throbbing, with a feeling of itchiness ; 
the abscess opens, the fever diminishes and the appetite returns 
This stage is called pakiua or ripe. 

This pus is produced by the air, bile, and phlegm, the bile pre- 
paring the pus from the blood. In inflammation the air produces 
the pain, and the bile ripens the swelling. 


The inflammation varies with the tissue which is involved in the 
disease, of which tliere are eight varieties, according as it affects 
the skin, flesh, vessels, tendons, bones, joints, abdomen, and sensible 
parts of the body. When confined to the skin, inflammation is 
cured quickly ; but when it aflfects the other tissues, it is cured 
with more difficulty and passes through the diiferent stages. 

The air, bile and phlegm when deranged produce inflammation, 
which will vary in its effects according to the part wliich is aflTected. 
When it affects the abdomen, it produces gulma, &c., with a puf- 
finess of the abdomen, which resembles the white ant's nest. Such 
inflammation and swelling may also occur at the anus, pelvis, 
or penis ; at the navel or sides, in the groin, mammae, or 
spleen, in the liver, pancreas, or the organ of thirst. This 
internal inflammation varies in the same manner as the external 
does. Wlien the former occurs in the anus it retains the air in the 
pelvis, and urine is secreted in small quantities and with pain. 
When it occurs at the navel there is a Iiiccough, and a gurgling 
noise. When the sides are so affected, it is from diseased air ; and 
when the groin is so affected, the loins and back feel very painful. 
When the breast is so diseased, the person remains doubled up, 
and respiration is performed with difficulty and pain. When the 
spleen is diseased, and when the breasts are affected, the whole 
body is uneasy, and feels painful ; and in the latter disease there 
is a copious secretion of phlegm. When the liver is affected with 
inflammation, it produces noise in the breathing, with hiccough ; 
and when the pancreas is so diseased, the person is continually 
wanting to drink. 

When the inflammation occurs in sensible parts, whether the 
disease be recent or ripe, whether it be large or small, it gives 
great pain. When the internal inflammation is above the navel, 
the pus will be discharged by the mouth ; and when under this, 
by the lower outlets. In this case the person will live, but in the 
former he will die. 

When the breast, navel, or pelvis is diseased the person will 
die when it suppurates internally ; but he may recover when the 
abscess bursts externally. The first five varieties of inflammation 
may be cured ; but when produced by air, bile, and phlegm the 
disease is incurable. In all cases of inflammation when it is 
accompanied with the symptoms of Shotha, such as swelling of the 
abdomen, discharge of pus or blood, vomiting, hiccough, thirst, 
painful and sonorous respiration, the fatal result may be expected. 

It is of much importance that the Surgeon should be able to 
detect the stage of the inflammation ; as if the opening be made 



before the swelling is ripe, or if it is not opened when ripe, bad 
consequences will follow in either case. In such cases the Surgeon 
will be known from the quack. This fellow by opening the 
unripe inflammation, cuts into blood vessels, tendons, &c., accom- 
panied with a great discharge of blood, or followed by a great 
accession of pain : again, if the inflamed swelling is not opened 
when ripe, the pus buries itself in the neighbouring parts, forming 
large cavities, or fistulous openings, which are cured with difficulty. 
In such cases, the pus, like fire, burns the surrounding parts, which 
like fuel are consumed. 

In the generality of cases of inflammation, (Brana, Shotha) the 
cure will be soon accomplished ; but if injudiciously treated it 
will be tedious. The inflammation is of an unfavourable kind when 
large, when not prominent but shrivelled, when hard or when very 
soft, when very prominent or when very dark, when very cold or 
very hot, when of a black, yellow, red, or white colour, when it 
has an unhealthy disagreeable appearance. It is also unfavourable 
when the pus is in large quantities, when the muscles, vessels and 
tendons are numerous in the part ; when the discharge has a foetid 
smell and has fibrous substances mixed up with it, when the swell- 
ing is large, or there are numerous small swellings, when bad blood 
is evacuated and when the patient is very old. 

The general indications to be followed in the cure of common 
inflammation are, the use of sedatives, local bleeding, poultices, 
opening the abscess, cleaning it, healing the breach of continuity, 
and lastly restoring the natuml colour to the part. Sashruta des- 
cribes sixty different indications to be employed in the cure of 
inflammation and ulcers, such as, rubbing and anointing the part 
with certain medicines that dry it up*, pouring water upon the 
part, fomentations, frictions with ghee, poultices with maturating 
substances, with the observance of spare diet, emetics and purga- 
tives, &c. There are eight kinds of incisions which are to be used for 
the evacuation of the pus and blood ; also means to promote adhe- 
sion, as pressure, stopping the bleeding, diminishing the heat, the 
application of thick poultices and astringents, the application of lints 
covered with medicinal pastes, the use of oil, the juice of certain 
plants, the application of certain powders to the ulcers, fumiga- 
tion, means to depress elevation, and to increase or diminish the 
hardness of particular parts, and the application of caustic and caute- 
ries. The last consideration is to restore the natural colour to the 

* Medicine supposed to pass internally by the roots of the hair and 
the perspiring pores. 


part, to restore or remove hair, the employment of enemas, of band- 
ages, of certain leaves to the ulcers, the means to destroy worms, the 
use of tonics, of errhines, of gargles, of fumigations, and of regimen. 

A few remarks will now be added on some of the above subjects. 
For maturing a swelling, the best medicines are several dangerous 
barks and roots, linseed, carrots, the seeds of (surunga) the mor- 
unga tree ; of mustard seed, the flowers of suravijaz, and the sedi- 
ment or lees of a kind of beer or spirit. These are all to be com- 
bined with heat. When the patient objects to the ripe inflammation 
being opened with the lancet, the following medicines may be 
applied, the flower of the marking nut (bala) ; the leaves of the 
castor poleandrum (danti), the leaves of the lombago Zeylanica 
(chitra) or of the Nerium odorum (corbeer). Pigeons or adjutants 
dung is also recommended, and various escharotic substances. 

Old ghee slightly heated is to be applied to the part, and the food 
should be thin and light with the flesh of wild animals, light boiled 
vegetables mixed with oil and salt. The drink should consist of 
boiled water. 

The opening of an abscess should be made when the swelling is 
soft, without pain, is undefined and of the colour of the skin. 
A lancet should be used, which is immediately to be withdrawn 
when tlie pus is seen. In performing such an operation care should 
be taken to avoid the vital parts, large vessels and tendons. When 
the abscess is large, the opening should be the length of two fingers 
breadth. When the abscess is prominent, oblong and large it will 
soon be cured, and in order that the operation be properly per- 
formed the surgeon should possess the following qualities : — boldness, 
steadiness, presence of mind, quickness, and should possess a good 
instrument. Should a fistula exist with the inflammation it should 
be opened. In the following parts of the body the incisions should 
be oblique, as in the eyebrows, cheeks, temples, forehead, eyelids, 
lips, gums, axilla, and groins. In the sole of the feet and palms of 
the hands the incisions should be circular, and in the arms and penis 
cruciform incisions should be made. It will prevent the wounding 
of nerves and vessels. After the opening has been made the patients 
face is to be bathed with cold water, and he should be encouraged 
by kind language. The abscess is to be evacuated by pressure, and 
it is to be cleaned with a piece of cloth wet in warm and astringent 
water. A lint made of a piece of rolled cloth and covered with a 
paste made of teel seeds, honey and ghee. A pledget of cloth cover- 
ed with a simple soothing ointment is to be put over the wounded 
part, with a poultice and bandage. The prescribed prayers are 
then to be repeated over the patient ; and he is then to be removed 



to a well aired, though sheltered room, and placed in a large bed, 
with his head turned to the east, the residence of the gods, and is to 
be siirrounded by cheerful friends. Directions are next to be given 
as to his diet and regimen. Great care is to be taken to keep the 
patient clean. The wound is to be dressed on the third day, and 
care is to be taken not to allow the wound to heal too soon. After 
it has been healed, the patient is to take care not to use indigesti- 
ble food, he is also to avoid violent exercise, such as running, until 
the cicatrization is complete. In dangerous cases the abscess will 
often require to be di'essed twice a day, as it in such cases resem- 
bles a house on fire that requires prompt assistance. 

A person with this disease should avoid new rice, heavy pulse, 
hot, heavy, bitter salt and sour articles of food, with dried flesh, and 
vegetables. In all cases the patient should be recommended to 
avoid spirituous liquids^ to eat little and regularly, and sleep at night 
the usual time. 

Ulcers {Bruno.) 

Ulcers are either produced from exterior or internal causes. 
There are fifteen varieties, some say sixteen. Each of the humours 
or a couple of the humours, then the three humours deranged at 
the same time, or when combined with deranged blood, produce such 
ulcers. There is another kind called a healthy ulcer (Sudo Bruno) 
which is characterized by having a smooth and equal surface, being 
soft, accompanied with little pain and without any discharge. 

When the ulcer is produced by deranged air (biu) it is charac- 
terized by its black or red appearance, it is superficial, and dis- 
charges a cold, mucilaginous and scanty discharge. The pain is 
also peculiar, being of a crackling stiff kind. This pain is severe 
and does not affect the flesh. 

When deranged Bile produces an ulcer, it is of a yellowish blue 
colour, and is surrounded by a red colour and yellow eruptions, 
spreads quickly, and discharges a hot and red matter with a burn- 
ing pain. 

The Phlegm ; when it produces an ulcer, there is much itchiness, 
and it is deep seated. The vessels and nerves of the part are 
affected, and it is hard and white without much pain, and the dis- 
charge is white, cold, mucilaginous and thick. The part feels heavy. 

When produced by Blood ; the ulcer becomes red and is sur- 
rounded by black vessels. The smell is like that of a horse stable ; 
with much pain, great heat, and it discharges blood and is accom- 
panied with symptoms of bile. 


The ulcers which are produced by the combination of the de- 
creased humours partake of the combination of the peculiar symp- 
toms of each. 

The ulcers are likewise divided into large extent of ulcer, large 
deep seated, very hard and soft, much elevated or depressed, very 
cold or hot, very black, red, yellow or white, or disagreeable looking 
ulcers, or covered with a slough, with a foetid discharge, very pain- 
ful or bloody discharge, or very old ; all these are unfavorable 
cases of ulcer. AYhen the discharge is yellow, thin and has the 
smell of raw flesh it is superficial. When the ulcer is situated in the 
flesh, the discharge is thick, only white and mucilaginous. From 
vessels, the discharge is with much blood and it is also watery with 
much purulent matter. When bones are affected ; the discharge is 
mixed with oily matter and blood, when in the joints they cannot 
be moved, and the discharge is mucilaginous, frothy and bloody. 
When any of the viscera are affected ; the discharge may be accom- 
panied with urine or feces, or a watery discharge. 

Treatment of ulcers. The cure of ulcers is easy when treated 
by a skilful practitioner, and when the patient follows the proper 
regimen. When treated by an ignorant person, or if the patient 
does not follow the proper regimen, the cure will be much more 
difl[icult. The person should live in a large airy and clean house 
upon a large bed with his head towards the east ; he should be 
encouraged by the presence and attention of friends ; he should not 
sleep during the day, as it will produce much swelling, and a 
copious discharge with itchiness. He should avoid much walking 
and the presence of women. He should avoid new wine, different 
kinds of peas, and fruits, too much salt, pungent articles, jaoree 
cakes, dry vegetables, and the flesh of fish and amphibious animals, 
cold water is likewise to be avoided, witli curdled milk and indi- 
gestable food. He should avoid exposure to wind and dust, smoke 
too much eating, and disagreeable sounds or smells. He should avoid 
watching at night, and eating at unusual hours. He should keep his 
hair, beard and nails short, wear clean clothes, and perform the usual 
ceremonies of religion, and his food should be light and nourishing. 
The ulcers are to be dressed with a cloth covered with new oint- 
ment, and secured by a bandage of silk or cotton. The ulcers 
are to be cleaned with a watery decoction of cassia fistula and 
other astringent vegetable medicines. Ghee should be prepared 
with the sulphate of iron (kaceera), black Hellebore (kotorohunee), 
turmerick, and the root of the jatee. In other cases they 
add astringent barks or astringents as nimbo, rajbeerka, yellow 
(Hurrital) and red arsenic (monosillaa), powders prepared with 


rock salt, the sulphate of iron, and the lees of urine, with booh 
and turmerickj &c. 

Fumigations by means of different rosins, the smoke of which are 
applied to the ulcers. 

Pastes are also applied to the ulcerated surface. They may be 
made of 






Kaapola, Sfc. 

When the ulcer is much elevated apply the powders of the follow- 
ing substances, sulphate of iron, (kasits,) rock salt, red arsenic, 
mixed with eggshells and the buds of (jaatee). These may be com- 
bined, or one or two of them may be mixed and applied to the 
ulcerated surface. 

Purgatives, emetics, and fasting are to be occasionally used in 
ulcers, and the other indications which have been already stated 
under ^the head of treatment of inflammation. 

Should there be much bleeding from the ulcer it is to be stopped 
by means of styptics ; when accompanied with fever and much burn- 
ing on the part, apply cold applications ; when there is little dis- 
charge, the ulcer superficial, and the surface irregular, apply poultices 
made of seeds containing oil, as linseed, with fomentation. When 
the appearance is very dark and the smell disagreeable apply as- 
tringent decoctions. When sloughing and dry looking, apply medicines 
to clean the part. When the edges of the ulcer are very hard, local 
bleeding by scarification or by leeches is to be used with fomenta- 
tions. When the edges are soft and flabby apply astringents. 
When the edges are elevated and of long standing apply caustics. 
When the cicatrix is white it will be made black or of the natural 
colour by the preparations of the marking nut. For restoring hair 
to a part apply the ashes of ivory with crude antimony. If worms 
are generated in ulcers, apply the decoctions of ophiorrhiza mungos 
(surubaa) and Symplocos Alstonia. 

When the worms are produced by cows urine and the like, 
caustic solutions are to be applied. These are obtained from the 
ashes of certain trees. A piece of recent flesh may also be applied 
over the ulcer so as to attract the worms to it. When the ulcer is 
very old and the person emaciated and weak, give him nourishing 
food, and medicine of a tonic nature. When produced by poison 
they are to be treated as poisonous wounds. 

The intelligent practitioner will vary the local and general treat- 
ment according to the peculiarity of each case, and the state of 
the patients constitution. 

The fatal symptoms of ulcers ; are, fever, diarrhoea, fainting, hic- 
cough, vomiting, dyspesia, difficulty of breathing, cough and great 

Fistula (^Nulla Binina) a fistula is either produced by derange- 
ments of the humours, or by external causes. In the latter case 
the abscess may not be opened when ripe, the pus hurries itself into 
the neighbouring parts and forms a canal. When derangement of 
air produces the fistula ; the orifice is small, the surface rough, and 
it is accompanied with much pain. It discharges largely, especi- 
ally in the night, and the discharge is. accompanied with froth. 
This form is to be treated with poultices. 

When the fistula is produced by deranged bile, it is ac- 
companied with thirst, fever, and heat ; the discharge is copi- 
ous particularly during the day. The part is to be carefully 
rubbed, and when ripe it is to be opened with a knife, it is then 
to be cleaned, and a hot iron probe is to be introduced into the 
canal. Several kinds of medicines are to be mixed and thrust into 
the wound. 

When produced by diseased phlegm, the discharge is thick and 
white, and its edges are hard and shining. It is itchy and slightly 
painful at night. A mixture of several medicines is made to rub 
into the part so as to soften it ; other medicines are to be employed 
to wash the fistula with, and a director is to be introduced and the 
fistula laid open. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged, together producing a 
fistula, it is accompanied with great heat and fever, sonorous breath- 
ing and coma. The mouth is dry and the other symptoms peculiar 
to the diseases produced by the separate humours. In such cases 
the disease is incurable. 

Fistulous openings are usually found in the mammas of women 
after abscesses. In such cases the abscess is to be opened and the 
fistula is to be treated as in Budodu. When the patient is of weak 
constitution, is emaciated, is fearful, has lost his appetite the cure 
will be very difficult. When the knife is not allowed to be used ; a 
thread is to be passed through the fistula and is to be strongly tied 
so as to divide the skin which is contained in it. A lint made of 
the following medicines will likewise be found very useful. The 
bark of the guntafulaa, rock salt, lac stick, and beetle nut, these are 
to be mixed with the milk of the euphorbium and introduced into 
the fistulous opening. 


Descriptions of Surgical Instruments and Bandages. 

The description of these instruments is neither minute nor 
precise ; and not being illustrated by drawings, or now employed, 
a few only of each class will be delineated. In general the name 
of the instrument was derived from the resemblance to certain 
objects such as certain leaves, &c. 

The hand is considered the first, the best, and the most impor- 
tant of all Surgical Instruments, as it is with its assistance that all 
operations are performed. 

There are classes of instruments, one of which are blunt (Jonfros) 
the second have sharp cutting edges (sotros) ; and the third are 
named unosustro or substitutes for cutting instruments, such as 
caustics, fire, horns of animals open at both extremities by which 
suction is made, and gourds which are used as cupping glasses and 
are applied before as well as after the scarifications, I shall now 
add a few remarks on each of those classes. 

1st. Jontros, or blunt instruments, consist of Swasteeka, San- 
dansa, Talajontros, Narujontros, Solaakaa and Upajontros. 

a. Swustetka-juntra are curved or hooked instruments which 
are used to extract splinters of bones, or foreign bodies, and in- 
cluding pinchers, nippers and the forceps. They are formed of iron, 
usually eighteen inches long, having heads or points shaped like 
the heads of animals, the beaks of birds, &c. 

b. Sa7idansa-juntra, or tongs, which are of two kinds, one with, 
and another without a handle, and are used to remove extraneous 
substances from the soft parts, as the flesh, skin, veins, &c. They 
are usually sixteen inches in length. 

c. Tala-juntra resemble, though smaller than the last named 
instruments ; and were employed for removing foreign substances 
lodged in the outer canals as the ear, nose, &c. 

d. Naru-juntra consist of twenty varieties of tabular instru- 
ments, of different sizes and shapes, according to their intended use, 
including canulae, catheters, syringes, &c. They are used for remov- 
ing extraneous substances from deep seated canals, as the intestines, 
urethra, &c. ; for examining deep seated parts, for the application 
of other instruments, for drawing off" fluids by suction, &c. 

e. Solaakaa or Probes are rods and sounds. There are twenty- 
eight kinds, varying in size and shape, for extracting foreign matters 
lodged in parts of difficult access, for clearing internal canals, more 
particularly the urethra ; some have points like a half pea, others 
like an earth worm or the point of an arrow. Some of them have 


/V^. A/^v''\A /s/^ A.A.- 



T Black. Asiatic iatk Press . Calcutta.. 


small cavities at their extremities for applying caustic solutions, 
&c., to the diseased part. Some of these rods have ends like tha 
rose apple, for applying it heated. There are six varieties of these 
rods, three resembling the head of a rose apple, and three being 
hooked. Another instrument, resembles the half of the shell of the 
plate for eradicating nasal polypi ; a frequent and troublesome disease 
{nakra) in many parts of Hindoostan. This disease is alleviated 
by forcibly extracting the irritating excrescence. Another instru- 
ment of this class, has a head like the foot stalk of the Maleetee 
flower. It is used for cleaning the urethra. 

f. Upa-juntros are accessory instruments, as twine, leather bark 
skin, cloth, loadstone, caustic, fire, finger nails, tongue, teeth &c. 

There are many other instruments which cannot be enumerated 
as they are only varieties of the above, modified by experienced 
surgeons, for particular purposes. 

The second class, are cutting instruments (sotros), of which there 
are twenty kinds. These instruments should be formed of ffood 
iron, and neither too large, nor too small. They should be well 
polished, and sufficiently sharp to divide a hair. For this purpose 
a stone was used. They were in general six inches in length, of 
which the blade formed a half or a quarter of that length. They 
should have good handles and firm joints, and be kept quite clean 
wrapt in flannel, and kept in a box of sandle wood. 

The following are the natnes of twenty forms of the principle Cut- 
ting Instruments used in Surgery: — The supposed forms ars 
represented in the annexed Lithographic Drawing : — 

1. Mondolugra or round instrument for scarifying. 

2. Koropotrd^ or Saw. 

3. Beeteeputrd, or Lancet. 

4. Nokosustrd, (eight fingers breadth in length.) 

5. Modreehd, like the first joint of the index finger. 

6. Utpolopotj-okd, like the petal of the blue water lily. 

7. Urdoddro, or Knife. 

8. Suchee, or Needles. 

9. Kuchdpotra, like the leaves of the kushograss. 

10. Akemoka^ like the beak of a bird. 

11. Sordreemha or Scissars, (10 fingers breadth in length.) 

12. Untormuko, to break down (the internal side cutting) parts. 

13. Tricorcoko {trocar), three cutting surfaces. 

14. Kotdreekd, like a gum lancet or bistoury *\ 

15. Breehumoka ox Trocar^ with a head like a > for tapping, 
grain of rasi , 3 



16. Ara or Aid, a long sharp needle in a handle.... ^ 

17. Bednsopotraka, long sharp cutting instrument /- for tapping. 
like the leaf of the ratan J 

18. Booreeso, or hook. 

19. Dontosunku, pincers for extracting teeth. 

20. Asunee or probes, eight fingers breadth in length. 

Those instruments, the length of which is not marked ; are six 
fingers breadth in length. 

Unosustra, are instruments which may be used when cutting in- 
struments are not at hand, or when the patient is too fearful to 
admit the use of cutting instruments. These are the sharp bark 
of the bamboos, different kinds of hard stones, or glass, leeches, 
fire, caustics, nails, rough leaves, such as those of gogee, seefaleeka 
trees, &c. 

Practical Instructions. 

After the student has been taught science by books, he is next to 
be instructed in the practice of the use of the instruments, &c. 
Witliout practical skill, theoretical knowledge is of no use. The 
different surgical operations are to be shown to the student, upon 
wax spread out upon a board, gourds, cucumbers and oth3r soft 
fruits. Tapping and puncturing should be practiced on a leather 
bag of water or soft mud. Scarifications and bleeding may be 
practiced upon the fresh hides of animals from which the hair has 
been removed, or upon the dead bodies, and the puncturing or lanc- 
ing the hollow stalks of water lilies or the vessels of dead animals. 
The manner of holding and the use of the probe is to be practised 
upon a piece of hollow bamboo or the like. The removal of sub- 
stances from cavities, by removing the large seeds of the jack or b^l 
fruit, and the extraction of teeth is to be practiced upon dead 
bodies and animals. For sowing he should practice on leather 
and cloth. The application of bandages and ligatures should 
be practiced upon flexible models of the human body ; and the 
means of making noses, ears, &c., be practised upon dead animals ; 
the application of caustics, and cauteries to be done on animals. 
The use of injections is to be practised with a water pot having 
a canal. 

There are eight kinds of surgical operations. They are chedaana 
or incision, as in fistula-in-ano. 

2. Bhedno, opening parts as of large abscesses 

3. Lhekhno, or drawing lines, by which the parts are nipped, 
sacrified or innoculated« 


4. Bhedhno, or puncturing, as opening veins in hydrocele and 

5. Eshyno, to probe or sound parts, as in fistula, to ascertain 
the presence of foreign substances. 

6. Ahdrno, or the operation of extraction, as of the stone ; of 
the teeth, and of the fetus. 

7. Vishravdno^ to remove fluids ; as pus, blood, &c., or of bad 
huniours as in Leprous blotches in Elephantiasis, &c. 

8. Seebeeno, to sow parts together, as in wounds, especially near 
joints. The substances to be used for sowing are thread, twine, 
or small ligatures made of the skin of animals, or fibres of veo-etable 
substances, roots, hair, &c. The stitches are to be longer or shorter 
according to the nature of the wound. Before sowing a wound it 
should be carefully cleaned, and all extraneous substances should 
be removed. The needle should be from two fingers breadth in 
length, to three or more. They are to be long, three edged for 
deep fleshy wounds, and a third or curved kind should be used in 
vital parts and in wounds of the scrotum and abdomen. For fixing 
a torn off ear I the parts are to be brought together and sown. For 
practising these operations ; pieces of leather and cloth are to be 
sewn together. After a wound has been sewn, a mixture of equal 
parts of the seed of the preunga ; tmgtmo, (sulphate of antimony,) 
justaabo (liquorice) and lodro (an astringent bark) is to be thickly 

sprinkled round the wound, which is then to be covered \vith 
a piece of lint or silk cloth, and the whole secured with a bandage. 
The physician is then to give proper directions as to diet, &c. 

Besides the above instruments, the surgeon should provide thread, 
leaves, pledgets, heated metallic plates for erubescents, and a variety 
of astringent and emollient applications before commencing an 


There are fourteen kinds of Bandages : — 

1st. Koosa, or a hollow cylinder or sheath for the fingers, 
penis, &c. 

2nd. Ddma, a large bandage to support parts. 

3rd. Susteeko, a ciicular bandage to apply to joints, forehead, 
chest and under the ears. 

4th. Uneebuluta, a roller or bandage to encircle the extremities, &c. 

5th. Protobe, a broad bandage for the neck, and the external 
organ* of generation. 



6th. Mondola, a circular bandage for the head. 

7th. Stogheekd, a bandage enclosing a splint to keep the parts 
firm, as the joints of the fingers, the penis, &c. 

8th. Gomoka, a double bandage which is applied to ulcers. 

9th. Kotd, a four tailed bandage for the cheeks, temples, lower- 
jaw, &c. 

10th. Cheena, a bandage for the angles of the eyes. 

11th. Behonda, a bandage for the back, abdomen, and chest. 
It is a firm circular bandage. 

12th. Beetana, a large bandage for the head. 

13th. Gopand, a concave bandage for the chin, eyes, lips, 
shoulders, scrotum and pelvis. 

14th. Fonchanghu, a bandage for the clavicle with four tails. 

The surgeon is to decide on the kind of bandage in each parti- 
cular case. Its application varies with the disease. Sometimes the 
bandage is to be applied above, below, or upon the wound or ulcer 
according to the effect required. In general the bandage is to be 
applied after the application of the necessary ointment spread upon 
linen. There are three degrees of tightness with which the bandage 
is to be applied, the first being tight, the second loose, and the third 
moderately tight. When bile and blood are deranged, or when blows 
and poisons produce the disease, the bandage should be loosely 
applied ; and when phlegm and air are deranged the tightness may 
be increased. In other cases bandages may be applied more tightly. 
To the chest, buttock, belly, loins, axilla, groins, and head, a tight 
bandage is to be applied. To the extremities, face, ears, throat, 
penis, scrotum, back, and to the sides of the belly and chest the 
pressure of the bandage should be moderate. In diseases of the 
eye and joints loose bandages are to be used. Should the bandage 
be applied tight, the medicine will not produce the desired effect, 
and all the symptoms of the disease wiU be aggravated. This will 
also be the case when no bandage is applied, by the formation of 
insects, and by exposure to the influence of heat and cold, which 
will aggravate the ulcer, and prevent the cure. When accompa- 
nied with acute inflammation, and when the part is hot, painful, 
and sensible, no bandage is to be applied to the part, for the cure of 
the disease, but to retain the applications to the part. Nor are 
bandages to be applied when the sore has been produced by fire, or 
excoriating, when it contains pus ; when sloughing, or if it is near the 
anus ; when produced by extravasation of urine from Leprosy, &c. 
If bones are fractured, or joints dislocated, or if the bone is thrust 
through the flesh, the bandages will be of much use. This is also 
the case when the tendons and vessels are divided. In the treat- 


ment of ulcers ; bandages and all other means that diminish pain 
will tend towards the cure. 

When the ulcer is in the flesh, skin, joints, bone, abdomen : in 
wounds of vessels and tendons ; when deep, and when superficial, 
they are cured with bandages. The judicious surgeon will in each 
particular case, decide on the propriety and kind of bandages, which 
will vary not only with the nature of the disease, but also with 
the season of the year, &c. 

Section 4. 

Means employed to remove Blood from the body. These opera- 
tions are venesection, cupping, and the use of leeches. 

1st. Venesection. 

Before a patient is bled, he should have his body anointed with 
oil ; a warm bath is tD be used ; and some prepared barley or rice 
is to be given to eat. 

In performing the operation the patient is to be placed either 
sitting or standing before the Surgeon with his face turned to'>vards 
the east, with an assistant holding him from behind. The Surgean 
is to rub down the blood in the prominent vein which is to be 
opened, and apply a bandage of the bark of a tree, of cloth or of 
leather, not very tight, abov^e the part to be opened ; the instrument 
used for opening the vein ; is the kutaarekau, this is to be t mist 
into the swelled vein while the patient retains his breath ; the 
wound should be the size of a barleycorn. The blood should flow in 
a stream. After the required quantity of blood has been obtained, 
the bandage is to be removed and the wound is to be cleaned with 
cold water, a few drops of oil are to be let fall upon ths woui.d, 
and if the bleeding is not stopped a bandage is to be put round 
the part. Should this not be sufficient to stop the bleeding ; caus- 
tics, and even the actual cautery may be used. The quantity 
of blood which is to be removed, should never be so large as to 
weaken the person. When the patient is very strong, and the 
disease very severe, blood to the extent of one seer (Prusto or Hij) 
may be removed. If much blood is lost, it will produce head- 
ache, loss of sight, with pain in the eyes ; will produce thirst* 
severe pain, insensibility of one side, and of one member, hic- 
cough, cough, difficulty in breathing, jaundice, and the person 
may die, or it will produce the diseases of air. After bleeding, the 
body should be anointed with oil, milk, lymph of animals or other 
remedies which quickly stop the flow of blood. If all the bad 


blood is not discharged by the first bleeding, another is to be 
performed on the second or third day after the first. Do not 
endeavour to remove all the bad blood by the first bleeding, as 
a little bad blood may be purified by the use of remedies ; and 
thus the danger of bleeding too freely will be avoided. When a 
swelling requires to be opened ; and from the nature of the part, 
as when near the windpipe ; a communicating vein proceeding from 
the diseased part may be opened. 

Bleeding should not be performed when the person is below 16 
and above 70 years of age, when the female is pregnant or soon after 
delivery, nor when the body is dry ; when in a state of drunkenness 
or when there are sores upon the body ; when the humours (datu) are 
diminished ; when there is copious perspirations ; or when there are 
diseases of air present. Patients should not be bled in very cold, hot, 
or stormy cloudy days ; when there is no disease present, when the 
person is weak, after watching, or when digestion has not taken 
place. When afflicted with general dropsy, in jaundice, during free 
perspiration, piles, in madness, after vomiting or purging, in severe 
fevers, in tetanus, in palsy, &c. When venesection is to be per- 
formed, the air should be clear and warm. If possible it should 
be avoided during tlie rains ; but always the abstraction is to take 
place by degrees, at the intervals of one or more days according 
to the circumstances of the case. In the cold weather venesection 
should be performed in the middle of the day. The flow of the 
blood from the wound in the vessel may be retarded when the 
person is very fearful, faint, and much fatigued ; when he is very 
thirsty, when the bandage is not properly applied, and when he has 
much bad blood. 

When the person is bled for a disease of the spleen, the vein is 
to be opened at the bend of the left arm, or the vein between the 
left ring and little fisiger in asthma and severe cough; in disease 
of the penis open the vessels near the middle of the penis. In 
hepatic diseases open the temporal artery. In madness and epilepsy, 
and in diseases of the tongue or teeth, open the veins under the 
tongue. In tertian ague open the veins at the juncture of the 
sacrum with the spine. In epilepsy the veins of the neck may 
also be opened. 

Tiiere are twenty ways of improperly performing venesection :— 
1st. Durcheda, when the instrument is too small, and the blood 
does not flow freely, followed by a painful swelling. 

2nd. Oleeheda, when an ignorant person opens a large vessel, 
or makes the wound in the vein large by which the blood passes 
among the cellular substances of the part. 


3rd. Chuncheeta. resembles the last. 

4th. Pitcheefdy when the knife is blunt and tares the parts* 
which swell. 

5th. Kuteekas when several attempts have been made to open 
the vein. 

6th. Oprorsrcetdy -^hi^n the person is fearful, the w^wther very 
cold, and the blood is not discharged. 

7th. Otudeerdy when the knife is large, sharp, and a large 
wound is made. 

8th. Obtrddy when little blood flows. 

9th. Poreesuskdy when little blood flows from deranged air 
which dries the wound. 

10th. Kuntet'td, wlien tlie wound is too small, and little blood 

11th. Batectit, wiion the arm had been improperly bandaged, 
and when the hands shake, and no blood tlows. 

12th. Onuteetobeendy like the last. 

1 3th. Shostropatdy when there is a great flow of blood from the 
large wound in the vessel, which cannot be stopped by the usual 

14th. Tirjokbcedity when the wound is not direct, and is not 
sufliciently large. 

15th. Opobet'dd, wlun the knife is not a proper one, and several 
attempts are required to open the vein. 

16th. Obiodeedy when bhuul letting is iu>t proper. 

17th. liidurddy when the patient's body is in an unfit state and 
diseases are conseipicntly produced. 

18th. Denukd, when the part reipvires to be rubbed much before 
the vein can be oi)ened, and when the blood only flows at inter- 
vals, like the milk of cows. 

U>tli. Pttnopunorbteddy when the knife is tov> siuall, and several 
sn»all wounds are made in the vein. 

2()th. Sfersoodee, when nerves, tendons, and vital parts have 
been wounded, it produces severe pain, restlessness and death. 
When the operation is thus improperly performed, the wound is to 
be treated by the application of fomentatit>ns, and other remedies, 
which will be statt'd in the section trt^ating of w<>unds. 

An able Surgeon is therefore required to bleed, as veins are 
always changing, and jf not properly performed, it produces various 
troublesome diseases of veins ; which are not cure<i by the usm\l 
renu'dles. It is not enough to know the situation of veins ; but he 
must likewise know tlu^ time, and tlu» extent to which the bleetliug 
iH to be curried. In some diseases, bleeding is half the treatment : 


in the same manner as enemas are in many medical diseases. As 
cutting, fire, &c., give pain ; rajahs, rich people, children or old 
people, and fearful and weak people, when they require to lose 
blood, may have leeches in preference to venesection ; more especi- 
ally in the cases of bad blood produced by diseased air, bile and 
cough. When bad blood has been removed from a vein, the per- 
son feels happy, the part light, the pain ceases, and the morbid 
symptoms diminish. 

After bleeding avoid anger, violent exercise, too much sitting, walk- 
ing, exposure to great heat or cold, or improper food, for a month; 
especially very heating and cooling articles. The patient should live 
on good and light articles of nourishing food, until his strength is 
restored. If this is not attended to, bad blood will be generated. 

Bad blood in the body, produces itchiness, swelling and pain like 
that of fire ; with a red appearance of the part which suppurates. 
When deranged air has produced bad blood ; it does not flow from 
the wound in the vein like water ; it is covered with foam, is dark, 
thin, and draws slowly. When deranged by bile, the blood has a 
yellow blue colour, has a bad smell, and it dries slowly. When the 
blood is deranged by phlegm the blood is oleaginous, and smooth ; 
it is cold, of a pale yellowish colour, is in large quantities and flows 
slowly. When bile and blood are deranged in a part ; it has a dark 
colour. When two or three of the humours are deranged in a part ; 
the blood has the peculiarities of the individual, and deranged blood 
combined. Should severe pain occur in opening a vein, as if fire 
had been applied, the part is to be rubbed with warm ghee and 
gesteraodo (a plant.) 

The blood is in a healthy state when it is of a bright red colour 
like that of red jelly, or of the rainbow j when the senses are perfect 
with a desire to exercise them ; and the person is strong and in 
high spirits. 

2nd. Scarifications. By means of a thin and sharp knife ; longi- 
tudinal or transverse lines at equal distance are to be made neither 
very deep nor superficial. They should be applied quickly, avoid- 
ing vital parts, joints and large vessels. 

3rd. Cupping. The local accumulation of bad blood may be 
removed by means of cupping, which is performed by a horn 
cut smooth, and even, at the large extremity ; with a small 
opening at the narrow end. The large extremity is applied over 
the scarified part, the air in the horn is sucked out, and the 
finger is then dexterously placed over the open upper end. An 
accumulation of blood in the part included in the horn is discharged 
from the scarification. The horn is repeatedly applied, and the air 

/ / 

exhausted in the same manner, until the necessary quantity of blood 
has been removed. These horns are made of different sizes, to suit 
the part which is to be operated on. In other cases a hollow gourd 
is prepared, with a small smooth hole which is placed on the part ; 
the air is then exhausted by burning something in it, before it is 
applied over the scarified part. The horn is used when the air 
of the part is particularly affected ; and when the phlegm of the 
part, is much diseased, the gourd is preferred. 

4th. Leeches (Jalouka). Leeches have been employed from time 
immemorial in Asia, but particularly in Bengal, where they are 
considered as the best means of removing blood from a part. They 
are particularly used for Rajahs, for women, and timid persons, 
and for the very young and very old. 

There are twelve varieties of leeches ; six of which are venemous, 
and six useful. 

The venemous leeches are : 

1. Indrdyudhd, having longitudinal lines along its back like a 

2. Alagarda, are large with a black head, and hairs on their 

3. Krishna, are large dark leeches with a large head. 

4. Sdnmdrikd have numerous stripes and spots of various 
colours upon their bodies. 

0. Gochandand have a small head and narrow mouth with a 
large body and bifurcated tail. 

6. Karbura, is long like an eel, and moves irregularly. 

Tliese deleterious leeches, wlien they are employed, produce heat, 
swelling, pain, and itching of the part ; followed by excessive irrita- 
tion and fever, with spasms, sickness and syncope. These effects 
will be best treated by applying to the bites a mixture of certain 
medicines, which are considered as antidotes against the poison 
other antidotes are given internally, with errhines ; the bites of the 
Indrayunda leeches are considered fatal. These kinds of leeches 
are found near putrid fish or animals, in foul, stagnant, and 
putrescent water. Such leeches are consequently to be carefully 

There are six varieties of good Leeches : — 

1. Kapild, or tawny leeches. These have a brownish breast, 
with smooth glossy sides. 

2. Pinguid, have round bodies, are of a pale red color, and are 
very active. 

3. Sankumukhi, have long sharp heads, are of a liver colour, 
and bite quickly. 



4. MusJiikd, are of a mouse colour and have a bad smell. 

5. Pundurlkd-mukhiy are of a brown hue, and have a mouth 
like that of a lily. 

6. Shabarikdy are of a green colour like the leaves of a water 
lotus, and are ten fingers breadth long. This kind is only proper 
for removing blood from animals. 

These leeches are found in Persia (Yavana), ancient Delhi 
{Pandu), at Mutra (Pautana), &c. They are found in small 
numbers in clear and deep pools of water, which contain water lilies, 
and are surrounded with sweet smelling plants. The middle sized 
leeches are the best. 

These leeches are to be caught in a piece of leather or cloth, 
and placed in a new water-pot, in which some clay and pure water 
has been put, some grass or leaves of aquatic plants are to be 
placed on the pot for them to lie upon, and the roots of water 
lilies and dry flesh are to be given them for food. The water 
is to be changed every third day and the water pot every seventh 


When the leeches grow very large and are very vigorous ; 
when they are weak, or emaciated, when they do not bite, or 
take little blood, or are of the venemous kind they are not to be 


When the part is not very sensible it is to be rubbed dry, and it 
is then to be covered with cow-dung and earth to dry the part. 
The leech is then to be taken from the water-pot and its body is to 
be anointed with mustard seed paste. It is then to be put into a 
bason with fresh water for a short time and then removed and sur- 
rounded with a piece of cloth, and the mouth is then to be applied 
to the part affected. If it does not fix quickly, apply a drop or two 
of milk or blood to the part, or make one or two very slight scarifi- 
cations, which will induce them to fix themselves more readily. 
When the leeches are sucking, sprinkle a few drops of cold water 
upon their bodies. When the leeches have removed the necessary 
quantity of blood sprinkle a small quantity of salt upon their 
heads, to make them drop off. Put the gorged leech upon some 
dry bran, put a little oil and salt upon its mouth and then strip 
them. Put them next in fresh water, and if they are lively 
they will live, and may be used again ; but if they are languid, 
they will soon die and they should therefore be at once thrown 

The part upon which the leeches have been is to be smeared 
with honey, cold water, and astringent substances. In other cases 
poultices may be applied. 


Section V. 

If all the bad blood is not removed by the bleeding it will leave 
a swelling, redness, heat, itchiness, and pain in the part. But if 
too much blood has been removed it produces headache, blindness 
{gutta serend), inflammation of the eye, convulsions, hemiplegia, 
great thirst, burning sensation of the body, hiccough, difficulty iu 
breathing, jaundice, and death. Avoid abstracting too mucli blood, 
particularly when healthy, as it is the root which sustains the body ; 
" for the blood is the life of the body." 

There are four ways of arresting hoemorrhages : — 

a. By the use of astringents. 

b. By the use of ice {hima.) 

c. By caustics and 

3. By the actual cautery ; should the other means not prove suffi- 

a. Astringent applications. Different flowers are mixed together, 
and then powder is to be sprinkled by degrees over the part, and 
should the blood not stop ; the finger is to be placed over the bleed- 
ing vessel. The following is one of these mixtures : — take of the 
flowers of 

iu equal quantities. Or take of the flowers of — 
Jaha, barley. 
Godhuma, wheat. 
These are to be mixed and sprinkled on the part, and if it does 
not stop ; the finger is to be applied to the part for the same purpose. 
The barks of different trees, as the Banian tree. Catechu, gum 
resin, are mixed, reduced to powder, and used as styptics. 

The ashes of burnt silk, will also be found useful ; over which a 
tight bandage is to be placed. The patient is to be kept in a cool 
room, and a cool and antiphlogistic diet and regimen is to be en- 
joined. Afterwards broths, made from the flesh of deer and other 
wild animals, are to be used, with light and nourishing food. 

6. Cold and ice, by drying the blood, has a strong tendency to 
stop hoemorrhage, and is often used for this purpose. 

w 2 


c. When the above means have not been sufficient to stop the 
hcemorrhage, escharotics should next be used. These will be con- 
sidered in the next section. 

Section VI. 


The cauteries used by the Hindu Surgeons, were the actual 
and potential. 

The actual Cautery. 

Fire can sometimes be employed ; when neither the knife nor 
escharotics can be used, as it is the strongest of all the escharotics. It 
is applied in different ways, sometimes by means of long pepper, goats 
dung, the tooth of a cow, an arrow point, long circular or hook 
shaped iron probes ; for superficial purposes ; and straight probes for 
muscles or deep seated parts. There are three varieties of these 
irons ; one being small, another large, and a third of a moderate size. 
After amputations, &c., boiling fluids were used to stop hcemorrhage, 
as boiling jagree, oil, honey, &c. 

The actual cautery is applied in four different ways, according 
to the nature of the case ; sometimes the application is made in 
spots ; in other cases in circles, or in parallel and concentric lines. 

When the application is properly performed, there is a peculiar 
noise heard and smell felt, at the moment of the application, and 
the skin is immediately contracted. When the cautery is applied 
to the muscles, it changes them to a gray colour ; the swelling of 
the part diminishes, and it stops the discharge of blood, pus, &c. 

Fire is useful in some diseases of the skin, flesh, vessels, liga- 
ments, joints, and bones ; and when there is severe pain or hard 
swellings of the flesh and insensible parts ; which sometimes occur 
in carbuncle, piles, boils near the anus, in elephantiasis, and in 
small swellings ; and in bites of serpents live charcoal is recom- 
mended to be applied ; to prevent the dangerous effects of their 
bites. It is also useful in penetrating wounds and in all cases 
where it is accompanied with considerable hcemorrhage. 

The small sized actual cautery is employed with advantage to the 
eyebrows, forehead, and temples for headaches and diseases of the 
head. When applied to the eyelids near the border the eye is to 
be defended with wet clothes. This is the treatment recommend- 
ed for intergium. Fire is also applied to remove indurated parts ; to 


the side, in cases of diseased spleen and liver ; and to the abdomen 
for enlargement of the mesenteric glands. It is also applied to 
the soles of the feet for tlie cure of colic ; and it is said with the 
best effects, as it seldom fails to cure the disease. 

Fire deranges tlie blood and bile, and produces severe pain and 
fever. A mixture of ghee and honey should be applied to the 
part after the cautery. 

The actual cautery should not be used in the cold and hot 
months, as in September and October, and in May and June ; more 
particularly in the two last months. It should not be used to persons 
of bilious or sanguineous temperaments ; or in whom the blood is dis- 
eased ; when diarrhoea is present, and external applications have not 
removed it ; when the person is weak and timid ; when there are many 
ulcers on the body ; and when the patient is very young or very old. 
The diet of a patient to whom the cauter}^ is applied should be 
very thin, and of the same kind as that recommended for a woman 
with a dead foetus in her abdomen. In the more dangerous forms 
no food is to be allowed. 

When the different cauteries have not proved sufficient to stop the 
hoemorrhage, the vessel may be opened above the bleeding part in 
order to diminish the flow of blood from the large wound below ; 
and thus give time for the operation of medicines. 

"When all these meansfail to stop the hoemorrhage the physician is to 

examine the different circumstances of the case, and act accordingly. 

Potential Cauteries {Khdrd). These cauteries consist of Potassa 

more or less pure; it is obtained by burning the bark and branches of the 

Muskaka tree, 

The Kataja tree, 

The Pal4sa, 


Ark a, 




Or the bark and branches of these trees are reduced to ashes, which 
are thrown into six times their quantity of water or cow's urine. 
Strain them 21 times, expose them to heat, until they are reduced 
to the consistence of a mucilage. Again, dissolve them in water, 
strain, separate, remove the sediment and evaporate to the same con- 
sistence as before ; some shell lime is then to be mixed with them, 
and when neither very dry nor moist, they are to be taken off the fire 
and kept in an iron vessel well closed up. 


The Potassa thus prepared, may be used internally or externally. 
In the first form it is used in solution and is good for removing 
worms, for curing Leprosy, and as an antidote for certain poisons ; 
when long taken it produces impotency. As an external appli- 
cation, it is used in three degrees of strength, the concentrated, 
the mild, and the weak. 

The concentrated Potassa is used for opening abscesses and for 
producing superficial ulcers, in which cases emollients are to be 
put upon the part after the application, so as to reduce the pain. The 
solution acts strongly in healing ulcers and in stopping bleeding, 
and when concentrated it disorganizes the parts. It is applied 
externally to different cutaneous diseases, to bad ulcers, to fistula- 
in-ano and other fistula, to piles, to certain diseases of the mouth, 
as to diseased tubercles, &c. The weak solution may be taken 
internally in dyspepsia, colic, and indigestion ; and for urinary 
calculi, gravel, worms, and gurao. 

The use of Potassa is not proper in the sanguineous tempera- 
ment, in internal hoemorrhage, in fever, for children or old people, 
for weak persons, or for persons with diseases of the eyes, &c. 
When caustic is to be applied to a part, the patient is to be taken 
to a room shut up, a portion of the Caustic is then to be applied 
to the part by means of a Probe. The Surgeon is then to wait for 
a space of time that will admit of his counting a hundred. If well 
applied the part becomes black, and the juices of acid fruits are to 
be applied. Caustics are not to be applied to vital parts, where there 
are many nerves, blood ligatures, joints, ligaments, taphu, to the eye, 
throat, &c. When used by an ignorant person caustics are like 
fire, poison, or thunder to the patient whom it quickly kills. 

When properly applied by a skilful Surgeon it cures many 

Section VII. 

Scalds and Burns. 

There are four degrees of burns : — 

a. Plusta, in which there is severe pain, and change of colour 
on the part. 

b. Durdogdha, when accompanied with blisters, with much red- 
ness and pain. 

c. Samadogdha,\vhen it is black, and does not produce much pain. 

d. Atldogdha, when the part is separated with the destruction of 
the vessels, &c., with fever, thirst, faintness, and the wound heals slowly. 


In Plusta hot articles are to be applied ; and in durdogda 
apply cold substances, and sometimes hot, with ghee and fomen- 
tations. In Sajnadogdha apply a paste made of Chandcma, 
sandlewood ; Gairika, yellow earth, and the bark of the wild 
banian tree. These are to be mixed with ghee ; or apply to 
the part, animal flesh, chopped. The flesh of domestic animals 
may be used for this purpose. 

In Atidogha, separate the loose parts, and apply cold. Then 
apply the decoction of the cold bark of the Tinduka tree wdth ghee. 
In other cases apply wax, liquorice root, ghee, rasin : make into an 
ointment, and apply to the part. Cold applications are likewise 

When a person is struck with lightening, and is not killed, 
anoint the body with oil, with frictions. 

When choaked with smoke, the patient has difliculty in breathing, 
which is sonorous, attended with coughs burning of the eyes, and 
redness. This is succeeded by thirst, fever, difficulty in hearing 
and smelling : the juice of the sugar-cane, and grapes should be 
given for drink, with water and sugar. The juices of sweet and 
acid fruits may also be used with an emetic to clean the stomach. 

Section VIII. 
Directiojis for performing operatlo7is. 

When an operation is decided on ; a fortunate moment is to be 
selected, and the Brahmins and the Surgeons are to be propitiated 
with gifts. A clean and well lighted room is to be chosen in which 
the operation is to be performed ; and cloth, the leaves of trees, 
thread, honey, ghee, the juices of different kinds of trees ; milk, oil, 
cold and hot water, and strong and steady persons are to be in 
readiness to hold him, while care is taken not to frighten the 
patient. Should the patient be very fearful of the knife, or very 
young, escharotics, the nail or a sharp piece of the bark of the 
bamboo may be substituted ; and for the mouth or eyelids a kind of 
grass {goji) or other rough leaves may be substituted by rubbing 
them over the part. The patient is to be placed with his face to 
the east, and the surgeon before him with his face to the west. 

The knife should be wet with water before being used. 

The season for operating is when the sky is clear during the rains, 
and in the hot weather in the evenings and mornings. If possi- 
ble the operation should be performed near the new moon, as this is 
the most proper time. Should the person be weak, much diseased, 


insensible, or when the disease has come on suddenly, the operations 
should be performed during the evening or morning when the weather 
is steady and seasonable ; a propitious day and hour is to be found 
out. Curdled milk, corn, &c., are to be offered up to the gods for the 
success of the operation and Brahmins are to be propitiated. 

When a boil is to be opened, or the flesh divided, the part is 
to have certain escharotics rubbed over it to diminish the pain. 
When a vessel, joint, or sensible part is to be divided, oil is 
first to be rubbed over it. 

The Surgeon should hold the knife firm in the hand ; if thrust 
into a boil and no pus follows it is to be quickly withdrawn. If 
there be much pus in the part, it may be opened several times if 
necessary ; boils are not to be considered dangerous if elevated upon 
a flat surface. Should this not be the case, and the boil does not 
rise, but extends, the diagnosis is less favourable. The surgeon is 
a proper person if he be strong and operates quickly ; his knife 
should be good, and he should neither perspire, shake, nor make 
exclamations. In performing such operations, the sensible parts 
of the body are to be avoided ; as the palms of the hands and soles 
of the feet, vessels, tendons, joints and bones. When near vital 
organs the knife should be held so as to cut outwards, and should 
any such organ be wounded it produces severe pain, and is cured 
with difficulty. 

When the fetus is dead in the uterus, in ascetics, piles, certain 
excrescences and swellings near the anus, which have existed up- 
wards of a month ; the patient is to take his dinner before the opera- 
tion, and the operation is to be completed while withdrawing the 
knife. Cold water is then to be applied to the part, the person's 
spirits are to be kept up, the pus is to be squeezed out, and the 
part cleaned with tepid water. Lint smeared with honey or ghee 
is then to be put into the wound to prevent it closing. The 
wound is to be rubbed with honey or ghee and a bandage is then to 
be placed round the part. 

During the operation, care must be taken to keep a fire in the 
room near the patient, in which sweet scented substances are to 
be burnt, in order to prevent the entrance of devils by the wound. 

After the operation some holy water is to be sprinkled over his 
body, and proper prayers repeated ; such as the following : — Oh 
Bramha ! Do thou, as well as other Gods, order the serpents, Pi- 
shacha, Gandharba, Pitri (spirits), Jakha, Rakhyasa, who are desi- 
rous of acting wickedly to desist from their intention, either on earth, 
in the sky, or in any direction ; and that prophets may cure this 
wound, Do thou, Oh Bramha I direct the Planets, and rajah prophets, 


mountains, seas, and rivers, to retain the soul and hayu in this body ; 
that they remain healthy by the influence of the rajah of the moon, 
and devata of the clouds ; opana Bayii by the lightning, odana-bayit, 
by thunder, saman hayu by Indra ; strength by Soloh, sense by 
Booan. Oh Samudra (sea), the navel who know every thing 
retain thy supplicant ; and thou sun retain the eyes and ears 
liealthy. Direct your correct ears, moon retain your pure heat ; 
stars your body fair ; night your shadow, and water your semen 
healthy. May medicine retain your heart, while the sky will retain 
the elements of the body in health, and the earth the body pure. 
Thy head oh Braraha {Paj-ahrtma) will retain energy healthy. 
Iswar the energy of the male. Bramha spirit ; Dhruba eyebrow ; 
all the Devata will retain the body healthy, and live long, Brumha 
and other Devata will cure you. The sun and moon will do the 
same thing, as also Narada ; iiarhata prophets, fire, Bayu, Indra and 
other Devata. Bramha composed this prayer, and will increase the 
age of the repeater ; may it be propitious, and the pain will always 

Bramha preserve you, and the Devata, and Chandra and Surjya 
preserve you. May you live long, and be quickly restored to health." 

The patient is then to be taken to his own apartment, and the 
physician is to give the necessary directions regarding his diet ; 
which should be very light and spare, and the patient must avoid 
exercise, laughing, expressions of anger, pleasure or grief, &c. On 
the third day the bandages are to be opened and clean ones substi- 
tuted. Should the bandages be opened on the second day, the 
wound will not be sufficiently united, and it will retard the cure, 
and increase the patient's suffering ; should the pain continue for 
several days, and be severe, with heat and swelling, the leaves of 
bitter plants are to be boiled and applied to the part. When tents 
are used they should be removed every third day, and they are to 
be continued as long as pus flows from the part. 

Means of removing foreign substances from the body. 

There are two kinds of such extraneous substances, one of which 
is firmly fixed in the body, and the other is loose. 

The first is the only kind requiring remarks. They are some- 
times removed by drawing out, or by thrusting through the part. 
If at the time of wounding, the person faints ; water is first to be 
thrown upon his face. After the blood has been discharged, from 
the wound ; heat, oil and ghee, and the like are to be applied to the 
part. Then apply ghee and honey over the wound, bind up the 
part j and order diet, &c., as usual. If a vessel or tendon be wound- 



ed the instrument is to be removed by pincers. If it has disap- 
peared under the swelling it is to be pressed, so as to force out the 
iron ; or if there be barbs ; enlarge the wound and so remove the 
arrow. If it has penetrated the bone, it is to be removed with force, 
and if required a strin_g may be tied to the tooth of an elephant or, 
neck of a horse and thus forcibly removed, or with a bent branch of 
a tree. If in the throat, the extraneous matter may be discharged 
by thrusting down a hot iron to dissolve it or soften it and so re- 
move it. In such cases, the hot iron is passed through a metallic tube. 
A Probang, for removing fish bones, is usual ; by drinking fluids 
and emetics it is also dislodged ; this may also be done by beating 
the person upon the back of the neck. 

There are 15 modes of removing extraneous substances: — 

1. Swabhaha. — When removed by the natural discharges, as 
by the tears. 

2. Pachana. — Medicines to promote suppuration, which will be 
discharged with the pus and blood. 

3. Badhana. — By a slight incision. 

4. Darana. — By longer incisions. 

5. Pirana. — By pressure. 

6. Pramarjana. — By washing, by warmth, or by a hair cloth 
or hand. 

7. Bidmapana, — By blowing, as a substance introduced into 
the larynx, which produces great irritation and strong eiforts of 
coughing, &c. 

8. Bamana. — By emetics. 

9. Biracliana. — If the extraneous substances have passed to 
Pokosio, purgatives are to be given. 

10. Prakhalona. — If pus or blood be retained in a place, they 
are removed by warming. 

11. Pramarsa. — If in the nostrils, errhines are to be 

12. Prahahana. — If air, urine, and dejections are not dischar- 
ged ; or the fetus is retained ; and are not removed by the efforts 
of the person, they are to be discharged by manual means. 

13. Achusana. — When air is deranged, or water, or poison 
deranges the blood ; or there is bad milk in the mammse, this milk 
is to be removed by sucking or cupping, as the poison of serpents 
are extracted. 

14. Yaskanta. — A loadstone may be used when the substance 
is straight, and is not tightly embedded in the flesh. 

15. Harsa. — When grief is the cause, joy will remove it. 
When the foreign substances produce fever, uneasiness, swelling, 

suppuration and death. 


Wou7ids, Acute Ulcers, (Sodo Bruno.) 

Wounds are produced by accideuts and are of various shapes and 
forms. There is one kind which is simple, and another is compU- 
cated with the presence of a foreign body. Wounds vary with the 
part wounded, and the instruments by which they are inflicted. 
When the skin is wounded, it changes its colour, swells, and is 
hard. If in the Jfesh the swelUng is greater, the wound gapes, dis_ 
charges thick matter like ghee, and does not scab. 

When a vessel is wounded it is accompanied with much pain, 
blood flows from the wound which swells, and when it suppurates 
pus is discharged. When tendons are wounded they swell and the 
discharge is like ghee or phlegm from the nose mixed with blood. 

When bo)ie is fractured various degrees of pain are produced ; 
the marrow disappears, and the colour of the bone changes to that 
of a cockle shell. Pus and marrow are discharged from such 

The six varieties of wounds are as follows : — 

1st. Chhinna, or incised wounds, with a large open surface. 

2nd. Bhiana, or penetrating wounds, as by pointed instruments, 
as the horn of a cow, kc. ; this wound discharges little externally, 
when it penetrates a cavity it fills it with blood, and the contents 
of the organ ; this is followed by fever, thirst, loss of appetite, 
diflicult breathing, and the stoppage of the secretions, as urine 
and sweating. When the stomach is wounded it is accompanied 
with a vomiting of blood, and a swelling of the abdomen with 
severe pain. When the small intestines are wounded there is 
much pain, heaviness of the part, cold extremities, &c. 

3rd. Biddha, or punctured wound, when the sharp pointed and 
narrow instrument is removed, or is retained in the wound. 

4th. Khata, this is composed of the two last, being accompa- 
nied with destruction of the superficial parts. Or it is a contused 

.5th. Pichita, when by pressure, or the weight of a heavy sub- 
stance fracturing the bones, and injuring the soft parts, the wound 
is filled with marrow and blood. 

6th. Ghristtti or bruised by coming in contact with a hard 


In the four first kinds of wounds, there is a large discharge of 
blood. If there is severe pain apply poultices made of animal flesh 
and the like, with fomentations, followed by cold applications ; an 
oily glyster is to be administered internally ; and ghee prepared 
with medicines which correct, or diminish the diseased air. 

In the two last kinds of wounds, there is a slight discharge of 



blood ; and in such cases if there is not a loss of blood from the 
part, much inflammation and suppuration will be the consequence. 
In such cases, cold apphcations are to be used. This is the gene- 
ral treatment of all wounds. 

The following is the treatment to be pursued in particular cases : 

When the wound is near the head with a flap of skin, it is to be 
sowed, and a bandage applied to support the part. If the ear is 
separated it is to be restored to its natural position, and by sutures 
and a bandage it is to be kept there. 

When the windpipe is wounded, and the air passes through it, 
sow the wound closely, put some ghee of the goat, and over it a 
circular bandage. The person should be kept on his back, and 
should take only fluid food. If the extremities are severely wound- 
ed with fracture of the bone, retain the parts in their natural po- 
sition, apply oil, and a roller over them. In wounds of the back 
part of the body, the person is to be supported lying on his back, 
taking care that no pressure is made upon the wound. If on the 
breast, he is to be placed upon his breast in the same way. This 
direction is given in order to avoid the matter collecting within the 

When an extremity is separated, immediately pour boiling oil on 
the surface. Then apply a cap-formed bandage, and remedies to 
heal the wound. The following oil is recommended for healing 
wounds : — Take of a decoction of 

Chandana, (Sirium myrtifolium.) 
Podmoka, (Mentha sativa,) 
Ragadhray (Amaranthus atropurpureus.) 
TJtpala, (Salvinia verticillata.) 
Pnungu, (Panicum Italicum.) 
Hurdira, (Curcuma longa.) 
Mudhuka, (Bassia latifolia.) 
Porscea, (Galega purpurea.) 

mix, boil, and strain for use. 

The unfavourable symptoms of wounds, are great fever and heat 
of the body, a collection of blood in the part, cold extremities, red- 
ness of the eyes, stoppage of the evacuations, delirium, giddiness, 
convulsions, difficulty of breathing, severe pain, with a serous dis- 
charge from the wound. The senses become obtuse. 

Severe wounds are sometimes accompanied with erysipelas, teta- 
nus, madness, hectic fever, cough, vomiting, diarrhoea, hiccough, 
shivering, &c. 

If the eye is divided the sight is lost, but if displaced without 
injuring the nerves, it is to be carefully returned with the assist- 
ance of a water-lily, and apply ghee as an errhine. 


Means of improving, and forming new Ears and Noses. 

A particular ceremony is performed for boring the ears of chil- 
dren, which it is not necessary to describe. As ornaments are 
hmig from the ears, it is of consequence to remove defects from 
them. Sushruta gives directions for performing fifteeen different 
operations. However, the experienced Surgeon will vary the ope- 
ration according to the circumstances of the case, and according to 
the nature of the defect. Sometimes these are produced by acci- 
dents, or by internal causes. If the helix or antihelix are defective 
the body of the external ear is to be half cut through so as to 
bind it in the natural position. If there is a deficiency in these 
parts, a portion of the skin of the same size and figure is to be 
raised from the cheek, the blood stopped, and a bandage appUed 
so as to keep the parts together of the natural figure and shape. 
The patient should not sleep during the day, should not eat much, 
should remain in a cool situation, and avoid fatigue. When the 
part is properly healed, apply oleaginous ointment, prepared with 
wax, oil, and fat. When the parts are healed up the lobe may be 
pierced according to custom. 

If not properly performed many bad consequences will follow 
these operations, as indurated swellings, ulcers, &c. 

When the nose is cut off, or destroyed by diseases.— "The former 
is a frequent punishment in the native courts. A fresh leaf is first 
cut of exactly the size of the nose, it is then to be placed upon 
the cheek, and the necessary quantity of skin and cellular mem- 
brane is to be dissected. The nose is then to be scarified, and 
after dissecting up the flap it is to be placed upon the raw part of 
the nose to which it will adhere. Sutures and bandages are applied 
to keep the parts together. After the bandage has been applied, 
a couple of wooden canulas are to be introduced into the nostril to 
allow breathing, and to support the new nose. A piece of linen 
cloth previously soaked in oil is to be applied over the bandage. 
iVn aperient is then to be given to the patient, and his general 
health is to be attended to. Should any other deficiency of the 
nose be present it may be supplied in the usual manner. If the 
nose should be deformed it may be reduced in size by the knife. 


Fractures and dislocatious are produced either by falls, pressure, 
blows, by sudden and violent extension, and other incidents of 

Dislocations either lengthen or shorten the joint, or it is turned 
inwards or outwards, is tender and painful, which is much increas- 
ed by the least movement. There are six varieties ; — 


1 . Vtpista when the dislocated joint is crushed and swelled, 
both above and below, with much pain, which increases at night. 

2. Bislistia or separated. In this variety there is less sweUing, 
the pain is continued, and the movements of the joint are totally- 

3. BiharUta, when the joint is twisted. 

4. Tirjokhepta, when one part of the joint is turned outward 
with severe pain. 

5. Otkhepta, when one of the bones of a joint are dislocated 
while the other remains in its usual place. 

6. Ahakhepta, when a bone is forced downward with much pain. 
There are twelve varieties of Fractures : — 

1. Korkotaka, when the fracture is in the middle of the bone 
with swelling. 

2. Aswakurna, in which the bone protrudes like the ear of a 

3. Churnta, when accompanied with bruises and the bone is 

4. FlchcMtay when depressed by a heavyweight without swelling. 

5. Astheechulleta, when a small part of the bone is elevated. 

6. Kandabhagnay when a larger bone is fractured and disabled. 

7. Majdmiigoda, when the broken part of the bone enters the 
same bone. 

8. Atipatta, when the fractured bone is separated. 

9. Bokora, partial fracture. 

10. Cheena, when only a small part remains undivided. 

11. Pdtta, when comminuted without pain. 

12. Sphutitai when the bone is swelled with small openings. 

A fracture is distinguished from a simple swelling of the part, 
by the crepitating noise when moved, by the looseness and pain 
in the part, and by the great uneasiness. 

Treatment. — Fractures do not unite quickly in those persons 
who eat little, and who are intemperate, or when accompanied with 
severe diseases. Such patients should not use salt, astringent and 
acid food, also connexion with women, exposure to the weather, 
fatigue. They should not take dry food, but use rice, animal 
broths, milk, ghee, and such like nourishing food. For these frac- 
tures use a decoction made of the bark of the ModuM, TJrnmbora, 
Ossoka, Polassa, and then apply splints of bamboo. A bandage is 
to be renewed every seventh day in the cold weather, in temperate 
weather every fifth day, and in hot weather every third day, or 
according to the individual circumstances of the case. The band- 
age should neither be too loose, nor too tight. In the first case 


the apposite of the broken bones is not sufficient, and in the latter 
case it will produce much pain, swelling and inflammation. Cold 
astrino-ent decoctions of the barks of different trees are to be ap- 
plied; such as 

Nagrodha, Citrus aurantium. 
Bafd, Millingtonia pinnata. 
Aswatha, Ficus religiosa, &c. 

The part should be kept perfectly at rest, and every care should 
be taken to prevent suppuration. 

After a few days warm oil should be applied to the part prepared 
with different drugs, according as the air, bile, and phlegm are 

Compound Fractures. — Apply ghee and honey to the wound, 
with astringent decoctions ; and then follow the same plan of treat- 
ment as recommended for simple fractures. 

Fractures are easily united in youth, and they require usually 
one month for the cure ; in middle age two months ; and in old 
age three months. In order to reduce a fracture, the bone that 
overlaps another is to be drawn down. 

The following fractures are always dangerous : — 

When one or more bones of the head are fractured, when the 
fracture is comminuted ; when the thigh bone or pelvis are frac- 
tured ; when the fracture extends to joints, when the fracture is 
produced from a fall from a great height. Fractures are also dan- 
gerous when the person is very weak, or very old, has old ulcers, 
leprosy, and when bad symptoms of deranged bayu are present. 

In the Treatment of Dislocations. 

First apply fomentations and warm oleaginous apphcations with 
frictions so as to soften and relax the parts. The surgeon will 
then reduce the dislocation by forcing the bone out of its new posi- 
tion, and by pressing and binding the joint in the opposite direction 
from that in w^hich it has been displaced, so as to allow the bone to 
slip into its natural position. 

When the hip or knee-joint are dislocated, the extension must 
be made with a kind of pully called chakra. The patient should 
then be placed in a bed and the part kept at rest. When of long 
standing, fomentations and oily frictions are to be dihgently ap- 
plied before the reduction is to be made. 

A dislocated rib is to be reduced by pressing with the thumb 
and second finger, after the soft parts have been well relaxed by 
being rubbed with ghee. A proper splint and bandage, is then to 
be applied. 

The dislocated humerus is to be reduced by pulling the bone 


strongly downwards, or along the side after a pillow or ball has 
been put in the axilla ; when the bone will slip into its place. The 
joint is then to be surrounded with a bandage which passes round 
the axilla and the neck in the form of 8. This bandage is called 

The dislocated elhow-joint is to be reduced by the extension and 
flection of the fore-arms, while pressure is made by the thumb and 
lingers upon the displaced head of the bone. 

The same means are to be employed in order to reduce the dis- 
locations of the wrist and ancle joints. 

When the bones of the neck are dislocated, it is to be reduced 
by a person placing his thumbs under the angles of the jaw-bone, 
and fingers upon the side of the neck and drawing the head slowly 
upwards, while another person retains the body at rest. When 
the dislocation is reduced, the person is to be kept in an erect posi- 
tion for a week. 

The dislocation of the lower jaw is to be reduced by drawing it 
downwards, when the bone will shp into its place ; the part is then 
to be rubbed with warm ghee, and a four tailled bandage is to be 
applied over the chin, so that two of the bands are tied behind, 
and two on the top of the head. 

When the bones of the nose are depressed, they are to be raised 
into their natural position by means of an instrument called Shdldkd ; 
a hollow wooden tube is kept in the nostrils, so as to retain the 
bones in their natural position. Ghee is then to be rubbed exter- 
nally over the part. 

After a dislocated bone has been reduced, a plaster is to be ap- 
plied to the part ; consisting of munjista, liquorice, red sandal 
wood, and rice, and are to be all pounded and mixed together. The 
plaster is then to be formed by mixing the powder with ghee which 
has been washed a hundred times in water. This plaster is to be 
continually applied over the dislocated joint, for a considerable time 
after it has been reduced. Should there be much pain in the part, a 
cold infusion of magrodude, pucha, mulie in milk, and chakra oil 
are to be applied. 

• Every morning during the treatment some prepared ghee mixed 
with such medicines as will improve the health, and keep the 
bowels relaxed, is to be taken. 

In sprains and bruises nothing is to be done, except the applica- 
tions of cold lotions and plasters. In some cases circular band- 
. ages wetted with ghee by itself, or mixed with a decoction of casha 
(a kind of grass), is to be applied over the part. 

The treatment is said to be proper when no deformity is left in 
the part, and it has its natural action. 



Tuis Extensive subject will be Considered under some 
General Remarks on Disease ; and the Description 
AND Treatment of particular Diseases. 


General Remarks on Disease. 

In this chapter t shall consider the nature, classification, causes, 
and description of disease, with a few remarks on Pathology as 
explained in the shasters. 

Nature of Disease. 

Disease is distinguished in the shasters hy the causes, peculiar 
signs, and effects of certain suhstances in diminishing or increasing 
particular sets of symptoms, and lastly by Pathology or more pro- 
perly morbid anatomy. 

The nature of disease was explained by the Hindus on the same 
principles as their physiology. Nature, which exhibited the highest 
degree of order in her operations, is liable to occasional irregularities ; 
from the impurities, and the imperfect manner in w-hich the elements, 
and qualities, are mixed together. In like manner the harmony of 
the humours of the body are liable to derangement. At one time 
the disease is owing to an increase of one of the principal humours, 
at another to its diminution, with regard to the other humours. 
They thus explained the occurrence, and varieties of disease : — The 
soul (Jivita) of the body, like the great soul of the world, tended to 
retard these derangements, or restore such irregularities. When 
disorder has been introduced ; the soul, (vix medicatrix naturae) 
tends to reduce the humours that are increased, and to augment 
those which are diminished. In like manner certain medicines have 
peculiar effects in producing these changes, and thus assist the soul 
in her salutary influences. 


As long as the humours remam m due proportion, the individual 
remains in health, as perfect harmony reigns in the universe while 
the elements retain their just proportions ; but, as soon as the har- 
mony is lost, by the assimilation being imperfectly performed, 
derangements of the system are the consequence, and the body 
becomes the prey to disease. Hence, these irregularities in the 
quantity and quality of the humours, are the proximate cause of 
diseases. This is rendered more frequent by the body continually 
undergoing changes by the waste that is going on ; which is made 
up by the supply of aliment. 

Disease is therefore the pain {duhklia) of the soul, caused by the 
derangement of the humours. 

Classification of Diseases. 

The ancient Hindu Medical writers arranged diseases according 
to their prominent symptoms, and not according to the peculiarity 
of the symptoms and their combinations, which were influenced by 
the structure and uses of the part. Thus they gave the name of 
shul, to diseases accompanied with much pain ; when accompanied 
with local swelling it is considered as guhna, while more general 
swellings were considered under the head of udara. They thus lost 
an important principle in the grouping, and inculcated dangerous 
principles in the treatment of diseases : for soma diseases will 
assume the peculiarities of the three diseases. Others pass from 
the one to the other, while the nature of each of the diseases, and 
the tissue affected, are quite different ; and require to be treated by 
methods quite opposite to each other. 

In the Ayur Veda medicine is divided into eight chapters, which 
require, it is added, to be carefully studied before a person can be 
successfulas a practitioner. But so extensive is the range of the 
subject, that one person cannot successfully exercise all, and he 
requires to confine his attention to one department. The classifica- 
tion in Ayur Veda is as follows : — 

1st. Injuries, and phlegmoid tumours. 

2nd. Diseases of the senses, and head. 

3rd. Diseases of the whole body, as fever, leprosy, &c. 

4th. Derangement of the faculties, from demoniacal possessions. 

5th. Diseases of infants, and of nurses. 

6th. Antidotes. 

7th. ? Alchemistry ; and 

8th. The means of increasing the human race. A modification 
of this division is usually followed in the Hindu medical works. 


Diseases are likewise divided into three kinds, one of which is 
curable, another is cured with difficulty, being of a chronic nature, 
and the third class is incurable. Each of these diseases is again 
divided into primitive, and consecutive ; external, or internal ; local, 
or general. These again are divided into three varieties : — The first 
is, when one disease has occurred and another follows, which is increas- 
ed by the first, the medicine for which must cure both diseases, but 
particularly the chief. A second variety is when a disease has been 
present without any other ; and a third is when the precursory 
symptoms are only present. In such cases medicines are to be given, 
so as to remove the diseased cause. 

Another classification is founded on the origin of diseases, into 
hereditary, and acquired. These, however, are not dinded into 
sporadic, epidemic, and endemic classes ; although this is so natural 
a diA"ision. The contagious, and non-contagious nature of diseases, 
and their being communicated from one person to another by medi- 
ate, and immediate contact, was well known to the Hindu physi- 

In Charaka, and other works of great authority, diseases are consi- 
dered under four classes : — The first is called Ac/antuJca, or accidental 
diseases, and are produced by external causes, such as accidents and 
poisons. There are two varieties of these diseases, the first being 
corporeal, and the second mental. Medicine will cure the one, and 
manaijement the other. 

2d. Nija (Saurira), bodily diseases, form the three other classes. 
They are caused by eating and drinking improper articles of food ; 
which derange air, bile, and phlegm ; or blood locally, or generally. 
Both Ayantuka and Nija^ may affect the mind as well as the body. 

3d. Manasa (mental diseases), produced by derangements of the 
mind ; caused by passion, grief, joy, anger, malice, env}^, pride, lust, 
covetousness, delusion, low spirits, &c. 

4th. Swdbhubika (natural diseases), which act on both mind and 
body in the same manner ; as appetite, thirst, decrepitude, sleep, 
death, &c. 

These four classes of diseases thus act eventually on the soul, as 
well as the body; and may be cured by evacuating superfluous 
humours, and increasing those that are deficient, by diet, and manage- 
ment {Sushrutct) , 

Diseases have likewise been divided into two classes : — 

I. Shastrasddhya, or those cured by manual treatment. 

II . Snehadi Kriydsadhya, or those cured by medicine (Sushncfa) . 
The most usual classification of disease is into the following seven 

classes : — 

Y 2 


1st. AdUala jjrabritta or liereditsiYj diseases. This is explained 
by the mother's blood, and seminal secretions of the father being 
affected with certain diseases, which are conveyed to their children ; 
these diseases are hemorrhoides, phthisis, dyspepsia, epilepsy, lepro- 
sy, and elephantiases. (Menu, p. 60. chap. 3. s. 7.) 

By care and attention these hereditary taints may be retarded in 
their appearance, and even prevented from developing themselves. 
In other cases such taints produce other diseases. 

2d. Janmabalprahritta (disease of the embryo). When the 
mother does not take care of her food, exercise, &c., this class of 
disease is produced. From these causes the infant may be born 
blind, deaf, dumb, dwarfish in size, &c. 

3d. Boshahal^rahritta (diseases of the humours) caused by in- 
temperance. Some are produced from the stomach, some from the 
intestines, some affect the whole body, others only the mind. 

4th. Sanghdtabalprabritta, or accidental, as when caused by 
wounds, poison, &c. 

5th. Kalahalprabritta, diseases caused by cold,, heat, rain, 
storms, &c. 

6th. Daibabaljyrabritta. Wlien improper actions are perform- 
ed, a class of disease of the most loathsome appearance, and incurable 
nature are supposed to be produced ; such as by the abuse of the 
Deities, or Brahmans, the contempt of spiritual preceptors, and other 
heinous offences. Such can only be cured by a course of severe and 
long continued penance, by mysterious performances, and liberality 
to the sacred Brahmans. In the present day these causes sometimes 
are so aggravated that the sacrifice of the person's life is not sufficient 
far its purification, as is leprosy. Among the ignorant the only 
means of preventing this is supposed to be by sacrificing them- 
selves in the sacred Ganges, and it not unfrequently happens that, 
instigated by friends, these miserable and deluded persons drown 
themselves in the sacred stream, as an expiation for their supposed 

Another division of this class of disease is produced by contact, by 
breathing the same air, eating together, sitting upon the same seat, 
wearing the same clothes, or ornaments, of a person labouring under 
the disease. In this manner Leprosy may be propagated. 

7th. Swabhabahalaprabrittai or natural diseases, give pain to 
the soul ; such as thirst, appetite, age, sleep, and death. This class 
is again divided into the timely and untimely. 

When the principal humours {dhdtv) are deranged, the disease is 
called by the name of the humour affected ; such as rasaja (chyle 
diseases), among which are dyspepsia, pain of the body, &c. ; 


raktaja, or diseases of the blood, such as leprosy, erysipelas, &c. ; 
mdngsaja, or diseases of the flesh, such as flesh}^ tumours, &c. 

Causes of Disease. 

CharaJca, as we hare seen, divides disease into three classes, men- 
tal, bodily, and accidental ; which he supposed were situated in the 
semen, chyle, or blood. The general causes of diseases are also 
three, proceeding from matter or objects of sense (ortoh), such as 
yision, smell, sound, taste, and touch ; the second from improper 
exercise, and the third from tlie seasons. Thus diseases are 
caused by improper exposure to too much, or too httle light ; to 
too severe, or too little exercise ; to a season of too great heat, 
or too much or too little rain, cold, &c. These are the three general 
causes of disease. They act in this manner ; when a person is too 
much exposed to light, as by looking at the sim, blindness will be 
the result. Dyspepsia will be produced by being exposed to bad 
odours. As an example of improper exercise, that of carrying heavy 
weights produces Hemoptysis ; and by irregularities of the seasons. 
Cholera, Fever, Dysentery, &c., arc produced. 

There are also three sorts of medicines : one sort that cleans the 
body when taken internally, as emetics, purgatives, &c., another 
sort purifies the external body when applied externally, as oil, dia- 
phoretics, bathing ; and the third kind is the use of knives, or in- 
struments ; fire, and escharotics. 

Char alia states also that there are three objects of enquiry in this 
world, the first and chief enquiry being the means of presening life ; 
the second, the means of acquiring wealth ; and lastly the means of 
obtaining beatitude in the next world. 

There are three means of preserving life, proper food, sleep, and 
proper government of the senses and passions. The means of ac- 
quiring wealth are such as are not at variance with \irtue and reli- 
gion, such as mercantile transactions, the service of government, and 
husbandry. We should not envy the wealth of others, but strive to 
follow their example. The acquisition of happiness for another world 
will be obtained by study, by a virtuous marriage, by performing 
the sacrifices pointed out in the shasters, governing the passions, 
avoiding envy, evil thoughts, by speaking the truth, by hospitality 
to strangers, by the society of the learned and the good, and by 
prayers to God. 

The particular causes of disease are those which affect the air, bile, 
phlegm, and blood. 

Another form of disease is produced by sin, which is to be sus- 
pected, when a disease is not cured by the means pointed out by the 


shasters. These diseases are called karmaja, and are to be cured 
by good actions, by prayers, by certain forms of penance, &c. " If 
the disease is incurable, let the patient advance in a straight path, 
towards the imisible north-eastern point, feeding on water and air, 
till his mortal frame totally decay, and his soul become united with 
the Supreme Being." (Menu. p. 175, ch. vi. s. 31.) 

The exciting causes of the diseases of air, are fighting with 
strong men, too much exercise, venery, much study, especially at 
night, severe cold and rainy seasons, &c. The exciting causes of 
the diseases of bile, are anger, grief, fear, fasting, indigestible food, 
acid, and pungent food, &c. The exciting causes of phlegm diseases 
are sleeping in the day time, want of exercise, sweet and salt food, 
drinking too much fluids, eating too much, &c. The causes of the 
disease of the blood are the same as those producing bilious diseases, 
also sleeping during the day, exposure to heat, too much exercise, 
indigestible food, improper mixtures of food, &c. 

Another cause of disease is when they proceed from other dis- 
eases. In this case the original disease disappears leading the new 
one to follow its usual course. The original disease in other cases 
remains, and may produce a second disease. Thus from enlarged 
spleen, fever and di'opsy are produced ; from piles, dyspepsia, and 

Description of diseases. 

The descriptions of disease in the Hindu writers are generally 
distinct and satisfactory, though often at variance vdth some of our 
theoretical notions ; sometimes, however, from the imperfect list of 
symptoms given, it is difficult to distinguish the disease intended to 
be described, especially as it sometimes appears that the Physicians 
mistook an accidental combination of a few symptoms, for a dis- 
tinct disease ; and in other cases, placed under varieties, distinct 

The description of a disease is usually commenced with an enu- 
meration of the supposed causes, situation, and humours deranged, 
as indicated by the symptoms, and the varieties produced by the 
humours affected. 

Before considering the description of particular diseases, it will be 
necessary to consider the indications of the morbid changes of the 
humours, which enter into all the diseases. By these indications, 
the physician is able to know the increase or diminution of any of 
the humours, which will regulate the particular treatment which 
he is to follow. 

The seven essential parts of the body (dhatu) produce various 


diseases by a preternatural increase, or diminution of their quan- 
tity :— 

1st. When chyle (ram) is increased, it produces want of appe- 
tite, heaviness of the body, as if too much had been eaten, weakness 
of digestion, large secretion of saliva and phlegm, languor and 
lassitude, stretching, giddiness, nausia, vomiting, and fever. When 
chyle is diminished the person is subject to diseases of the breast, 
his skin is pale, his body becomes hght, weak, the eyes become 
diseased, &c. In such cases the chyle is thin ; the person has a 
depraved taste, is restless, and grey hairs appear early in life. 

2d. When the blood is increased the body feels heavy ; the 
body and the eyes have a red colour, with a burning sensation, 
eruptions appear over the body ; and the person feels giddy, has no 
appetite, and his urine is red. He is subject to piles, bloody dis- 
charges, and baldness. Females in such cases are subject to 
menorrhagia. Such a state predisposes the person to attacks of 
inflammation of different viscera, and, the formation of large 
abscesses ; to leprosy, rheumatism, erysipelas (bisarpa), &c. When 
the blood is diminished preternaturally, the skin appears dry ; the 
person feels a desire for sour things, and the vessels appear empty. 

3d. "^iVlien the Jlesh is morbidly increased, the body feels heavy, 
the muscular parts increase in size, the abdomen enlarges, and the 
person is subject to coughs, asthma, &c. When diminished ; the 
loins, cheeks, lips, penis, thighs, breast, axillas, hips, abdomen and 
neck, become thin, the wliole body dries up, with pains ; and the 
large vessels diminish in size. 

4th. When the fat is increased, the surface of the body has a 
shining appearance, it produces languor and fatigue after slight 
exertion, thirst, perspiration of a disagreeable smell, bronchocele, 
diseases of the lips, gonorrhoea, cough and asthma, and an increase 
in the size of the belly, buttocks, neck, and breast. 

When diminished the part becomes flabby, and the joints lax, 
the body dries up, and soft food is desired. 

As a disease fatness is produced by smearing the body with oil, 
by eating frequently, by want of exercise, by sleeping during the day ; 
by sweet, or oily urine ; and by increased phlegm. Such a state 
produces difficulty of breathing, thirst, appetite, a desire to sleep, 
perspiration, and a bad smell of the body, which becomes unwieldy. 
The person cannot speak distinctly, nor work ; there is a diminished 
desire for women, as the vessels are filled, and the circulation is 
imperfectly performed. The other essential parts which are pro- 
duced from the fat are imperfectly formed, and the strength is 


Such a person is liable to attacks of diabetes and gonorrhcea, 
eruptions, terminating in large abscesses, fistula-in-ano, &c. In such 
a person, disease is always more dangerous according as the accu- 
mulated fat fills the vessels. 

The causes of thinness, are what increases the air of the body, 
such as much work, frequent connexion with women, study, fear, 
grief, sorrow, want of sleep, thirst, and not eating and drinking 
enough to satisfy the appetite. This state of the body is hkewise 
produced by whatever diminishes the essential parts of the body, 
and dries up the chyle. 

This state of the body produces appetite and thirst, and the per- 
son is easily aifected with cold, heat, wind, and rain. Such a person 
is weak, breathes with difficulty, is subject to diseases of air, to 
attacks of spleen, and dyspepsia, from the diminution of internal 
heat. In this state of the body, every disease is aggravated, and 
the causes increasing this state should be avoided. Various vege- 
table infusions, with nourishing and sweet food, are used to increase 
the size of the body. In like manner milk, curdled milk, ghee, 
flesh, sleeping during the day, a happy disposition, and certain 
laxatives have the same effect. * 

Both great fatness and leanness should be avoided ; and the 
middle state should be considered the most favourable state of the 

5th. When Bone is increased in the system, it produces additions 
on old bones, and the teeth become large. When it diminishes the 
body dries up, the patient complains of pain in the bones, and the 
teeth and nails become irregular. 

6th. When the marrow is increased, the body and eyes feel 
heavy, the person has an increase of semen, and by drying it 
causes a difficulty in passing the urine, which is increased with pain 
and swelling of the bladder. When the marrow is diminished the 
semen diminishes, and there is pain in the bones, which feel empty. 

7th. When the semen is increased, there is an increased dis- 
charge, and calculi form. Its diminution is accompanied with pain 
in the penis and testicles, and the person has no inclination for 

The state of the excretions produce morbid symptoms, and dis- 
eases : — 

1 St. When the fceces are increased there is a noise in the belly 
with pain ; and when diminished there is pain in the breast and 
side, and the air makes a noise in the upper part of the abdomen. 

2nd. When urine is increased it produces pain in the bladder, 
there is a frequent desire to perform mictirition, and the evacuation 


is copious. When diminished there is pain in the bladder, and the 
urine is scanty. Whatever increases the dejections, removes these 

3rd. When the perspiration is increased, it has a bad smell, 
and a small eruption appears over the body, which is itchy. When 
it is diminished the roots of the hair become rough, the siin dries, 
and the touch is defective, and depraved. Rubbing the skm with 
oil, and substances which increase perspiration will remove these 

4th. Menses. When morbidly increased, this discharge has a bad 
smell, and is accompanied with pain, fulness of the breasts, and a 
copious discharge, with, weakness. When diminished, the discharge 
is scanty, and does not take place at the usual period, and there is 
pain in the uterus. Those medicines which have the quahties of the 
sun are to be used, to remedy such deficiencies. 

5th. When the Milk is increased in quantity, the mammae are 
large, with pain, and there is a frequent discharge of milk. When 
preternaturally diminished, the mammae are small, with httle milk. 
Such medicines should be used as increase the phlegm. 

Diseases of Life {hala and oja, the place or organ of halo) is 
of an oily appearance like ghee, of a white colour, and cool, while 
it remains in its own organ {oja), and is different from the essen- 
tial parts of the body, which retain and support life. Life is situat- 
ed in the breast of the male, and in the abdomen of the female. 
This is supposed to explain their want of strength and activity, with 
the softness of the body, their happy disposition, their quickness and 
vanity, and the fairness of their bodies. Life is the last formed of 
the humours, and is the chief ; for as long as it remains, the muscles 
continue to perform their offices, and the person's voice, and the 
colour of his body continues good, and the ten senses continue in a 
healthy state. When diminished, the body dries, and without it the 
person dies. Life may be diminished by injuries, by a diminution 
of the seven datu, by anger, grief, fatigue, low spirits, and fasting. 
Sometimes life is increased, and at other times it is prostrated. 
When life changes its usual situation it produces a relaxation of the 
joints ; the person cannot move or work, and air, bile, and phlegm, 
are diminished. In these diseased states of the body it cannot 
move, it is heavy, swelled, and the person is languid, depressed, and 
sleepy. The colour of the body changes, syncopy occurs, the flesh 
diminishes, the person feels weak, followed by death. 

In these cases of diseased life, such articles are to be used, as 
strengthen and retain it in health. Thus bitter, cold, dry, and 
constipating articles of food are to be avoided ; as also frequent 


connexion with women^ &c. In such cases the hody is to be rubbed 
with ghee, oil, and turmerick, with bathing, &c. The food should 
consist of very light articles. 

From the above remarks it appears that a state of health is that 
in which the air, bile, and phlegm is in just proportion, in which 
the abdominal fire is sufficient, the seven essential parts, and the 
dejections are natural, the semen and mind correct, and the life 
(soul) happy. It is this equilibrium of all these parts that consti- 
tutes health ; but it is impossible to distinguish the proper proportion 
of each of these parts, as they vary in different individuals. It is 
therefore by the effects of such derangements that we jvidge of their 
presence. Wlien the senses are not in a perfect state, we know that 
the equiUbrium of the parts is destroyed. They also act on each 
other. Thus when the air, bile, and phlegm are diminished, they 
derange the essential parts of the body, as heat diminishes the 
water in a vessel put over it. 

These theoretical opinions led the Hindu Physicians, in their 
description of diseases, to follow the natural order, and to confound 
the accidental, with the pathognomonic symptoms. Hence they 
arranged diseases in unnatural groups, from a fancied connection 
between them. Thus fever was considered as a type of a group of 
diseases, in which dysentery, diarrhoea, indigestion, &c., were 
arranged, as these diseases are accompanied, in some cases, with 

Section II. 


The nail* of Vishnu, like a sun, enlightened Rishis, who prepar- 
ed the shasters. By a knowledge of these, the nature of disease is 
distinguished by examination, assisted by analogy, thought, and a 
knowledge of the shasters. By these means the physician first finds 
out the nature of the disease his patient is labouring under, the 
medicines ordered by the shasters, and the regimen to be followed. 

The nature of the disease is to be ascertained : — 

1st. By the appearance, as the countenance, tongue, &c. 

2nd. By the feeling, as the pulse, temperature of the body, &c. 

3rd. By questions, embracing the country, temperament, and 
history of the disease. 

Other authors state that the disease is known by means of the 
five senses, and asking questions. Thus : 

* That is, so great is Vishnu, that the most insignificant part of him 
sheds lustre upon the most learned of mankind. 


1st. By hearing he will distiiiguisli the state of the kings, by the 
peculiar noise of the breathing. 

2nd. By the touch he will mark the state of the body, as to cold 
and heat ; and the state of the skin as to the hardness and softness, 
roughness and smoothness. 

3rd. By the sight, the physician will know the largeness and 
smallness of the body, with its colour, &c. 

4th. By taste, as in distinguishing diabetic urine, &c. 

5th. By the smell, as of the diiferent discharges from the body. 

Lastly. By questions, the physician will find out the country, 
and temperament of the sick person, his sex, manner of hfe, and 
the history of the disease. The pain felt by the patient, the degree 
of his strength, and appetite, and the state of his evacuations. 

These observations are all most necessary in order to arrive at a 
true diagnosis ; and without knowing the disease, the physician will 
be unable to employ the proper means for its cure. 

Pulse. Nothing is said in Charaka and Susruta regarding the 
pulse ; its condition appeared to be considered of little importance, 
and the remarks on the subject are given under the head of the des- 
cription of each disease. It is to more modern books that I am 
obliged to have recourse for the following description, which is so 
curious that I am induced to add it here. It is principally derived 
from the " Nari-jyari/ihi/d^'.^' 

Modern Hindu Practitioners rely very much on the state of the 
pidse, in the treatment of disease. In the morning it is cool and 
slow, in the middle of the day it becomes hot and quick, in the 
evening its motion becomes rapid and quick, and at night it again 
becomes cool and slow. 

AVlien the person has the temperament of ai?' it feels zigzag ; in 
bile it is frequent ; and in the temperament of j^hlegm it is slow and 
full. Hindu Physicians suppose that the pulse possesses a peculiar 
character in every disease. This idea is strengthened by their sa- 
cred writings. *' The Theory of the pulse is so obscure and myste- 
rious, that in heaven even physicians do not know it thoroughly. 
When it is to be consulted the patient ought to abstain from food, 
from occupation, from the bath, and the use of oil ; to avoid cold and 
heat, and to remain at ease and awake, for some time before the phy- 
sician arrives. It is only then that the pulse can be properly con- 

The pulse is considered from its incessant movements, as a proof 
that there is a soul, or life, in the body. It may be felt at eight 
different parts of the body ; at the two wrists, at the two feet, at the 
* By an anonymous author stated to be written by Siba. 

z 2 


neck, above the collar bone, and on t^e two alii of tbe nose. The 
seat of the pulse of the foot is near the inside of the heel, where it 
should be felt by two fingers ; in the two hands at the wrist, where 
it should be examined by three fingers. The pulse should be exa- 
mined several times, by shghtly raising the arm, and extending the 
fingers, and the right hand of the physician should feel the pulse, 
while the left should support the elbow jomt of the patient. In the 
neck, above the collar bone and the nose, the pulse should be ex- 
amined with two fingers. These are the seats of the principal 
pulse, and by them it is known whether there is life or not, in the 
body. The Physician will also know, by feeling these pulses, that 
the person is sick or healthy, and whether he will live or die. 

When the physician and sick person have risen in the morning 
and performed ablutions, and their other prescribed duties, and are 
seated on a clean mat, and in an agreeable situation, the state of the 
pulse is then to be examined. A person who is not acquainted with 
the difi'erent pulses will not be able to appreciate them, and such a 
person ought not to be respected. 

The pulse of the women should be felt at the left side of their 
necks, left hand, and nose ; and of men on the right side of these 
parts. These pulses are over the whole body, and should be con- 
sidered as the healthy, or sick pulses. The wrist is the best place 
to examine them. The pulse of the following persons, like a river in 
a storm, cannot be properly examined until they rest two hours. 1st. 
Soon after washing or bathing. 2nd. At the usual time of dinner, 
or just after eating. 3rd. A hungry person. 4th. One who is 
thirsty. 5th. "When heated by walking in the rays of the sun. 
6th. After severe exercise, as fighting. 7th. After riding. 8th. 
After anointing the body with oil, or when sleepy. 9th. A pregnant 
woman, or soon after child-birth. 10th. One who bears a heavy 
load ; and 11th. After sleeping during the day. 

In each disease there are peculiarities of the pulse. In f eve?' the 
pulse becomes very frequent and hot, but when air predominates 
the pulse vibrates. When Bile predominates the pulse is very rapid, 
and jumping like a frog, and when Phlegm predominates in fever it 
becomes very full and slow. When two or three of the humours 
predominate, the pulse has the pecuharities of the combination. 

In Dysentery and Diarrhoea the pulse becomes cold and weak, in 
chronic diarrhoea it becomes full, and sometimes rapid and slow. 

In Files the pulse becomes depressed in the middle, quick, and 

In Dispepsia it is fall. 

In Cholera it is deep, and very weak. 


In Worms It is frequent, rapid, and weak. 

In Jaundice it is frequent, sometimes ftdl, and sometimes slow. 

In Hemorrhage the pulse is sometimes quick, and sometimes 
slow, and hard. 

In Phthesis Fidmonalis it is slow, and very weak. 

In Cough it is irregular and frequent. 

In Asthma it is very hard and quick. 

In Hiccough it is very quick. 

In Vomiting it is slow and uTegular. 

In Syncopy it is fidl. 

In Delirium Tremens {pdnatyaya) it is very hard and full. 

Urine. The remarks on the urine in the ancient shasters are 
made under each disease. It is recommended to be examined in the 
mornmg, and received into a clean vessel. When changed by the 
increased quantity of air its colour will be gray, and will cause a 
slight smarting when voided. If changed by an excess of bile its 
colour will be red, and it will produce pain at the glans penis, at the 
time of being discharged. When phlegm predominates the urine 
will be white, thick, and frothy. In such cases the sick person will 
be of a weak, and melancholy habit of body. When two or three 
of the humours are diseased, it will take the colour of the pecuhar 

Tongue, When the increase of air occurs, the tongue turns to 
a yellow colour, becomes uneven, rough, and the papillae prominent, 
hke a cow's tongue. When an increase of bile takes place, the 
tongue becomes of a red, or bro\vn colour, and becomes rough ; and 
when the increase of phlegm occurs, then the tongue becomes of a 
white colour, with a thick coating, and moist. When the three are 
deranged the sick person's tongue becomes black-coloured, and some- 
times very rough. When two are deranged two, or when three, the 
symptoms of three states are obseiTed. When dying the tongue is 
straight, and becomes dry, pale, and shining. In such a severe 
disease very few grains of hfe remain. 

Section III. 

As a flower prognosticates the future fruit, smoke the severity of 
fire, and the clouds the near approach, and the severity of the com- 
ing shower, so certain symptoms prognosticate the favourable, or 
fatal result of a disease. These signs, however, are often but slightly 
apparent to the general eye, and can only be detected by the eye of 


an experienced physician. In other cases the death of the patient 
having fatal symptoms may be everted by the intercessions of holy 
Brahmans, or by the use of medicines which produce longivity. An 
accomplished physician should study prognostics, and make allowance 
for the cure of certain cases. He may otherwise boast that he will 
cure compHcated, or incurable cases ; by which he will lose his credit. 

The prognostics of disease. are either favourable, or fatal. These 
depend on various circumstances in each particular case ; which are 
obtained from the messenger sent, and collateral circumstances, and 
lastly from the symptoms of each disease. A few remarks on each 
of these will next be given. 

1st. The appearance of the messenger, his dress, and his man- 
ner of speaking will influence the prognosis. In hke manner his 
actions, the time of the day he reaches the physician, and other cir- 
cumstances should influence the physician's prognosis. On calling 
the physicians, the following signs, or omens, are considered un- 
favourable. When there are many men or women collected, or 
following each other, to call the physician. When the messenger 
sees a man arrive riding on an ass, camel, or in a carriage {dkd) ; or 
if he has a stick, or string, or a sharp instrument, ripe fruit, &c., in 
his hand. When he is dressed in red, or black, or in wet clothes. 
When the messenger is very sorry, and expresses his fear. When 
the messenger is defective in a member, is deformed, or has a dis- 
gusting appearance. When the person sent speaks in unfavourable 
language of the sick person, when he is anointed vdth oil, &c. When 
the person, who calls the physician, has a shoe or skin in his hand, 
or is scratching his feet or other parts of his body with his nails, or 
is crying : All these occurrences are unfavourably, as to the event of 

the disease. 

It is also considered bad when the physician is called at noon- 
day, at midnight, early in the morning and evening, when he has 
his face turned to the south, .or when he is eating or naked ; anoint- 
ing himself, is asleep, or is in an unclean place. Also when doing 
any thing with fire, is fatigued, is performing the funeral services of 
his relations, &c. 

The kind of disease varies its prognostic ; when the patient is af- 
fected with a bilious disease, or when he has arrived in a veiy hot 
state, and finds the physician near the fire, it is unfavourable. It 
will be favourable when the person is affected with phlegm, or 
cold diseases. When the messenger is dressed in white clothes, 
is a handsome and fair person, is of the same caste as the patient, 
comes in a carriage with a cow, and is not impatient, are favoura- 
ble signs. 


When tlie messenger finds the physician sitting in a clean place, 
with his face towards the east, and the messenger has in his hands 
a water-pot full of water with an umbrella, they are favourahle signs. 

Should the physician on passing to the patient see a woman with 
her son, or a cow with her calf; or a \argin well dressed and adorn- 
ed vdih jewels, or sees fish, or unripe fruit, butter-milk or flowers ; 
or meets a Raja, sees a strong fire, or a horse running, or a goose 
walking, or sees and hears peacocks, these progiiosticate a favourable 
result to the patient's disease. 

If the physician sitting by the side of his patient, the patient 
rubs one hand against another, scratches his back, answers ques- 
tions with his face upwards, draws the bed-clothes, or shakes his 
hand, or constantly moves his head or puts the physician's hand to 
his breast or head. These are unfavourable signs. 

The prognostics will depend upon the complication and kind of 
disease which affects the patient, and the pecuhar violence of parti- 
cular symptoms. 

The severity and nature of the disease will depend on the nature 
of the essential parts of the body affected. While the skin, flesh, 
and blood are affected, the phlegm and air are the humours diseas- 
ed. \Mien the three humours are not affected, and marrow alone 
\dtiated, the disease admits of relief, if not of cure. When the fat, 
marrow, or bone is affected, and two or three of the humours are 
vitiated, one of them beins; the bile, the disease is incurable. This 
forms the complicated form of disease, which is always more diflicult 
to cure than when a single humour, or the presence of a single dis- 
ease exists. The eight most severe forms of disease are, nervous 
disease, as tetanus, paralysis, &c., gonorrhoea (prameha), leprosy 
(hishtha), piles (arshah), fistula-in-ano (hhagandara), stone (ashma- 
ri), unnatural presentations of the foetus, and dropsical swellings 
of the abdomen (udara). These eight are the most severe diseases, 
and are cured with great difliculty. 

In general the prognosis is to be favourable when the patient's 
voice remains mialtered, when he awakes from sleep without agita- 
tion, when eating rather cools than heats the body, and when the sick 
person does not forget his God, but prostrates himself daily in 
prayer with humility and resignation. The unfavourable symptoms 
are the opposite of the above, with indigestion, irregular and ob- 
structed excretions, head-ache, redness of the eyes, loss of voice, 
generation of worms in wounds and ulcers ; from which bloody, and 
foetid discharges proceed. 

If in any disease the patient is very thin and weak, with diflicul- 
ty of breathing, thirst, dryness of the body, vomiting and fever, 


these are bad symptoms. If fainting, diarrhoea, hiecougli, occur in 
the course of the disease they will not be cured. If swelling of the 
body occurs in the course of nervous disease without feeling in the 
skin, with shaking, swelling of the abdomen, with wind accompani- 
ed with pain, or other such symptoms, the disease will destroy the 


If the white part of the body suddenly becomes black, without 
any previous cause, and the blood changes its colour. When the 
other internal parts do not remain in the usual condition, whether 
that be rest or motion ; if any large organ diminishes in size, or be- 
comes large ; what is long becomes short, or short long ; if bodies 
that should be discharged remain, and if those that should remain 
are discharged ; or if the members naturally hot become cold, 
shining become dull, moist become dry, they are dangerous signs. 
"When members cannot move, or have an unnatural smell, or cannot 
perform their office, or are removed from their natural position, if 
they open, or are discharged outwardly, or inwardly, are heavy, or 
light, the person will soon die. 

If in the morning perspiration occurs on the forehead ; or tears 
always fall without any disease of the eyes ; if the dandriff in the 
hair is of the colour of the powder of the cow's litter : if a pigeon, 
&c. perches on the head of the person ; if, without eating, there is 
a great discharge of dejections ; or when there are no dejections, 
and the person eats freely, it is deadly. If the chest or mamillae 
swell ; if the trunk swells, and extremities become thin, or the con- 
trary ; or half of the body swells ; or half become paralized ; if the 
person cannot speak, or it is diminished, or changed, these are signs 
of danger. The same is the case if the nails, teeth, mouth, or 
body, has the smell of putrid flowers ; if the sputa, dejections, or 
semen sink in water ; if the person sees objects multiplied, or im- 
perfectly ; if the body and hair have a shining appearance, as if 
covered with oil ; if the person is very weak, without appetite, or 
with Dysentery with cough, with much appetite and thirst, or if 
weak with vomiting, especially if the sputa be mixed vrith blood, 
and the patient has no appetite. Should the feet, hands, and lips 
be swelled, with weakness, and want of appetite, while the buttocks, 
hands, feet and shoulders are diminished in size, and the person is 
weak with fever and cough ; if they vomit their breakfast in the 
evening, are dejected ; have gnawing pain, fever and cough, if the 
person falls, producing a soimd hke that of a goat, has no strength 
or feeling in the testicles ; and if the head falls on the shoulder, the 
danger is great. If the chest dries first after bathing, and the per- 
son is always biting his under lip or the tongue ; is pulling his ears 


or hair, or considers the gods, brahmaus, and his master, friend, and 
Physician as his enemies, they are fatal signs. If the aspect of the 
planets are unfivourahle ; if the stars fall, thunder occurs on the 
day of the ascent of the star under which the person was born, it 
is unfavourable. 

If the physician has examined properly the person, and finds the 
disease increasing, and the person feeble, he will not recover. In 
the course of gonorrhoea (prameha), if any considerable morbid dis- 
charge from the urethra takes place with fever, and a great flow of 
urine, it will be fatal. 

The dangerous symptoms of leprosy (kushtha) are, when the body 
is covered with sores, from which pus, blood, &c., are discharged ; 
the members drop off, and the eyes are of a red colour, with hoarse- 
ness of the voice. TThen such patients are not able to bear the five 
forms of treatment, as purgatives, emetics, diaphoretics, injections, 
and blood-letting, the disease will be fatal. 

If in the course of piles (arsha) the patient has dispepsia, pain 
of the abdomen, vat\\ much hemorrhage, dysentery, and swelling of 
the extremities, the disease wHW. be fatal. 

If in the course of fistula-in-ano (hliagandara) air, urine, dejec- 
tions, worms or semen are discharged from the fistula, the patient 
will die of the disease. 

The fatal symptoms of stone in the bladder (osmarka) are swell- 
ing of the umbiliacus, and of the scrotum, with great pain in pass- 
ing the urme, which is mixed with gravel. 

The fatal signs of complex labour (muragarbha) are tumours, or 
pohpi in the vagina, which prevents the passage of the child ; un- 
natural contraction of the vagina, &c. 

The fatal symptoms of a dropsical swelling of the abdomen (udora) 
are as follows : — ha\"ing no feeling in the sides, loss of appetite, and 
the body swelling, with dysentery. If after purgatives the abdomen 
again swells, the person should be considered as incurable. 

If a person with Fever does not see, is insensible, sleeps with- 
out any movement, is internally hot, with an external feeling of 
cold, he will die. When the hairs become prominent upon the body, 
the eyes red, the breast very painful, and the breathing by the mouth, 
such a fever \Adll be fatal. If there be hiccough, much thirst, in- 
sensibihty, eyes fixed, or move involuntary, difficult and noisy 
breathing, with weakness, the fever will be fatal. If the eyes 
become muddy, and the person cannot see ; sleeps much, with 
great weakness, and loss of strength and flesh, the fever will be fatal. 

When there is with dysentery, difficulty of breathing, great pain, 
thirst, weakness and fever, the person will die, particularly when old. 

2 A 


Phthesis (yakhna), with cough and bloody expectoration, the eyes 
white, no appetite, and difficulty of drawing in the breath, diarrhoea, 
and a copious flow of urine with pain, will be fatal. 

When gulma, or colicky pains, from a collection of wind in the 
abdomen, which feels like a moving ball, and is accompanied with 
difficulty in breathing, thirst, no appetite, and weakness, the disease 
will be fatal. 

Internal abscesses of the abdomen (bidradhi) if accompanied vat\\ 
swelling, without any discharge, and if the person vomits, has hic- 
cough, thirst, pain, and difficulty in breathing, he will die. 

Jaundice (pandu) . If the teeth, nails, and eyes are yellow, and 
every thing seems so, in such case the disease will be fatal. 

In hemorrhagea {f'oktopeto) . When the person vomits blood, has 
his eyes red, and every thing appears so, the disease will be fatal. 

Madness (iinmudd). If such a patient always either stoops or 
keeps his head raised, is thin, weak, gets no sleep, has no fear, he 
will die. 

Epilepsy {apasmdi^a, iru'ir/i). If the fits occur frequently with 
weakness, the eyelids always move about, and the eyes become un- 
natural, the disease will be fatal. 

The signs of death are as follows : — 

Sight. When the person imagines he sees red, black, or yellow 
colours before his eyes, when he has lost all shame, strength, me- 
mory, and his natural appearance. It is also a fatal sign when the 
eyes become small, sunk, and unequal ; and when they are of a red 
colour, and cannot move ; under such circumstances a flow of tears 
is also a fatal sign. 

Mouth. When there is a falling of the under, and rising of the 
upper lip ; when they are crooked, and are of a dark blue colour, 
the person will die. When the teeth become reddish or dark 
coloured, or fall out, or are of a grayish colour, the person will 
soon die. 

Tongue. When the tongue is of a black colour, and extraneous 
matter appears upon it, or it cannot be moved, or is dirty and 
swollen, or its papulse are very prominent, with fetor of the breath, 
the patient will soon die. 

Nose. When it becomes pale, dry, and shining, and is turned to 
one side ; the nostrils extended, dry, and dirty, and the passage of 
the air produces a noise ; or when the point of the nose retracts, and is 
flattened, with weakness and depression, the person will soon die. 

When therefore the eyes, by which we see ; the ears, by which we 
hear ; the tongue, by which we taste ; and the skin, by which the 
sense of heat, and cold is performed are defective, or differ from the 


state of health, the patient should be considered in a dangerous 

Hair. If it falls naturally in a line on each side (as in women), 
and the eyebrows become contracted and repressed, and the patient 
pulls his eyelashes, the person will soon die. If such a person have 
no disease, he will die within six, and if diseased within three days. 

If the person cannot swallow, if he cannot move his head, and 
remains at rest, and is insensible, he mil soon die. Whether strong 
or weak, should he faint on being raised up, the person will die. 

If a person diseased sleeps with his face turned upwards, and he 
is continually stretching, and bending his legs, he \d\\ soon die. 

"^iVTien the feet and hands are cold, and the person breathes quick- 
ly and irregularly, or retains his month open, like a crow in hot 
weather ; such a person is not to be treated by the physician, as he 
will die. If a person always sleeps, or he is always watching and 
cannot speak, the physician is not to give medicine. 

"When the tongue is always moving along the upper lip, with con- 
tinual hiccough ; or if a person speaks incoherently to another per- 
son previously dead, he will not live. If blood flows from the pores 
of the hair, and the natural openings of the body, without poison, the 
person will soon die. When the hysterical ball (astila) from air, 
occurs in the breast, and prevents the swallowing of food, and the 
pain extends, and there is no appetite, the person mil die. If an 
unusual swelling in the feet occur in the course of a disease in a 
man, or in the face of a female, it will destroy the person. 

If in consumption, dysentery, asthma, fever, hiccough, vomit- 
ing, and swelling of the external urinary organs occur, the person 
will die. If such a sick person has much burning over the body, 
or much perspiration, hiccough, difficulty in breathing, even a 
strong person will die. If with the yellow or black tongue, the left 
eye be sunk, with bad breath, the person will die. If the mouth 
be filled with tears, the hands and feet perspire, and the eyes lose 
their shining appearance, and become dull, it is a sign of death. 
If the person swells or becomes thin very quickly, he mil die. If 
the smell of the body resembles clay, fish, fat, oil, or other unnatu- 
ral scents ; or when lice leave the hair, and come to the forehead, 
or animals will not eat the food the patient has left ; or when the 
patient is very restless he will die. When fever, dysentery, and 
swelling of feet, or hands, occur alternately, it is unfavourable ; 
should the person lose his strength suddenly, he will not live. When 
the patient has no appetite, has frequent stools, with severe pain in 
the head, and thirst, the person will die, when combined with other 
bad symptoms. 

2 A 2 


It is also a bad sign when the patient is very weak, with thirst 
and hunger, which is not appeased by the usual quantity of food or 
drink ; and should a practitioner cure any patients with the above 
indications, he deserves to be Physician to a king. 

As death approaches, various kinds of devils are supposed to col- 
lect near the patient, and destroy the good qualities of the medicines 
which are administered to him. In such cases the treatment, and the 
care of the physician are alike unavailing. 

Some of these remarks are just, and some of them are too much 
neglected by European Physicians. The Cabiriij often remarks with 
iustice the errors which they sometimes fall into in consequence af 
their neo-lecting the study of the prognosis of diseases. 

Section IV. 

General Treatment of Diseases. 
As the generality of diseases are supposed to be produced by de- 
rangements in the humors. One or more of which are morbidly in- 
creased or changed in quantity, the indications of treatment are to 
promote the just balance of the elements and humors, by a judicious 
choice of aliment, and by such means as assist the vital principle in 
the completion of the assimilation. The management of diet was 
supposed to be the great means of accomplishing this end ; and was 
regulated in point of quality, quantity, and time of administering it, 
by the nature of the disease. Should the judicious selection of food 
not succeed in curing the disease, or when severe, the person 
was directed to observe an entire abstinence of food, for a certain 
time, and if this failed, the corrupted humors were ejected from 
the body. This was accomplished either by emetics, purgatives, 
or blood-letting. In like manner, when the disease was sub- 
dued, it was supposed to be necessary to expel all the vitiated hu- 
mors ; which, if allowed to remain, accumulate, and a relapse of the 
disease will be the consequence. To prevent this, strong drastic pur- 
gatives, which produced from five to eight evacuations, were repeated 
daily, until the physician was satisfied that the whole corrupted 
humors were expelled. To prevent such a recurrence of disease, the 
same evacuating means were employed. But these humors are not 
to be dislodged indiscriminately, but at certain seasons, and diurnal 
periods of the disease. Health was thus supposed to be promoted 
by the exhibition of an emetic once a fortnight, a drastic purgative 
once a month, and blood-letting twice a year, at the change of the 
seasons. The vital principle was supposed to give warning when the 


corrupted humors were ripe for being evacuated ; and the ph3'sician 
was directed to observe carefully, so as to be able to assist, and not 
distui'b the spontaneous efforts ofnatm-e. The seasons in which 
she exhibited these beneficial influences, were supposed to be 
determined by the known cause of the disease, which led to the 
belief of the definite course, and the mystical powers of numbers ; by 
which nature may be invariably observed to arrive at certain deter- 
minate results, which were supposed to be regulated by an arithme- 
tical progression. This led to the belief of the matm'ation of the 
diseased humors, and of the existence of a period, in which the 
perfect state of mixture takes place. These were called critical days, 
which have long held a place in the pathological beUef of physicians. 
These days were recognised by the Egyptian priests, as related by 
Pythagoras and others, and denoted the time at which the due ad- 
mixture of the elements had taken place. The same term Kpaais 
was employed by Hippocratus and adopted in Europe, when 
the humoral pathology was the fashion. So plausible were the 
opinions of the humoral pathology, that they seem to have been 
at one time believed, and the most pernicious preventive means follow- 
ed, over a great part of the globe ; and among nations so separated 
from each other, as to preclude the possibility of their having derived 
them from each other. Among the Hindus the humoral patholoo-y 
appears to have originated without any assistance from other nations 
and became as generally believed, and carried to the same conse- 
quences as it was in Europe. 

Another equally plausible opinion was, that all diseases divide 
themselves into two great classes, of sthenic or asthenic disease. 
The one being an increase, and the other a diminution of excite- 
ment ; between the extremities of which health was supposed to 
be placed. This appears to have been an early opinion amone; 
the Hindus, is now generally believed over all the Asiatic na- 
tions ; and has led them to the division of remedies into stimulating: 
and cooling, which were employed according to the nature of the 
disease. For the hot or sthenic diseases cooling remedies were 
used ; while hot medicines were exhibited to remove cold, or asthe- 
nic diseases. To the class of stimulants belonged pepper, bitters, 
purgatives, &c. ; and to the cooling remedies cold, pawn mixed with 
hme, bathing, with several excellent stomachics ; as chiraitd, &c. 



Description and Treatment of Particular Diseases. 

Class I. 
Diseases of the Humors. 

The apparent actions and changes of the fluids, or humors of 
the human body, attracted the attention of the hrahmans at an ear- 
ly period, and upon these changes they founded their theoretical 
speculations regarding the nature, and production of disease. These 
opinions seemed to be confirmed by the occurrences of hemorrhage 
from wounds, the appearance of certain eruptions, and the discharge 
from abscesses and ulcers ; while the sohds in these cases seemed 
passive, with no indications of change beyond what the fluids seem- 
ed to produce upon them. Hence the general principles of Patho- 
logy were based, by the brahmans, on alterations of the fluids only, 
and they supposed that while their elements and qualities remained 
in due proportion health was sustained ; while disease was produced 
by an undue proportion of these humors. 

The diseases of air, bile and phlegm may proceed from the se- 
men of the father, from the menstrual blood of the mother, from the 
state of the mother's body during utero-gestation, from certain food 
acting in the same way, from the habits of exercise, from the state 
of the parts in which the fetus is retained in the abdomen, and from 
the state of the menses at the time of conception. These causes 
derange the humors and produce the individuals' habit of body, and 
the kind of disease to which they are subject. 

The derangement of these humors are the root of all diseases, 
and require to be carefully examined by the physician. All diseases 
are considered as being produced : 1st, by the derangements of 
the humors of the part, and 2ndly, by the peculiar diseases of 
the part. 

The difl'erent seasons predispose to different diseases : the air of 
the body is liable to be deranged in the two rainy and two hot 
months ; in the two months before the cold weather bile is liable 
to be deranged ; and during the cold months, the bile remains in 
health, while the diseases of phlegm are common, and increase in 

The diseases of the humors may be arranged according as they 
affect the air, bile, and phlegm, and their combinations. There are 
eighty diseases produced by derangements of the air (buyu) ; forty 
of bile {pitta) ; twenty of phlegm {kapha) ; and sixteen by the com- 
bination of the derangements of these humors. 


In the embryo state, the humors are in such a state that they 
do not interfere vrith. the action of each other, as the serpents 
poison does not injure the animal itself. But in the course of life 
various causes interrupt this harmony ; and various changes regu- 
late and determine, at all times and seasons, the health, and morbid 
condition of the human body. 

Air (bdijii). The causes which derange air are fighting, abstinence 
in eating and drinking ; the use of dry food, falls, watching when the 
body is womided, great discharges, as of blood, semen, &c. The 
same effects are produced by constipation of air, urine, and dejec- 
tions ; or when they are not evacuated at the proper time. Bathing, 
great grief, fear, and exposure to cold, produce this class of diseases. 
The air is also increased when the food is digested, and in the even- 

The indications of derangement of the air, are a swelling of the 
abdomen, wdth stiffness of the body ; the surface of which is dry, 
rough, and cracked. The person feels pain in different parts of the 
body, more especially of the arms, testicles, fat, &c. ; is low-spirited, 
languid, and fatigued, has shivering fits and spasms ; the hair drops 
off, and the person's head is always bowing backwards and for- 
wards, AA-ith other irregular movements of the body. The voice be- 
comes altered, and the person speaks much, and dreams in his sleep. 
When awake he speaks often without thought, he feels a singing 
in has ears, loses the power of vision, has no memory, with paraly- 
sis of one or more of the members. There is a dryness of the mouth 
vrith. thirst ; the body becomes of a red or green colour, aadhe com- 
plains of an astringent taste in the mouth. 

Sometimes the person has severe cutting pains in the stomach 
(sul) and over the body. Parts of the body feel hard, with noise in 
the ears, dimness of sight, obtuseness of the senses, thirst, dozing, 
irregular movements of the body, watching, and uncomfortable 
dreams, with a feeling of doing impossibilities, yawning, and rough- 
ness of the skin. 

Diseases of Air will vary according to its situation and use. 
The vital air for the mouth (prdnd), which assists in swallowing, 
produces when disordered, hiccough, vomiting, &c. The air we 
breathe (iiddnd) produces asthma, consumption, &c. when diseased. 
The (sdmdnd) or vital air in the stomach produces vomiting, 
anxiety, fainting, thirst, and pain m the chest and side. In the in- 
testines it produces noise along their course, pain in the navel, with 
costiveness, scanty urine, and flatulence, &c. ; in the ear it produ- 
ces deafness ; in the integuments, a discoloration, roughness, and 
sometimes there is a diminished sensation, and eruption over the 


skin. When deranged in tlie hlood, it produces different painful 
eruptions, and tumors. When deranged wii\\fat it produces tumors, 
without pain. In vessels, it produces a contraction of their size, with 
pain and fullness. In tendons, it produces paralysis, with shaking 
pain and spasm. In joints, it produces stiffness, pain, swelling, and 
emaciation ; in the bones it produces pain and emaciation ; in the tnar- 
roiv it causes acute pain ; in the semen it produces a morbid discharge, 
or a diminution of the secretion ; and when deranged over the body it 
produces a bluntness of sense, paralysis, spasm, swelhng, and pain in 
many parts of the body. Besides these it produces various other 
classes of symptoms, according to the parts of the body which are 
principally affected. 

The principal diseases produced by deranged air are fainting, hate 
rukta, pitta ruhta, and kapha rukta, and leprosy. This last disease 
commences in the limbs, with dark blotches, and insensibility of the 
part. It produces rigidity of parts {iipotanoka) by which the body is 
drawn to a side, or backwards and forwards ; and there is another 
form of the disease called dhumus stamb (Tetanus, Trismus.) It 
affects particularly the lower jaw, and face, by drawing the neighbour- 
ing parts to one side or another. Choria (kalaia khunj) is accord- 
ing to the Nedan and Susriita produced by derangements of 
air. This disease is characterized by the person first feeling a 
trembhng or shivering over the body, with dimness of sight, and 
pain in the neck, jaw, and teeth, or any other part about to be 
affected. These symptoms are followed by convulsive twitchings of 
the head, neck, and face ; and of one side of the body, particularly of 
one leg. These parts are pulled to the side affected, and shake invo- 
luntary. These movements extend to all the voluntary muscles of 
progression, producing a dancing motion. The muscles of the 
upper or lower extremities may thus be affected, of one or both 
sides, and when it has extended over the body and continued long, 
it is considered incurable. It is supposed to be produced by irre- 
gularity of the bowels, from having eaten indigestable food ; which 
produces costiveness and indigestion. Much talking and laughing, 
carrying heavy loads, and other causes deranging air, are supposed 
to produce this disease.* 

When the avr is superabundant it will be diminished by cold, 
and articles of food having this property ; by strengthening food, 
which, on being digested remains long in the vessels, such as ghee, 
the flesh of goats, &c., masculi, salt, or sweet or sour food, shampoo- 

* Some Sanscrit books apply the term Ardita to Choria, others, apply 
it to Tetanus or Trismus which they describe, and not the true Choria. 


ing, anointiug the body with oil, or takmg it internally, by drinking 
sherbuts, by bathing, by medicines which increase the secretion of 
semen, alvine secretions, urine, and perspiration ; which remove thirst 
and appetite, and render the body more active. 

When air is diminished the person cannot work, he speaks little, 
is unhappy, and his judgment is impaired. 

The best means of cuiing these derangements of air is by exhibit- 
ing oleaginous, salt, sweet, and acid food, by bathing, by the use of 
wine, by shampooing, by exhibiting enemas, &c. 

Bile (pitta) is increased by sour, hot, salt, or bitter articles of food, 
by eating the shoots of young bamboos, and other such inchgestible 
articles of food. When the appetite is not satisfied mth the quan- 
tity eaten, or by eating before the food previously eaten has not been 
digested ; when old curries are used ; curdled milk, wine, or conjee 
are drunk ; when exposed to anger, to hot weather, especially during 
the months of September and October, and the middle of the day, 
or middle watch of the night the bile is increased. 

^Mien bile is in unusual quantity it produces a disagreeable breath, 
hot and sour eructations, vAi\\ boils over the body. The person is 
subject to fits of anger, his bowels are open, the skin distended, 
and he staggers as if drunk ; his body is hot, the perspiration 
copious, and although he eats he has no appetite, is thirsty, and 
has no memory, but is otherwise intelligent. lie does not see 
distinctly, has a dislike to particular kinds of food, which become 
sour, bitter, and sweet, in the stomach. The colour of the body is 
imnatural, being pale, with pain over the body. 

Bile is diminished by eating sweet, and bitter articles of food ; by 
remaining in cool shaded places, by night air, and moon light ; by 
sitting upon the ground, in water, or exposed to mists. It is also 
diminished by the use of ghee, and milk ; by those medicines which 
increase the discharge from the mouth, nose and eyes ; by blood-let- 
ting, and whatever diminishes thirst and appetite. When so dimi- 
nished the internal heat is weakened, and the body has an unhealthy 
appearance. The twitchings produced by increased bile in a part 
are best removed by rubbing it with milk, and exhibiting cooling 
articles of food. 

When air is deranged with bile it produces inflammation and 
fainting ; with phlegm coldness and swelling of the affected part ; 
with blood it produces a degree of pain like the penetration of a 
needle, sometimes deprivation of healthy sensation, and other 
symptoms of deranged bile. When the prdn bdyu is deranged 
with bile, it produces vomiting, a burning heat of the body ; with 
cough, weakness, idleness, drowsiness, and discoloration of the 

2 B 


skin. When the udcina bdyu is deranged with bile, fainting, a 
burning heat of the body, want of memory, cough, want of perspira- 
tion, anxiety, indigestion, and shivering are produced. Deranged 
apuna bdyu with bile produces perspiration, heat, and inflammation ; 
with cough, mucous stools, urine of a pale colour, with shivering. 
Sarndna bdyu deranged with bile produces inflammation and heat of 
the body, and in the female a retention of the menses, cough, and 
heaviness of the lower part of the abdomen. Bidna bdyu deranged 
with bile produces a burning heat and restlessness of the body, 
with cough, heaviness of the body, and pain, so that the person 
cannot move as he wishes. 

Phlegm (kapha), is deranged by indigestible articles of food, and 
sweet, or very cool things ; such as milk, sugar-cane, liquid food, cur- 
dled milk, sleeping during the day ; or by the cakes made of rice, 
coconuts, ghee, &c. These derangements are more liable to occur 
in the dewy, cold, and spring months, during the first third of the 
day, and after eating. 

The derangements of phlegm produce a fulness of the abdomen, 
and the food the person eats is not properly digested ; he has no 
appetite, and his body is pale, heavy, cold, and hard. He has fre- 
quent dejections ; his skin is smooth, oily, and itchy. There is a 
discharge of mucus from the nose, eyes, and mouth. Such a per- 
son is very languid, is always dozing, and sleeps much ; the part 
where the phlegm is deranged swells, and his mouth has a pungent 
and sweet taste. 

The cure of these derangements is accompanied by the use of dry 
food, alkalies (salts), astringents, exercise, and the use of bitter, 
and pungent articles of food ; by the exhibition of emetics, by con- 
nexion with women, long pedestrian journies, gymnastic exercises, 
watching at night, smoking, and the use of cathartics, and diapho- 

Should two or three of these humors be deranged at the same 
time, the particular symptoms of each will be present ; and the 
degree of derangement of the one compared with that of the other 
will be observed, by the prominence of the particular class of symp- 
toms. Their treatment must likewise be varied according to the 
violence of the symptoms present. 

When the body is weak the most pecuhar symptoms of the de- 
ranged humor do not appear, and the person seems in health. 

The diseases of air, bile and phlegm, are also produced by sin, 
which leads the person to perform wicked actions from ignorance. 
Such diseases of the humors produce not only diseases of the body, 
but also those of the mind, and heart ; as melancholy, pride, foolish- 


ness, &c. These were the diseases in which internal evacuant medi- 
cines were used, after which the treatment was to be regulated by the 
part aifected : thus when the skin was aifected, external apphcations 
were used, as ointments, plasters, &c. While the diseases of the 
body are cured by medicines, which diminish the humors that are too 
abundant ; those of the mind are cured by perusing the Shasters, by 
abstinence, by leading a religious life, and by various mortifications 
of the body. 

The blood is supposed to be more generally affected with the 
deranged humors, than with any other of the essential parts of the 
body. When so diseased its local, or general abstraction is recom- 
mended, and numerous medicines are administered, to purify it. 

It is consequently the duty of the practitioner to find out the 
nature of the disease; to decide on the best remedies; to diminish the 
air, bile, or phlegm, the seven essential parts of the body, and the de- 
jections (?naJa) which may be preternaturally increased, and if any of 
them are diminished he should endeavour to increase them so as to 
restore, and retain the parts, in that state of equanimity, which 
constitutes health. These effects may be produced by the frequent 
exhibition of purgatives, emetics, and food which has these pecu- 
liar effects. 

When a disease is produced by the sins committed in a former 
state of existence ; by the derangements of air, bile, and phlegm at 
birth, or by any cause producing very dangerous diseases, especially 
in very old people ; it will be cured by medicines and penances. 
Diseases of the poor will generally be incurable, as they are not able 
to pay for their medicines. 

Section II. 
Class II. — Diseases affecting the General System. 

Order I. 

Fevers, (Jwara.) 

Fevers are first considered because it is said that man is born and 
dies with fever ; because it affects the whole body, the organs of 
senses, and the mind ; and is so severe that only man and gods 
can survive it, and by which various other diseases are produced. 

The following mythological description of the origin of fever is 
given in some of their more recent medical works : — Bakshya the 
father-in-law oi Shiva did not invite him to a feast given to the gods, 
and spoke disrespectfully of him. His wife JDurgd was present, and 

2 B 2 


was so enraged, at the disrespect, that she considered it better to 
die than hve under such a disgrace ; and while sitting, her spirit 
left her body. Nundi the servant of Burgd seeing: her die, went 
and informed Shiva of the event. He in grief for his loss, tore off 
one of his locks, and it fell into the fire, and a great devil named 
Birahhadra was produced from it. Others say that in his anger he 
heaved a deep sigh, and from his mouth the devil was produced. 
Birahhadra asked Shiva to be allowed to destroy his father-in-law. 
This was permitted, and after polluting the sacred fire of Bakshya^ 
destroying many of his guests, and tearing his hair, he wrenched 
his head from his body. It was during the paroxysm of grief and 
rage of Shiva for the death of Biirgd that the breath which pro- 
ceeded from his nostrils, hot, and destructive, gave origin to 
fevers, which attack all persons, of all ages, and in all con- 

The cause of all the principal varieties of fever, with the exception 
of five from accidents (dgantuJca), is using improper mixtures of 
food ; as eating fish and milk ; the want of seasoning in food ; 
sleeping at improper hours ; fighting with a strong man ; exposure 
to the morning sun while fasting ; eating voraciously of food of a 
very hot nature, when the body has been previously weakened by ex- 
treme hunger ; and by fatigue, fear, grief, and watching. Fevers are 
also produced by poisons, drinking stagnant water, in which withered 
leaves have fallen ; taking a full meal without any appetite, or after 
delivery, especially if improperly treated. In other cases the 
first secretion of milk in the breast, produces fever, exposure to 
unseasonable weather, or to sudden vicissitudes of temperature ; 
checked perspiration, long continued constipation ; and living in 
wooded, ill ventilated valleys. Other causes of fever are the in- 
fluence of bad stars, neglected adoration of saints or gods ; visiting, 
a new climate ; the malign influence of evil spirits, and severe local 
diseases, or injuries. By such causes the air, bile, and phlegm are 
deranged, pass into the stomach (dmcishay), and thus expel the 
internal heat. The humors stop also the chyle vessels, and derange 
the heat, which digests the food : in other words, whatever exposes 
Gur moral qualities, or bodily frame, to deviations from their natural 
and accustomed movements, produces fevers ; and it requires reme- 
dies to drive back the heat, to its natural position, when the person 
is restored to health. 

General symptoms of Fever. 

The attack of fever commences with the person complaining of 
lassitude and fatigue ; he is continually yawning, and stretching ; 


liis skin loses its natural colour, and there is a bad taste in his 
mouth ; his eyes are watery, and he alternately wants the applica- 
tion of heat, and cold to his body. Little, and much food distresses 
the person, as it is not digested ; he has no appetite, the body is 
chilly and heavy, with dejection of mind ; and he is quarrelsome, 
and ready to fight with a much stronger person than himself. 

These precursory symptoms are followed by heat of the surface, 
cessation of perspiration, and pain affecting the w^hole body, but 
particularly the members. There is also pain in the chest, languor 
and drowsiness, loss of appetite, restlessness, heaviness of the abdo- 
men with costiveness, and a copious flow of urine. These symp- 
toms are always present in fevers ; but, when air is deranged, 
there is also much gaping ; when bile is affected the eyes feel hot, 
and when phlegm is deranged there is no appetite. 

General Treatment of Fever. 

The treatment of fever varies according as it is new, or has 
not lasted seven days ; is recent, or has not affected the individual 
more than twelve days ; or is old, having continued twenty-one 
days, or upwards. 

When the fever is new the patient should only take conjee water 
for food ; and when the internal heat is diminished, dry ginger and 
long pepper may be boiled in it. When with fever there is a dis- 
ease in the side, or lower part of the head or abdomen, the red rice 
should be used for making the conjee. Should phlegm be diseased 
conjee should not be given ; nor when the new fever is very strong. 
When these acute symptoms are diminished and when bile is deranged 
the use of conjee water is proper. The drink should be boiled water 
again warmed. Should the patient complain of nausia, and fulness 
of the stomach, on an accession of fever, the treatment should com- 
mence with the exhibition of an emetic, and during the continuance 
of an attack of fever all heavy food should be carefully avoided v 
particularly when there is no appetite. 

In other MSS. it is stated that the fasting is to be continued for 
three, five, or ten days, according to the improvement of the symp- 
toms which takes place. By this means the practitioner will dis- 
cover the state of the air, bile, and phlegm. 

During the continuance of a new fever the patient should reside in 
a room shut up, in which a panM may be used. He should be clad in 
warm clothes ; should neither sleep during the day, bathe, nor anoint 
his body with oil. He should also be removed from his wife, avoid 
all oily and indigestable articles of food, especially astringent articles, 
anger, violent exercise, and exposure to strong wind. By these 


means the morbid matter is allowed to ripen, and is then to be dis- 
charged by evacuant medicines. It will increase the disease, and 
render it probably fatal, if these evacuant remedies are used before 
the morbid matter is matured. 

Should in any case the fasting produce weakness, it is to be stopped 
as improper ; and means to strengthen the body substituted. Fast- 
ing is not to be employed in fevers which attacks infants or old 
people, in pregnancy, when the body is light, or in cases in which 
air, urine, and dejections have been discharged, in large quantities, 
by medicine. 

In recent fever the patient is to be allowed a decoction of bitter 
herbs, &c. so as to restore the derangement of the humors. He 
may now be allowed a little more food than during the first stage. 
Milk, which during the first stage is like poison, may now be taken 
with advantage. 

Should the disease continue and pass on to the third period, when 
the fever is said to be old, it is to be treated by emetics, purgatives, 
and different febrifuge decoctions. The diet should be in larger 
quantifies and of a more nourishing quality, than during the two 
first periods of the disease ; such as broths, prepared with animal 
flesh, milk, and the like. 

In all such cases of fever it is necessary to recollect that the 
treatment will vary according as the air, bile, and phlegm are more 
or less affected. 

The fever is said to have disappeared when the appetite returns ; 
the body feels light, and the person is not easily fatigued. When 
the acuteness of his senses, memory, and understanding is restored, 
the unnatural heat of the body disappears, and he has no pain ; 
when he moans, is forgetful, when small pimples form round the 
mouth, and when the warmth, smell, and perspiration, sneezing, and 
the alvine evacuations are natural. 

Should there occur, after the seventh day, sonorous breathing, 
listlessness and torpor, with thirst, constipation, hiccough, coughing, 
and vomiting vdth no appetite, the patient is in eminent danger. In 
such cases the person usually becomes very weak, and dies. 

The most unfavourable prognostic symptom^s of fever, when the 
patient should not be taken charge of by the physician, are when the 
senses are not in their natural state, or no longer act ; when the 
person is weak, with sudden and severe attacks of fever ; when the 
patient is decrepid, his extremities swell, and the fever remains 
during a greater part of the night ; when affected with strabismus, 
and when his mouth remains open, and he is delirious. When 
he cannot be roused from his sleep, with the feehng of cold on 


the outside of the body, while he is hot inside, the patient is in great 
danger. In such cases the person generally dies. 

J^arieties of Fevers. 

These are divided into continued, mixed, accidental, and intermit- 
tent fevers ; which will be considered under the followins; nine 
genera : 



\ 1 Fever produced by deranged Air. 

2 Fever produced by deranged Bile. 

3 Fever produced by deranged Phlegm. 

4 Fever produced by deranged Air and PJilegm. 

5 Fever prodviced by deranged Air and Bile. 

6 Fever produced by deranged Bile and Phlegm. 
Mixed re-"" 


or syno- )>7 Fever produced by deranged Air, Phlegm and Bile. 

chus fe- I 

ver. J 

fever I ^ ^^^^"^ produced by derangement of the humors. 

tent fever. J ^ ^^^^^ produced by derangement of humors. 

All these fevers are produced by derangements of air, bile, or 
phlegm, and fasting is one of the chief means of restoring the balance, 
while the fever is advancing, or when unripe. This is known by a 
peculiar pain in the chest, by drowsiness, and hstlessness, by the 
yellow colour of the saliva, by the want of appetite, by the consti- 
pated state of the bowels, and by secretion of urine ; by the body 
feeling heavy, by the absence of perspiration, by the bad taste in the 
mouth, and by a constant and severe fever. Dhanwantari says that 
medicine should not be given in this stage of fever, and not until the 
seventh day ; others say, not until the tenth day after its commence- 
ment. However, should the bowels have been constipated before the 
fever, and the humors are ripe, they should be removed either by 
emetics, purgatives, or errhines, or a severe disease will be the con- 
sequence by the pent up impurities. Should fever be produced by 
derangements of air, ghee should be freely used ; if phlegm is parti- 
cularly deranged, give first an emetic ; if bile, purgatives, which will 
be varied with the peculiar symptoms. When the phlegm is ripe, 
errhines are recommended. A suppository is also recommended 
for these cases of constipation. It should be composed of \m\^- 
pepper, ^'w6c?a?i, dive, medream. 


If the fever does not completely disappear by these means it 
proves that some of the diseased humors still remain, v^hich should 
be removed by the exhibition of hot ghee. The cure is accomphsh- 
ed by increasing the strength, promoting the appetite, which is 
known by a lightness and elasticity of the body. The next indica- 
tion is to discharge the deranged air, bile, or phlegm, by means of 
errhines and purgatives ; and during the continuance of the fever 
the usual food and drink are to be avoided, until the natural excre- 
tions are restored, the senses act naturally, and the patient feels 
hungry, and thirsty, at the same time. 

1*^ Variety of Fever. Bdtik-jwara is that variety which is pro- 
duced by a derangement of the air (bciyu.) 

This fever commences with shivering, there is sometimes much 
at other times little heat ; the throat, mouth, and lips are dry. 
The patient has no sleep, does not sneeze, his skin is dry, with 
head-ache, and pain in the chest, as well as over the body. What- 
ever is taken into the stomach feels heavy, and creates uneasiness ; 
the stools are very hard ; pain in the abdomen ; flatulence as if 
much food had been eaten, and he is frequently yawning. 

The treatment of this form of fever will depend on the stage at 
which it is examined. In the shivering fit, hot remedies are to be 
exhibited. According to Sushruta it is treated by enemas, the em- 
ployment of errhines, composed of different medicines for removing 
the head-ache, and humors from the head, and by exhibiting the 
following infusion : 

Cassia fistula (A'bashivash.) 

Ruellea strepens (Granthika.) 

Cyperus juncifoliao (Musta.) 

Black hellibore (Tikta,) 

Myrobalan (HaritaM.J 

Take 40 rahtika of each, boil in one pint of water till a quarter 
remains, and strain. This quantity is for one dose, and is usually 
given in the morning and repeated for two days ; various infusions 
of herbs, and barks of trees, are used in the same way. Prepared 
ghee with febrifuge medicines are used, when the above remedies do 
not cure the disease. In all cases the particular treatment will vary 
with the symptoms present. 

The food to be taken in this fever is, first kidney beans (Phaseolus 
mungo) boiled, bruised, and eat with spice ; conjee with the juice 
of lemon, and warm water for drink. Long-pepper, hemidismus 
{Sarurd), raisins (kismis), dill (sataspispa), (ranuka), of each 40 
ratiy to a pint of water ; boiled down to a fourth, and taken twice 
a day. 


Should this sort of fever be produced by severe exercise, or if the 
patient is very hungry, he may take broth with boiled rice, fish, 
conjee, and other such hgbt food. 

Should a strong evacuant medicine be given in the first stage of 
this, or any other fever, it will produce severe intermittent fevers. 

2nd form of Fever, V>lien Bile is deranged, producing fever, it 
is called (Paittika Jivara.) This form of fever commences with a 
shivering fit, followed by a severe hot stage ; a frequent desire to go 
to stool, vomiting, a bitter taste in the mouth, and restlessness. 
Aphthse form in the throat, lips, mouth, and nose ; the patient per- 
spires freely, often speaks nonsense, and has sometimes fainting fits, 
and attacks of giddiness. Such a patient is very listless, his body is 
pale, witih* a burning sensation over the surface, he has great thirst, 
the stools and urine have a yellow colour, as well as the eye, which 
is often also red. 

Treatment. This fever, like the last, has three stages. In the first 
stage give laxatives, with cooling and bitter food. The palta leaves 
(PatoJpatra) 1 tola ; with half a pint of simple water, or barley water 
boiled, and a little honey, for the taste, is given once a day, and is 
considered very cooling. The following cooling medicine is also 
given in this fever : — Take of 

Parpataka, the bitter leaves of the Oldenlandea biflora, 

Basaka, (Justitia ganderussa,) 

Katutiktd, (black helebore,) 

Kirdtatikta, (Chiraita,) 

JUhdnyaka, (coriander seed,) 

Priyangu, (Panicum italicum,) 
15 ratis of each, or one sicca weight. A tola to be infused in a 
pint of water until it is reduced to \ which is to be taken twice daily. 
There are various other bitter remedies, all of which are said to 
cure this fever. It is also treated by covering the forehead with 
several cooling medicines mixed with water. When pain in the head 
is severe, with great heat, the person is recommended to sleep on lily, 
nim, and plantain leaves, to cool the body. They also recommend free 
ventilation, and residing in a cool situation. The house may be 
sprinkled mth sandal-wood, and Avater. By a purgative you may pre- 
vent the recurrence of the disease, when only the preliminary symp- 
toms are present. 

In this fever the diet should consist of fried gram, or peas boiled 
in water, and strained. This is mixed with sugar and honey ; the 
juice of acid fruits is also given. 

^rd form of Fever. Derangement of phlegm {Kapha), produces a 
fever named shlaishmik-jwara, or kapha-jwara. This fever is ushered 

2 c 


in by loss of appetite, and the symptoms of the hot stage is Ifess 
marked than in the last form of fever. The person feels languid, and 
listless, with a sweet taste in his month. In this fever the body feels 
cold, as if wrapped in a wet cloth, and the stools and urine are 
white. Such a person remains quiet and silent, does not eat ; but 
feels as if he had eaten too much, his body is very heavy, eyes white, 
with nausea attended with cough. He is very sleepy, and there is a 
discharge of mucus from the eyes, mouth, and nose. 

Treatment. For seven days the person should not eat his usual 
food in this fever ; but should live on prepared peas, and the like. 
The stomach in the first stage of this fever should be cleared by an 
emetic, which will often cut the fever short, but this remedy is not to 
be used when the patient is very weak : after the emetic tu^ juice of 
the leaves of Vitex negundo {India or Sinduhdra) is to be adminis- 
tered, with the powder of long-pepper. Heating medicines of all 
kinds are also used in this fever, as the diet should be light as well 
as heating. 

Ath. Bdto-paittika Jwara. This fever commences with giddiness, 
fainting and thirst : the body feels cold to another person, although 
he complains of his body being hot and burning ; loss of memory, 
no sleep, pain in all the joints, head-ache, cough, throat and mouth 
dry, vomiting, goose-skin, no perspiration, low spirits, and yawning. 

To remove this form of fever take of 

Shunt hi, dry ginger, 

G'ulancha, (Minispermum glabrum,) 

Muthd, (Cyperus rotundus,) 

Chirdtd, (Chiraita,) 

SlidJpdni, (Hedysarum gangeticum,) 

Chdkulyd, (Hemionites cordifolia,) 

BydJmr, (Solanum Jaquini,) a variety of prickly nightshade, 

Kantikdri, (Solanum melongena,) prickly nightshade, 

Ganiri, (Prenma spinosa,) 
18 ratis each, mix in water, boil to }, and take twice a day. 

Diet. The decoction of mudga, a sort of pea, and the juice of 
dmlaka is often used. When there is much heat in the body we 
■ may give a decoction of gram, with the juice of the fruit of pomegra- 
nate for diet. 

hth. Bdta-shlaishmik Jwara. This form of fever is not very severe 
in its accession. The body feels cold, with shght shivering and pain in 
the bones ; the person sleeps much, has pain in the head, with 
much saliva in the mouth, and running at the nose, vsdth cough, a 
dry skin, and body hot. 

The treatment consists in exhibiting the root of long-pepper, 


ehabyay (Piper chavya or Orris root, Roxh.J and root of chitrakay 
(Plumbago zeylanica,) and dried ginger : 32 ratz's of each are put 
into a pint of water, and boiled down to one-fourth. Take this twice 
a day. Heating medicines may also be used in this fever, as 
chiraita, dry ginger, gulancha, (Minispermum glabrum,) bdsaka, 
(Justicia ganderussa,) long-pepper, lashuji, (garlick,) and sindubdray 
(Vitex negunda,) 20 ratis each. Boil in a pint of water, till reduced 
to one-fourth, and take this twice daily, AVhen the pain in the 
joints is severe, the vapour bath may be used ; and should there be 
great dryness of the mouth, in order to increase this secretion take 
salt, the powder of black-pepper, and the juice of lemons. 
Diet. Boil in water the following medicines: — the bark of 

Bilwa, (^Egle marmelos,) 

Shomika, (Bignonia indica,) 

Gambhdri, (Gmelina arborea,) 

Patald, (Bignonia suave-olens,) and 

Ganikdrikd (Premna spinosa :) 
of each 32 ratis, mix in two seers of water, and reduce it to one seer. 
This is again boiled with some rice, and when cool strained. 

6M. Bile and Phlegm, (Pitta-shlaishmik Jwara.) The mouth is 
clammy and sour, with much saliva, in this form of fever. The per- 
son is always dozing, complains of faintness, and coughs ; has no 
appetite, thirst, and is at one time hot, and at another time cold. 

Cure. Abstinence in eating and drinking is to be enjoined ; the 
medicines that cure the diseases of bile and phlegm are to be given, 
such as 

Gulancha, (Minispermum glabrum,) 

N'unba, neem bark, 

JDhanydka, coriander, 

Chandana, red sandal-wood, 

Caturohim, helebore, 
ratis 32 each, boil in a pint of water, till reduced to one-fourth ; 
take this dose twice a day. 

Perspiration is also to be encouraged, as phlegm shuts up the 
perspirable pores, and restores the internal heat to its proper place j 
and water promotes the movements of the body, and cures the fever. 
Hot sand in a bag may be applied to the body, and by changing 
continually its position, it soon produces perspiration. Long- 
pepper with its stem, dry-ginger, each 23 ratis, mixed and boiled 
together may be given twice daily. 

7th. Mixed Remittent or Synochus Fever, (Sannipdt Jwara 
Bikdra.) In this form of fever the air, bile, and phlegm, are 
deranged ; and it is always dangerous. At one time the patient is hot, 

2 c ^ 


at other times cold, with pains in the bones, and joints ; the eyes are 
watery, of a dirty yellow colour, and hollow ; the patient complains 
of ringing, and pain in the ears, with pain in the head, neck, and 
thorax ; is always dozing, but cannot sleep at night ; has no memory,. 
and is often delirious. Bodies seem to turn round, and sometimes- 
he is laughing, crying, performs unnatural actions, is always cough- 
ing, has quick breathing, no appetite, the tongue is black like char- 
coal, and irregular like that of a cow, with pain. Blood, phlegm, air 
and bile flow from the mouth, the patient moves his head about 
continually, with thirst, watching, and pain in the breast. The urine 
is secreted in small quantities, with costiveness and no perspiration ; 
great thirst, noises in the threat, so that there is a difficulty in. 
comprehending what the sick person says ; with round elevations, 
and central depressions of a blue and red colour, over the sur- 
face of the body. The person vomits blood, mixed with phlegm, 
and his abdomen diminishes in size. His body does not become 
thin, but his belly is heavy and enlarged. This kind of fever re- 
mains long, and much care and proper medicines are required for 
its cure. After the first stage, should the fever continue severe, 
it will be generally fatal ; and at the last stage of the fever the 
lower part of the ear (the parotid gland) swells. This is supposed 
to be a fatal sign. 

The 7th, 10th, 12th days, are always the days on which the fever 
is severe, or from these periods the symptoms diminish in severity. 

In other books 4t is stated that the critical days are the 7th, 9th, 
11th, 14th, 18th, 22nd; from which period the disease is diminish- 
ed or increased. Those who live till the 22nd day generally recover. 

There are thirteen kinds of mixed fever. In three kinds one of 
humours, that is the air, bile, or phlegm, are morbidly increased, or 
diminished beyond the others. In a second form two are increased 
or diminished. The thirteenth variety is that in which the three 
humours are morbidly increased. 

1. Bisfaraka Bdtulhana. When the air is increased, the usual 
symptoms of this form of fever will be accompanied with a bad 
taste in the mouth, difficulty of breathing, shivering, cough, yawn- 
ing, giddiness, syncope, delirium, and pain in the sides of the 


' 2. Fittulbana or Asuknri. The peculiar symptoms of this form 
are looseness, giddiness, fainting, aphthse in the mouth, red spots, 
and a burning sensation, over the body. 

3. Kornpono or Kaphidbana, is distinguished by a feeling of 
languor, a difficulty in speaking, sleeping much, eyes cloudy, and a 
sweet taste in the mouth. 


4. Pobru Bohru. Bdtapittulbana. When bile is increased the 
person feels as if he had taken narcotic medicines, complaining of 
thirst, dry mouth, drowsiness, flatulence, loss of appetite, cough, 
difficult of breathing, giddiness, and languor. 

5. Bato Soleso, Ulbono, or Sigrokari. When the air and phlegm 
around the neck is stopped, fever comes on with shivering, fainting, 
sneezing, thirst, pains in the sides of the body and in the abdomen, 
and difficulty in breathing. 

6. Petu Soleso Bono Bolu. Is distiD2;uished by a burnins: sensa- 
tion in the body with chilliness, much thirst, pain in the right side 
of the chest, head-ache, pain in the breast and throat, vomiting 
phlegm and bile, looseness, difficulty of breathing, hiccough, and 

7. Bato-Peto-SoIiso-TJlbono or Kutopdkolo. In this form the 
three air, bile and phlegm are morbidly increased, and like thunder, 
fire and the sword, it kills quickly. The peculiar symptoms of 
this form of fever are, the patient breathes slowly and imperfectly, 
he is motionless, his eyes are fixed, and after three days he dies. 

8. Songonohohoko. The peculiar symptoms of this variety are 
delirium, languor, faintness, shivering, giddiness, and paralysis of 
half the body. This is a very dangerous disease. 

9. Pdkolo. Faintness, dehrium, stiffness of the neck, head- 
ache, cough, difficulty of breathing, giddiness, drovv^siness, severe 
pain in the chest, hemorrhage from the mouth, and nose, and the 
eyes being fixed characterise this form of fever. The patient gene- 
rally dies within three days. 

10. Jammo. In this variety severe pain in the chest, and ab- 
scesses form in the liver, spleen and lungs ; and both the patient's 
stools, and the matter vomited contain blood and pus. 

11. Korkotoko. Is accompanied with a burning sensation in- 
ternally, the person cannot speak, his face and eyes become red, 
he cannot expectorate the phlegm from his throat, has severe lanci- 
nating pains in the breast, with drowsiness, difficulty of breathing, 
and hiccough. These symptoms increase daily ; the patient's tongue 
becomes black and rough, his throat becomes covered with prickles, 
involuntary evacuations follow ; he moans much, like the cooing of a 
pigeon; his mouth, hps, and palate are dry, he sleeps much, and he 
cannot speak, with convulsions, or nausea and vomiting. 

12. Boiddriko. In this fever there is pain in the loins, the 
body is cool, and during the accession the body feels cold, with 
diarrhoea, giddiness, languor, head-ache, drowsiness, pain in the 
neck and chest, cough, difficulty of breathing, and insensibi- 


13. Abhinydsa Jwara. Is characterized by dryness of the mouthj 
by the patient being always sleepy, and his body feels as if it be- 
longed to another person ; he speaks very little, and with great pain, 
is stupid, and breathes v/ith difficulty. His internal heat is dimi- 
nished, he feels an internal burning sensation accompanied with 
weakness, and a dead-like feeling of the skin. 

Treatment of Mixed fever. In this fever the patient must 
abstain from food ; he must be put into a sand-bath, and errhines, 
emetics, and expectorates administered to him. Should the person 
be drowsy several colyria are recommended. During this fever he 
should drink boiled water, which has been cooled. 

Sth. Accidental fever, (Agantuha.) The causes of this order of 
fevers are injuries ; such as wounds, &c. They may also be produc- 
ed by the evil designs of an enemy, or a devil ; by the passions ; 
by the curses of a guru, a brahman, or a prophet ; by poison, or by 
the eifects of air mixed with deleterious matter, as that proceeding 
from a kind of poisonous trees which are supposed to come from 
the east. These causes derange the air, bile, and phlegm, and thus 

produce fever. 

Adultery, grief for parents, friends, &c. derange also the air, 
anffer derano-es bile, and devils derange both air, bile, and phlegm. 

When a man wants to kill another, or to remove an obnoxious 
individual to another countr}^ ; or to have command of him, certain 
mantras, and directions are given in the Tantra Shdstra for accom- 
phshing these. But should he err in any of the injunctions enjoined, 
the person himelf will be attacked with the fever, and he will not 
have pov/er to injure the other. In some such cases the two front 
teeth are extracted to prevent the person blundering in pronouncing 

When the fever is produced by poisons the tongue is white, or 
black in the middle, the person has frequent stools, and fainting 
fits, and has no appetite, or memory?-, and complains of thirst, and 
pain over the body. By improper medicines this fever is sometimes 
produced with swooning, head-ache, and vomiting. 

Making offerings of fire, &c., to hrahmans will cure this species of 
-fever. When produced by a bad conjunction of planets, gifts will cure 
it. By giving ^shelter to the traveller, setting him in a clean 
place, washing his feet, giving him food, will prevent the con- 
sequence. Another form of cure is going to the principal sacred 
temples, and making offerings through the hrahmans. 

When it is produced by the passion of love there is no memory, 
the person dozes, is lazy, and delirious. In this variety every thing 
cooling is to be given ; if cough is deranged, bitter things are to be 


given ; if air, cooling things ; if bile, sweet things. This fever is 
cured, when produced by poison, by the usual antidotes. When pro- 
duced by grief, remedies for curing bile are to be used ; when from 
lust, the person is to be comforted, and his purpose promised. If 
from fear, causes producing joy will perform a cure. 

When produced by the curses of a good man, or by the sorcery 
of another, want of memory and thirst are the peculiar symptoms 
present ; and when an evil spirit produces it, the person alternately 
is sorrowful and laughing ; and at otlier times he cries and lauo-hs. 
These are to be cured by proper prayers, stated in the shdstras, by 
binding the person, and beating him, by which the fever will 
be cured, as by these means the de^"il suffers, and is expelled. 

9 th. Intermittent fevers (Bishama Jicara). This is another form 
of fever, which occurs before and after attacks of other kinds of 
fever ; by the derangements of the humours of the body. The 
essential parts of the body such as chyle, blood, muscles, fat, bone, 
semen, and marrow, in the order now mentioned may be affected. One 
or more are sometimes deranged, and form so many tj^pes of fever. 

These are Saatata, Satafa, JnyejyuJxa, Tritiyaka, Chdturthaka. 
The general symptoms of intermittent fever are as follows : when 
the paroxysm occurs at uncertain periods the patient feels first cold, 
then hot, and afterwards perspires. 

The foUowiiio; five varieties are described : 

1.* Santata continues for several days without an intermission. 

2. Sat at a has two paroxysms daily. 

3. Anyejyuka occurs daily, at the same hour. 

4. Tritiyaka occurs on alternate days. 

5. Chdturthaka occurs every fourth day. 

At the time of the accession of the fever the paroxysm may be 
prevented by frightening the patient, by brandishing a naked sword 
before hmi, by advancing poisonous snakes near him, with the 
poisoned fangs removed, by the approach of dangerous elephants, 
and by the alarm of thieves. For a like purpose on the day of the 
return of the fever, emetics, purgatives, diaphoretics, or strong 
liquors are to be exhibited. These are to be given before the 
paroxysm is expected. 

The following varieties of this class of fevers are described by 
Hindu Medical writers. 

1. Santata-jwara aifects the chyle and blood; audit continues 
for 7, 10, or 12 days ; followed by an interval and again occurs, 
and remains for several days. 

2. Batata has two paroxysms daily, one at night and another 
during the day. 


When the person is weak and the fever is old, he is to live on 
light food, such as broths prepared with certain kinds of pulse, the 
flesh of birds and animals, which have been fed with gram. Others 
say there are two kinds of this fever, one of which commences with a 
cold fit, and another with a hot fit. The first gives much uneasiness, 
and is cured with difficulty. 

3. If the paroxysm of fever recurs at the same hour daily, it is 
called Anyejyuka. In this form use the following medicine : 

Take of bark of the nimha tree, 






The flowers of the mutd, 

Kurchi bark, 
two mashas of each, add a pint of water, and reduce the mixture to 
a half by boiling. Several medicines are also recommended to be 
mixed, and the steam from the mixture is allowed to come in con- 
tact with the body, which has been covered, so as to be exposed to 
the vapours. 

4. When the fever returns at an interval of one day it is called 
Tritiyaka. These are the following three varieties of this fever : 

a, phlegm and bile are deranged in this fever, before the 
accession, pain is felt at the nape of the neck. 

h. When spirit and phlegm are deranged, the patient first feels 
pain in the loins. 

c. When «^> and bile are deranged, the fever is introduced 
with head-ache. For the cure of such fevers, various mantras are 

5. In Chdturthaku, the paroxysms of this fever occur every 
fourth day. When the paroxysm continues for two days, there is no 
paroxysm on the first and fourth day, the fever is that called 
Chdturthaka Biparjyaya. 

This fever presents the following symptoms. It commences with 
shivering, dryness, and swelling. The patient has no strength, so 
as not to be able to walk. He evacuates much bile, air, and 
phlegm which are particularly affected. 

Errhines are used for the cure of this fever. Certain roots are 
used for the same purpose, gathered on the nights of lucky days, 
and are sometimes tied to the hair of the head, and other parts of 
the body. When the body is heavy, with perspiration, and little 
fever and stools, it is called Froapiko. 


"WTien half the body is hot, and the other cold ; when what is eaten 
is not digested, and does harm ; the deranged bile and phlegm have 
produced these morbid symptoms. When the bile of the body is 
deranged, and the phlegm of the arms and legs, the body is hot 
and the hands and feet cold. When the phlegm of the body is 
deranged, and the bile of the hands and feet, the body is cold, and 
the hands and feet are hot. 

The fever is also modified, as the essential parts are deranged. 
Thus the air may be deranged in the blood, flesh, bone, marrow and 
semen ; and the supposed danger increasing in the order above stated, 
until the last, the semen, when the fever is considered always fatal. 

The type of the fever varies also according to the season of the 
year. Each of them forms two lunar months ; during June and July, 
the rainy season (Barshd), air predominates, and the fevers takes on 
the characters of deranged air. The season called Sharata, autumn, 
or sultry months (Sept, and Oct.), the bile and the phlegm pre- 
dominate ; Basanta or spring (Feb. March and April), the phlegm 
is in excess, and is succeeded by derangement of the air and bile, 
followed by fever. 

Ahaka-jicara, (Nakra or Nasd-jwara.) The natives of Bengal are 
subject to this peculiar form of intermittent fever. The description 
of it is not contained in the more ancient medical works. It is 
produced by a swelling of the Schniderian membrane, and is said 
to be caused by the air and phleg ii deranging the blood of the part. 
It is accompanied with pain over the body, but particularly in the 
neck and back, and other symptoms of fever. 

It is of frequent occurrence in Bengal ; attacks adults alone, be- 
tween the age of 20 and 40 years of age. It is treated by the na- 
tives by abstracting a little blood from the nose by the point of a 
needle, or by rubbing a little rough grass over the diseased part. 
Errhines are also of use, and those who take snuff daily are free from 
the disease. 

Order II. 

Small-pox, Masitri/cd/'' 

Stimulating and heating substances produce this disease ; as also 

pungent, acid, or saline substances, and improper mixtures of food ; 

eating before the former food has been digested ; unwholesome 

meats, and certain roots or fruits ; bad air or water ; and the influ- 

* In Persian it is styled Chechak j in Sanskrit Guti and Masuri 
or Masurikd, resembhng a pill or lentil masiira, (Ervum hirsutum and 
Cicer lens.) 

2 D 


ence of a bad planet. These causes derange air, bile, and phlegm, 
&c., which with the bad blood produces an eruption like the masura. 

Before small-pox appears, fever occurs, with pain over the body, 
but particularly in the back ; and itching, lassitude, stretching, 
restlessness, redness of the face and eyes, with cough. The skin 
swells slightly, and is of an unusually red colour. 

When air is much deranged in this disease the pustules are of a 
dark-green, and red colour; or dull, hard, and rough, and are 
accompanied with severe pain. This variety ripens slowly. 

When bile is deranged, in this disease, severe pain is felt in the 
large and small joints, with cough, shaking, listlessness and languor ; 
the palate, lips and tongue are dry with thirst, and no appetite. 
The pustules are red, yellow, and white, and they are accompanied 
with burning pain. This form soon ripens. 

When produced by diseased phlegm the pustules are large, white, 
and shining, with much itching, and less pain than the former kind. 
They ripen slowly. In this form, some of the general symptoms 
of small-pox are aggravated. There is catarrh with chiUiness, 
head-ache, fever, heaviness of the body, nausea, loss of the appetite, 
languor, drowsiness, and the patient sleeps much. 

When blood is deranged diarrhoea, lassitude, and stretching occur ; 
with thirst, laziness, want of appetite, burning over the surface, and 
the mouth becomes ulcerated. The eyes are red, strong fever is 
present, with the symptoms already enumerated under deranged bile. 

When air, bile and phlegm are deranged, in this disease the body 
has a blue colour, and the skin seems stndded with rice. The 
pustules become black and flat, are depressed in the centre, with 
much pain. They ripen slowly, and the discharge is copious, and 

very foetid. 

When air, bile and phlegm are thus deranged the patient is al- 
ways dozing, he has no appetite, breathes with difficulty, and is 
drowsy, restless and delirious. This form is cured with much diffi- 
culty, and it is called Charmo or fatal form. 

The following are other varieties of Small-pox : — 

1 . Measles {Romdntikd, Ham, B.) is produced by vitiated phlegm 
and bile, and the symptoms are fever followed by an eruption of 
small red papellse, like the roots of hairs ; these appear over the 
body, accompanied with loss of appetite and cough. 

2. Water-pox {Togotoh, Masurika, Pdni Basanta, B.) The 
pustules are large, and full of water. In this form the skin is alone 


When the blood is particularly affected in small-pox, the pustules 
are of a redder colour, have a thinner cuticle than usual, and quickly 


ripen. They may generally be cured, but on being opened, sbould 
blood be discharged, the disease is incurable. 

T\'lien the pustules proceed ixomfesh they are hard and shining, 
thev ripen slowly, and the skin covering the part is thick. The 
pain OTcr the body is severe, with hstlessness, itchiness of the skin, 
thirst, and fever. 

When the disease is produced by diseased fat, the pustules are 
large, soft, round, and shghtly elevated, with severe fever and pain. 
This form is very dangerous, and is accompanied with loss of sense, 
laziness and stupor. Some strong persons maybe cured of this disease. 

When the marrow is particularly diseased, the pustules are very 
small, flat, and slightly elevated and dry. The person is insensible, 
with severe pain of a gnawing kind in the vital parts. This form 
quickly destroys the person. 

When the bones are particularly afPected in this disease ; they 
feel pained, as if bored by an insect. The pustules appear as if 
ripe, small, shining and very tender. The person feels chilly, rest- 
less, and delirium occurs, with a burning feeling. 

\\Tien semen is affected in this disease, the symptoms are the 
same as when the bones are affected ; and this form is so fatal that 
as soon as a person is affected with it he dies, so that there is no 
time for the pustules appearing. 

These different forms Avill be known by an experienced physician. 
When small-pox is caused by derangements in the skin, blood, bile, 
or phlegm ; or phlegm and bile, it will be quickly cured. When air 
or bile ; or phlegm and air ; and when the air, bile, and phlegm 
are deranged the disease is incurable. Of the latter kind the erup- 
tions are sometimes like coral, or like rose-apple {Jam), oval, like 
the iron weight of a fishing net, or like a grain of linseed. The 
colour of this dangerous form of small-pox varies according to the 
strength of the individual. The other bad symptoms are cough, 
hiccough, coma, fever of a severe kind, delirium, hstlessness, and 
thirst. The body remains very hot, blood flows from the, 
eyes and nose, and there is a gurgling {gharghar'i) noise in the 
throat, with difficult and sonorous respiration. Such cases of small- 
pox are incurable ; as also those in which great thirst is accompanied 
with difficulty in breathing, which is performed through the mouth. 

Should the elbow, wrists, or axilla swell after the small-pox, the 
person will be cured with difficulty. 

In Bhdbaprakdsha, a modern compilation, another form of small- 
pox is related. It is called Shitald.^^ 

* The name of the goddess of small-pox, from sUta, cold, and la ; 
which indicates the cold treatment, which is most favourable for the 

2 D 2 


It commences with fever, and the eruptions appear before the 
7th day, and they maturate before the 14th day. In another week 
they begin to dry. In this compilation, antiphlogistic remedies 
are recommended to be used from the beginning ; and the ashes of 
cowdung is to be rubbed over the body. When the pustules have 
been broken, the person is to drink cold water, and he should 
remain in a cool room. Such a cool regimen, with an airy and 
clean place to reside in, is all that is required. Febrifuge decoc- 
tions are also used to diminish the fever, and various rehgious 
ceremonies, with prayers and oiferings, are used. 

In the other Manuscripts the manner of treating small-pox varies 
according to its nature. In general, the treatment commences with 
rubbing ghee made hot, or w^arm water over the body, before the 
eruption appears ; an emetic should also be given. 

Y/hen the eruption makes its appearance the pustules are rubbed 
over with turmerick, mixed with ghee. Cooling food is recom- 
mended, particularly the powder of fried rice and gram, boiled with 
sugar and water. Broths made of the birds, which pick with their 
bills, such as pigeons, &c., are to be used towards the termination 
of the disease. Nothing is said about a hot room, so that we may 
infer that the patient is to reside in an open airy place. Few people 
are allowed to visit the sick person ; dirty people are particularly 
excluded, and no one is allowed to touch the person. It is said to be 
contagious, but as it is generally considered as produced by sin, and 
the Hindus being predestinarians, this property of the disease is 
only casually stated in a few MSS. The treatment of small-pox is 
varied according to the humour particularly deranged. 

The air pox {Bdyu Masurika) is to be treated by exhibiting the 
decoction of the powder helamochee with red sandal-wood. In other 
cases a decoction of 


Coriander seed, 




TJshira, and 

Durdlabhd is recommended. 
Two tola of each medicine is boiled in a pint of water to ^ ; 
this is given for a dose. The body is rubbed with ghee, mixed 
with a paste made of the bark of 

cure of the disease. When attacked with the disease, the patient often 
vows to make an offering at the shrine of Shitald, and as an earnest of 
that puts some pice into a vessel of water, as she loves every thing cold. 


Madder, (Manjista,) 
Bat a, 

JJriunhorroJi, mixed together. 
Kodeero (the leaves of Cakekim) and the leaves of Nim, are to 
be mixed, formed into a paste, and rubbed over the body. 

When the small-pox is situated in the mouth and throat, gargles 
made of 

Subarnamdkshyik, and 
JDdtrifala, Emblic myrabalan, 
are formed into a decoction and taken with honey. 

When affecting the eye, the vapour of a decoction of wheat and 
licquorice is to be used. 

^Tien the pustules are broken and drying up, the powder of the 
ashes of cow-dung, and the ashes of astringent trees, as the bark of 
the catechu tree and hata, &c. are applied. 

The diet in this variety of small-pox should consist of sweet 
articles of food with rice, and broth made of a decoction of peas. 

The treatment of small-pox produced by bile (Pitta Masuri/cd) 
is at the commencement, the decoction of 
Nim bark, 
Pdta, Pafol, 

The red and white sandal-wood, 
TJshira, Hellebore, 
Bdssd, Burdlabhd, 
two tollah of each medicine, to two pints of water, which are to be 
boiled down to one pint. The decoction is to be taken in small 
quantities sweetened. 

In small-pox produced by deranged blood {Raktaja Masurikd) 
blood-letting, and the above decoction are required. 

Small-pox produced by deranged phlegm (Kapha Masm'ikd) is 
to be treated by a decoction of bitter plants ; and the body is to be 
rubbed with the bark of shirisha and iirumborroh. 

The treatment of Measles consist in administering the juice of 
the leaves of sushabi with the powder of haridrd. 

The preventative means to be employed in this disease* are adrai- 

* This small-pox is an example of a disease existing for a long 
period in one country, without penetrating into another. It is on this 
account that neither the Greeks nor the Roman authors were acquainted 
with this peculiar, and virulent disease ; while the account given above 
proves that it was well known at a very early period in Hindustan. It 
was its frequency which induced the Hindu physicians to attend to the 


nistering the powder of tamarind seeds with the powder of turmerick 
daily in cold water, by which means the person will not be attacked 
with the disease. The juice of plantain tree with white sandal-wood 
and water ; or the juice of Passo with licquorice will have the same 
effect. These are to be given likewise when the fever comes to 
check, or diminish the violence of the disease. 

It appears that the Chinese as well as the Hindus were familiar 
with small-pox many centuries before the Arabian physicians de- 
scribed it. It was probably conveyed westward by the Persian con- 
querors of Hindustan ; which seems to be a further confirmation of 
the country from which it originally came, and the manner in which 
it gradually approached and eventually reached Europe. The dis- 
tance and the hot deserts through which the only intercourse for so 
long a period was held, prevented for a time its progress westvs^ard ; 
but, as navigation extended, ships from India would frequently 
touch at the Arabian ports of the Persian Gulph, and Red Sea, 
where it seems first to have appeared, A. D. 900. 

The description of the small-pox by Rhazes,* the distinguished 
Arabian physician, first drew the attention of the European phy- 
sicians to the disease. 

Some say it was introduced into Arabia in 5/2, the year that gave 
birth to Mohammad ; other testimonies seem to accord with the 
statement that it was at the siege of Mecca (A. D. 569), by Abraham 
that the Arabians were first affected with the disease. 

The conquests of the followers of Mohammad conveyed the dis- 
ease to Persia, Syria, and Egypt ; and the successful stand made by 
the inhabitants of Constantinople, for some time prevented the 
spread of the disease beyond the Hellespont. So completely does 
this appear to have been the case, that Honus, a resident physician 
in that city in the tenth century, states that neither the small-pox 
nor measles were known in his time in Constantinople. 

The whole of the southern coast of the Mediterranean sea had 
.been subdued by the Arabians; but, it was not till the commence- 
ment of the eighth century that the disease was introduced into 
Spain by the Moors. The victorious Saracens overran Spain, cross- 
disease; and its danger afterwards led them to erect a goddess which 
they now propitiate to prevent, as well as to mitigate, the attack of the 

* The translation was printed in England by Dr. Meade, in 1/47 : see 
his Works, page 297, 


ed the Pyreuese mountains, and inundated the southern provinces 
of France. They were driven back by Charles Martel ; but they 
left the small-pox and measles with the conquerors. From this 
source the diseases quickly spread over Europe. 

The Spaniards in their invasion of Hispaniola and Mexico con- 
veyed the same diseases to these countries, where it committed the 
most extensive ravages. It would thus appear that the small-pox 
as well as the measles commenced in Asia, and extended to Africa, 
Europe, and the new World. 

The ignorance, however, of the European nations, of the middle 
ages, was such, that they did not record any description of the first 
appearance of this peculiar and fatal disease in their different coun- 
tries. It was under the vague name of " plague" or of " consuming 
fire," which was apphed to eruptive pestilences in general, that it 
may have been described ; we may easily suppose that the great 
mortahty which took place on the first introduction of the disease 
must have led the inhabitants to beUeve that the new disease pro- 
ceeded from the anger of an offended deity, inscrutible in his nature, 
and only to be prevented or cured by humiliation and prayers. 

Order III. 
Acute Rheumatism (Amhdt). 

This disease is produced in dispeptic patients who lead a sedentary 
life, taking improper food, or are intemperate. All indigestable 
food has this effect ; such as oleaginous articles, particularly when 
the person, at the same time, takes much exercise. By such causes 
the chyle is not properly prepared, and indigested food (Am) is 
formed in the stomach. This Am is carried into the great abdomi- 
nal vessels. The deranged chyle produced in this manner, by the 
morbid condition of air, bile, or phlegm is like mucilage, and 
deranges all the abdomen. This (Amras) morbid chyle is the 
cause of all the varieties of this disease. The deranged phlegm 
and air are accumulated in the loins producing pain and rigidity of 
the body, and hence it is called Ambdt, (air mixed with morbid 
chyle.) From the loins it extends over all the body. 

The general symptoms are pain over the body, loss of appetite, 
thirst, want of appetite, languor, heaviness, fever, and there is a 
deadened sensation of the parts. When this disease is in such an 
aggravated form, it is most difficult to cure. 

When the deranged phlegm and air with the morbid chyle passes 
to the wrist, ankle, neck, hip, knee, loins, it produces a burning 
sensation, much pain, like the bite of the centipede, with swelhng. 


The person feels great lassitude with a copious flow of urine ; he 
cannot sleep, and complains of pain in the abdomen ; and is dis- 
tressed with thirst, vomitiog, giddiness, fainting, pain in the chest, 
costiveness, &c. 

When bile is much deranged in this disease there is a burning 
sensation and redness of the part ; — and when air is principally 
deranged, the pain is very severe. When phlegm is much deranged, 
the itching and rigidity of the part is considerable, and it feels as 
if it was covered with a wet cloth. When one humour is alone 
aifected, it is curable, when two it is difficult to cure, and when 
three, and the whole body is affected the cure is very difficult, tedi- 
ous, and the disease is even fatal in some cases. 

Treatment. This should be commenced with fasting, diaphore- 
tics, and bitters, tonics, and stomachics. Heating medicines with 
purgatives and enemas are also of much use in this disease. The 
sand-bath is also used, and on the leaves of the castor-oil plant hot 
sand is to be placed, and this is to be applied to the pained parts. 
The following vapour-bath is also recommended. Steep old rice in 
water until it ferments, the water is then poured off, and the fol- 
lowing medicines are put into it : 

The seeds of Dolichos biflorus, (kulattha,) 

Teel seed, (til,) 

The root of the castor-oil shrub. 



Boerhavia diffusa alater, (punarnabd.^ 
To four seers of water, take a tolah of each of these medicines ; 
boil, and in this state place the vessel with the mouth partly closed 
under the chair in which the patient sits, his whole person being 
covered with a thick cloth. Several pots are to be prepared in the 
above manner. He will thus remain for twenty minutes to half an 


Several kinds of plasters are likewise used. The following is a 
specimen of this class of medicines. Take of the roots of the 

Abrus precatorius, {Hingshirdy) 


The Morunga. Guilandina sigrua, 
to be mixed with cow's urine, and the earth of ant-hills so as to 
form a paste, which is to be applied hot to the affected part. 
For purgatives take half a tola of 

Convolvulus turpethum, {Teuri,) 

Sixteen ratis of rock salt, 

And a little ginger, 


with two ounces of conjee water. These are mixed and exhibited 
as a purgative. 

Take of dashamula, (ah'eady explained,) 

Minispermum glabrum, {gulancha,) 

Castor-oil seeds, 

Erundo and Mimosa octandra, {rdsnd,) 

Ginger and Pinus debdaru, {debddru,) 
of each 32 ratis, mix in a pint of water, which is to be boiled down 
to a quarter of a pint. Take this twice a day for seven days. 
The tonic and stimulating decoction is prepared by mixing together 
the roots and seeds of long-pepper, the roots of Piper chavya 
(chahya), Plumbago, and dry ginger ; of each 32 ratis. They are to 
be put into a pint of water, and boiled down to a quarter of a pint. 
Take this twice a day.* 

Diet. In this disease the patola, the fruit of the Trichosanthes 
dioica, old rice, barley, and a kind of pea {inugK), is also used, 
(Charaka). Sushruta recommends the patient to wear a warm 
dress, and to reside in a warm close room. 

Order IV. 

Swellings, {Shotha.) 

Under this head is considered swellings of different kinds. When 
air is deranged, and mixes with the diseased blood, bile, and phlegm, 
it conveys them to the external parts of the body, stops the air- 
vessels, and their contents, which accumulate, and produce swel- 

This disease is caused by great fatigue in walking, with fasting ; 
by eating much indigestable cakes, sour articles of food, vegetables, 
or clay; by salt, which debilitates the humours, and by other 
indigestable, or unhealthy articles of food and mixtures. In other 
cases it is produced by leading a sedentary life, personal neglect of 
medicines, uncleanness, injuries to vital parts, untimely parturition, 
the improper use of emetics and purgatives, and piles. These cause 
a swelling of the body, which is accompanied with pain and heavi- 
ness, restlessness, heat, and discolouration of the body. 

According to Charaka there are nine varieties of Sothah, three 
being produced by air, bile, and phlegm, when affected separately; 

* Charaka. 
2 E 


three when two humours are deranged ; one when three are deranged 
at the same time ; one when caused by an injury, and one by poison. 
Sushruta does not allow that three varieties are produced by the 
combination of two diseased humours ; and consequently considers 
this disease as having only five varieties produced by general, and 
one by a local, or accidental cause. 

1 . When ai?' is deranged the swelling passes from one part to 
another, the skin is thin, the surface dry and soft, of a red or black 
colour, with dullness of feeling. The parts when pressed pit, but 
they recover the level on the pressure being removed. The symp- 
toms increase in the day time. 

2. When the swelling is produced by deranged hile the swell- 
ing is moist, and has a bad smell, is of a yellow, red, and black 
colour, produces various kinds of pain, and ripens soon. In such 
cases the body is soon fatigued, the patient is feverish, perspires 
much, complains of thirst, and dullness, the pulse is very frequent, 
his eyes of a red colour, and the pain is severe. 

3. Phlegm. Bropsij is characterized by always remaining in 
one place, is of a yellowish pale, and shining colour, is cold and 
hard, and painfully itchy. The patient has no appetite, and cough 
is discharged from the mouth and nose, the person is always sleepy, 
the swelling and the internal heat are diminished, and when the 
disease occurs it causes much uneasiness to the person, and is 
cured slowly. Pressure does not diminish this variety, the symp- 
toms of which increase at night. 

4. 5, ^,7. When two of the above humours are deranged, the 
symptoms of both forms of the two humours, stated above, are 
present ; and when three are deranged, all the symptoms are present 
in the separate varieties. 

8. Accidental Sivellings (Abhighdtaja sJiotha), when the body 
is wounded by a cutting instrument, by injuries ; or when bruised by 
an accident, breathing cold air, and the air of the ocean is of much 
use. The vapour or juice of the marking-nut {hhalldtaka) applied 
to the body, or rubbing the part with cowach (kapikachchhu) will be 
of use. These produce swelhng, heat, and redness, accompanied with 
the other symptoms of diseased bile. Bad water, either drank, 
or with which the body is washed, produces such swellings of 

9. Bishaja-shotha. When the poison of any animal is taken by 
the mouth, is introduced into the system by a wound, or by contact ; 
when urine is applied to a wound, or the person wears a cloth that is 
dirty, is covered with excrement, or he breathes air coming from a 
poisonous tree it produces this form of swelling. The application 


of the powder of different poisonous articles, or of certain animals 
walking over tlie body, produce the same effect : Thus if frogs, 
&c. discharge their urine upon a part, it swells. The poison is 
either discharged from the trunk, teeth, or nails of the animal into 
the wound. By such causes the part swells, becomes pendulous, 
and is accompanied ^ith pain. These swellings are soft, rise quick- 
ly, and are not fixed in one place, but move about. Sometimes they 
are quickly produced, and increase downwards (distid) ; and are 
very hot, and painful. When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged in 
the stomach (dmdsiya), the swelling occurs in the head and upper 
extremities, when deranged in the small intestines (pankashaya)y 
the swelling will occur in the trunk, and when in the rectum (an- 
daka), the swelling will occur in the lower extremities. When air, 
bile, and phlegm are deranged over the bod}^, it will swell the 
whole body, and pass from one part to another, 
to another. 

When the swelling occurs in the trunk of the body it will be 
cured with difficulty, and also when the swelUng is over the body. 
When the upper or lower half of the body is affected the disease 
is dangerous, or when the swelling proceeds proximated from the 
part first affected. 

The swelling will not be cured when the person breathes with 
noise and difficulty, when accompanied with thirst, vomiting, 
weakness, hiccough and fever, and when he has no appetite, and is 
affected with diarrhoea and severe pahi (sfd). Such a diseased 
person will die. When the swelhug commences in the feet of the 
male, or in the face of the female, both are very dangerous. It is 
also very dangerous in both sexes, when the swelhng is about the anus. 
When the swelling is recent, with no bad symptoms, it will be 
cured. When the throat and vital parts are swelled with much 
pain ; or when it attack infants, or old persons, or very weak 
persons, the disease will be fatal. 

Treatment. In this disease sour and salt food are to be avoided ; 
curdled milk, jagary, fat, milk, wine, oil, ghee, unleavened bread, 
and all indigestable kinds of food are to be avoided ; the per- 
son should also avoid sleeping during the day, as also broths made 
of the flesh of domestic animals, and venery. When the deranged air 
produces this disease, medicines for curing air are to be exhibited ; 
such as castor oil, or the powder of the bark of the root of Teuri 
(Convolvulus turpethum). These purgatives are to be repeated at 
intervals for a fortnight, or a month. 

When bile is deranged, ghee prepared with a decoction of as- 
tringent medicines, such as the bark of nyagrodha (Ficus Indica), 

2 E 2 


and other such medicines are to be used. When phlegm is much 
deranged take prepared ghee in a decoction of the Cassia fistula, 
and medicines mth the like qualities. 

Besides the above remedies the following general indications of 
treatment are followed : — Different preparations of Iron are used. 
In like manner equal quantities of marabuline and jagary are exhibi- 
ted daily ; or dry-ginger, black and long pepper, with saltpetre, 
and the oxide of iron, in equal parts, are to be mixed with cow's 
urine, and are to be exhibited daily. 

Diet. The diet is to consist of barley, with the decoction of mudga 
(a kind of pea), and flour ; no salt nor ghee is to be used. 

The warm bath, with a decoction ot^iim leaves, (Melia azadirachta,) 
ar/ca (Calotropis gigantea), the leaves of hog-weed (barshdbhu) , is to 
be applied to the swelled parts. 

Various kinds of external medicines are applied to dry up the 
swelling. Such as mustard powder, rock salt, (Lea hirta) sangus- 
ta. For the same reason strong purgatives and emetics are occa- 
sionally used. General bleeding is useful when the disease occurs 
without the presence of any other disease. 

The juices of several roots mixed with recent cow-dung are 
recommended to be rubbed over the swelled part. In the same 
manner irritating substances are applied to <the swelled part to 
disperse it. 

In other cases milk is heated, and the mouth of the pot with the 
hot milk is applied over the swelled part. 

It is always proper to give oliaginous substances internally, to 
promote perspiration, and to rub the above mixtures externally 
over the part. 

Order V. 

G7'eat Fatness,' (Medah.) 

Cause. When persons remain without exercise, sleep during the 
day, take too much ghee, milk, and preparations of sweetmeats, rice, 
and different kinds of indigestable cakes, the chyle becomes oily, 
and sweeter than natural, and as it circulates it produces fatness. It 
is accompanied by the following symptoms : — The person feels a 
difiiculty of breathing, thirst, is not sensitive, is always sleepy and 
uneasy, and cannot excite the body or work ; such a person has 
always a good appetite, his perspiration has a disagreeable smell, 
he has less inclination for women. He speaks indistinctly ; and the 
other essential parts of the body are not nourished. The fat is 


alone inflamed, and such a person usually dies of diabetis, carbuncle, 
ferer, fistula-in-ano, or large internal abscesses. He is also subject 
to disease of the air (bdi/u), and the diseases he may contract are 
always severe. "When such a disease occurs, he should avoid the 
causes of fatness ; and should also take different preparations of 
iron with cow's urine. 

The powder of bitumen with cow's urine is exhibited in this 
disease. Gugidi (Amyiis agallochum) and the sulphurate of an- 
timony is recommended internally, with honey and water, barley, 
mugh (a kind of pea), and other kinds of dry tonic food. Exercise, 
enemas, with tonics, and those medicines which make the body 
thin should be used. 

Order YI. 

Emaciation, (Kdrsa.) 

If a person takes dry food which does not contain much nourish- 
ment, as astringent and pungent kinds of food, much exercise, and 
venery, they produce emaciation ; if he indulges in too much study, 
fear, grief, thinking, watching at night, or food in small quantities, 
the chyle is formed and absorbed in small quantities, does not circulate 
and nourish all parts of the body, and produces emaciation. In 
such a state the person becomes weak and cannot bear hunger or 
thirst, heat or cold, currents of air, or rain. Such a person is 
liable to the attacks of nervous diseases, or diseases of air ; 
and will die of asthma, consumption, acitis, despepsia, gidma 
hsematemesis, or hsemopysis. — Such a person has severe attacks 
of diseases. 

Treatment. Such a person should use milk, ghee, animal and 
sweet articles of food, with barley, and flour. He should sleep in 
the day time, avoid venery, and not work much. The pow^der of 
poischia, asuganda, biddri, shatdbari, balla, and ndgahalla, are used 
as tonics, with alteratives. 

Order VII. 

Burning of the Body , (Dc'iha.) 
This is generally a symptomatic disease attended with fever. 
The blood of the whole body is affected in this disease, the 
body becomes hot, and the patient complains of a burning sen- 
sation over the body, as if hot charcoal was applied to the surface 


which becomes of a red colour like copper. The eyes of such a 
person are red, and his breath is like hot iron. 

There are seven forms of this disease, one being produced by 
bile, another by blood, the third by external injury of the trunk, 
the fourth by not quenching thirst, the fifth by the injury of vital 
parts, the sixth by excess in drinking, and the seventh by the loss 
of the essential parts of the body, as chyle, blood, &c. 

1 and 2. When produced by bile it is accompanied with fever. 
When blood is affected the body, eyes, &c. become red, and he com- 
plains of a burning sensation over the body. 

3. When any viscus is injured, and is filled up with blood, 
and affects a ddha which is difficult to cure. 

4. When produced by excessive drinking the internal heat 
comes out externally, and is increased by the derangement of bile 
and blood. It then produces great burning of the body. 

5. If a foolish person does not drink water, when he is very 
thirsty, the watery part of the body is diminished ; and the internal 
heat is increased, producing a burning of the external and internal 
parts of the body ; — his throat, palate, tongue and lips, become 
dry, and the tongue protrudes, with shaking of the body. 

6. When the essential fluids of the body are diminished by 
any cause, as an excess in venery, too much exercise, copious eva- 
cuation of any of the fluids, the body feels very hot, and the patient 
faints, has much thirst, his voice becomes low and altered, he 
cannot move his body, and soon dies. 

7. When any vital part is injured, as the bladder, heart, or 
brain, it produces a burning sensation over the body which is incu- 

When the body feels cold to another while the patient is suffering 
from an internal burning, it is always a very unfavourable symptom 
in this kind of disease. 

Treatment. Take clarified old ghee and the flowers of barley, mix 
them well together, and rub it over the body. In old cases, water 
with vinegar should be applied to the body. Cloths wet in old 
and fermenting rice-water. In other cases sandal-wood reduced to a 
paste between two stones, with which the root of the Andropogon 
muricatum, a fragrant grass, is to be mixed and applied over the 

The free use of the pankd is likewise recommended, and the 
patient should sleep or lie upon the leaves of the water-lily or 
plantain, and use the cold bath. He should take internally the juice 
of the sugar-cane, and different kinds of skarbats, the decoction of 
the stalk of the water-lily, a sort of fennel (Anethum panmorium), 


coriander seed, Emblice, myrabolan, and the fragrant wood of 
the 2^admaMsJitha, of each 32 ratis : boil in a pint of water so as 
to reduce it to half a pint, which is to be taken two or three times 
a day. Other antiphlogistic means are likewise recommended. 

Burning of the feet (pdda-ddha) is a variety of this order ; 
and. is a peculiar, severe and very imtractable disease of India. In 
the treatment it is recommended that leeches should be applied to 
the {eet, with the continued application of the mixture* of masura 
(EiTum hirsutum). This is rubbed between two stones with water 
and apphed to the feet. Butter is likewise recommended to be 
rubbed on the feet, which are then to be brought near the fire. 
With these means the usual treatment of bdta-rakta (shght 
leprosy) is to be followed. 

Order YIII. 

Jaundice i (Pdndu.) 

This disease is produced by excesses in venery, eating earth, 
sour or salt food, or drinking much wine. It is likewise produced 
by sleeping during the day, and eating very hot things, which 
derange the air, bile, and phlegm. 

There are five kinds of this disease produced by deranged air, 
bile, or phlegm ; when these three are deranged together, and when 
produced by eating earth, especially chalk. When the air, bile, or 
phlegm are diseased, they derange the blood ; and produce the pale 
or yellowish white colour of the skin. Before the disease appears 
the skin feels as if pinched, the sputa is red, the person cannot do 
any work, and has a desire to eat earth ; his eyelids swell, the dejec- 
tions and urine are yellow, and whatever is eaten is not digested. 

1 . When air is deranged producing this disease, the skin, urine, 
and eyes, or other parts, are rough, dark-coloured, and brown- 
ish with shaking, pain over the body, and the dejections and urine 
are constipated, with giddiness. 

2. When the bile is deranged, the urine, dejections, and eyes 
are of a yellow colour, the body is hot, with thirst, and fever, there 
are frequent dejections, and the surface of the body is very yellow. 

3. Phlegm. In this form the phlegm proceeds from the mouth 
and nose, the person often dozes and complains of lassitude and 
heaviness of the body ; the skin, eyes, and face are of a whitish 
colour ; the urine is also pale. 

* Rather plaster, as it is thick, is spread over the part and allowed 
to remain. 


4. When the air, bile and phlegm are at the same time derang- 
ed, there is fever, no appetite, retching and vomiting, the person 
complains of thirst, and the body feels painful and tired. When 
such a person is very weak and insensible the person will die. 

5. When produced by eating earth there are three kinds ; one 
deranging the air, another the bile, and a third the phlegm. 
Astringent earth (kasdya mritika) also deranges air; salt-earth 
(iisara), deranges bile; and sweet-earth (niadhura), deranges the 
phlegm. When earth deranges the elements of the body, and 
whatever is eaten remains undigested, the blood which is formed 
stops the mouths of the vessels of the intestines that carry the 
chyle, blood, &c., and they derange the senses. The strength of 
the body is impaired, and the surface becomes pale and yellow, 
and it produces dispepsia. In this form of Jaundice the person 
feels drowsiness, languor, cough, has difficulty in breathing, pain 
in the belly, and feels no appetite : his cheeks and eyelids swell, 
also the legs, umbilicus, and penis ; diarrhcea occurs, and the de- 
jections are as if they consisted of a mixture of blood and phlegm, 
with worms. 

Prognosis. When there is much fever with dispepsia, nausia, vomit- 
ing, thirst, and languor occur ; when the person is very weak and 
insensible, or when caused by the derangement of the three hu- 
mours, or when very chronic, with rough skin and swelling over 
the body the prognosis will be unfavourable. Should the patient 
see every thing yellow he will not soon get well. When constipa- 
ted, when the dejections are yellow and mixed with bile, when 
accompanied with diarrhoea and much fever, restless and thirst, and 
when the eyes, teeth and nails become yellow, the prognosis must 
be unfavourable. In hke manner, when the extremities are swollen, 
and the trunk is thin, or when the trunk is swollen and the extre- 
mities are small ; or when there is much swelling about the anus, 
penis and scrotum, the prognosis must be guarded. When the 
patient suffers much, when senseless, or when attacked at the same 
time with dysentery and fever, such patients the physician should 
not treat. 

• A variety of Jaundice is named kdmald, which is produced by 
eating much sour, salt, and other indigestable articles of food after 
an attack of Jaundice. In this case the bile is much affected, and 
produces yellowness, particularly of the face, accompanied with drow- 
siness, loss of strength, and the other symptoms above stated. 

If in kdmald there is swelling and pain in the joints, then it is 
called kumbha^ kdmald (from kumbha, a water-pot, and kdmald, Jaun- 
dice). In this case the dejections and urine are of a dark or 


yellow colour ; the body is swelled, and the eyes and mouth are of a 
red colour. TMien vomitmg takes place the matter vomited is of a 
red colour, as also the dejections and urine. 

In some cases the patient is delirious, his body is hot, he has no 
appetite, is thirsty, and the dejections and urine become constipated : 
such cases are unfavourable. In other cases the person dozes, and the 
internal fire and the understanding, are much affected. Such persons 
will soon die ; as will be the case when there is vomiting with no appe- 
tite, fever, debility, noise in breathing, cough, and frequent dejections. 
Another form of Jaundice is called HaJimaka or LdcoroJiaka. 
This variety is produced by air and bile, and is characterized by fever, 
pain over the body, giddiness, languor, drowsiness, emaciation of 
the body, with the symptoms of the from of Jaundice produced by 
air and bile. 

The Treatment of Jaundice should be commenced by exhibiting 
several doses of mild purgatives, and emetics. The purgatives 
usually consist of Cassia fistula, or myrobalan with sugar. Before 
taking these he is to eat freely of ghee, which has been boiled in 
turmerick. The patient's body should be anointed with oil, after 
he has taken the above mixture for several days, and it has 
acted freely ; the next object is to discharge impurities from the 
head by means of errhines with glysters : such as the powder of 
the oxide of iron, with ginger, black and long pepper, with biranga. 
It is also recommended to give the fojces of the goat, mixed with 
black salt {bitlavan), and turmerick. These are made into a powder 
vnt\\ honey, and taken frequently, for several days. A quarter 
or half a told of the powder of the bark of Convolvulus turpethum 
{teuri) may also be exhibited in sugar, as a purgative. A wine 
produced by fermented sugar is also to be used in this disease. 
Butter-milk and rice must be taken for a long time, as they will 
improve the appetite, and cure the disease. The patient should 
also take broths prepared with venison and prunes. 

If air, bile, and phlegm are much deranged, medicines to cure these 
are to be given with the other remedies. If the patient, along with 
the above symptoms, has swelling of the anus, penis, and scrotum, 
and is senseless, va\h dysentery and fever, he is not to be treated. 

In the form of Jaundice, called Immbha kdldma, the rust of iron 
is recommended to be heated to a white heat, eight times, and each 
time it is to be thrown into the urine of the cow. This is then 
powdered, and taken with honey in doses of about half a dram. 

In the variety of Jaundice called Halimaka prepared ghee 
with the juice of raisins, Minispermum glabrum (gulancha)y and 
myrobalan {dmlakl), is often used with advantage. 

2 F 


Order IX. 

Nervous Diseases^ (Bdta Byddhi.) 

These diseases are produced by the continued use of dry, cold, 
or Ught articles of food, taken in unusually small quantities ; exces- 
sive venery, and watching ; improper and violent exercise ; fasting ; 
and copious discharges of blood, or other evacuations. They are 
also produced by much jumping, swimming, or fighting, wear- 
ing wet cloths, or wanting to do impossibilities, as raising 
weights, &c. Any cause producing the absorption of parts by 
which the individual is weakened, and swoons ; too much thinking, 
sorrow, grief, fear, and other diseases producing emaciations ; sleep- 
ing uncomfortably during the day, or in an unusual position ; anger, 
or not attending to the calls of nature ; the accumulation of indiges- 
table food, or certain injuries of vital parts, produce these diseases. 
They are also caused by the person falling from a height, by riding 
very fast on an elephant, horse, or camel, or whatever goes very 
fast. These causes derange air, filling the empty vessels in one 
part, or over all the body, and thus produce the symptoms of the 

When air is so deranged it produces the following symptoms : 
the muscles of the small joints are contracted with rigidity, and 
cannot be moved. These symptoms are accompanied with so much 
pain, that they seem as if broken by force. The skin becomes rough, 
the person speaks nonsense, and complains of pain in the joints of 
the hand, back, and head ; he cannot sleep, nor walk with vigour, 
and is deformed, and the members become thin. When wom.en 
are so affected, they have miscarriages, and it diminishes the semen, 
and stops menstruation. The parts affected shake, there is no 
feeling in the part, the person has severe pain in the head, and 
no smell ; the eyes become dry and dull, and a painful weight 
is felt in the pit of the stomach, and stiffness of the nape of the 
neck. These symptoms are accompanied with spasm of different 
parts, with loss of sense and great fatigue. 

These different causes, and the different parts of the body affected, 
produce various forms of the disease. When the air is deranged in the 
abdomen, the dejections and urine are constipated, pain is felt in the 
abdomen and its sides, and diseases of the heart, hysteria {gulma)^ 
and piles {arsha), are produced. When air is deranged generally 
there is much pain over the body, which shakes with pain in the 
joints. They feel as if broken. When situated in the pelvis it stops 
the usual evacuations, with great pain, and flatulency, and produces 


gravel, and the stone. In women it produces deformities in the 
foetus, and the plurality of children. When air is deranged in the 
anus, the legs, thiglis, os coccygus, hands, and breast are painful, and 
the body is thin. When deranged air is situated in the stomach, the 
sides, back, scrobiculus cordis, and navel are painful, with thirst, 
belching, and cholera; the person complains of cough, and the 
throat and mouth are dry, with asthma. When air is deranged 
in the small intestines {pankdshci}/), they make a noise, with scanty 
dejections, and little urine. Such a person has uneasy choliky 
pains in the abdomen, with pain in the lower part of the back. 

When air is deranged in the organs of sensQ it destroys their 
functions. ^\Tien deranged in the skin it becomes dry, rough, and 
has no feeling ; has a black colour, and is painful. In some cases 
it is stretched over the body without wrinkles, and is of a red 
colour, accompanied with pains in the joints, and slight chops in 
the skin over the body. 

When air is deranged in the hlood, great pain is felt in the body 
which is hot, and the colour of the skin is unnatural. The body 
is thin, the person has no appetite, and the skin has red eruptions 
over it, and after eating the body is unwieldy, and the person cannot 
work. TMien air is deranged in the^e^^ oy fat the body is heavy, 
with pain, as if beaten with a stick, and the person is much fa- 

When air is deranged in the hones and marroiv the long bones and 
joints are very painful ; his strength and flesh become diminished ; 
the person has no sleep, and pain is very severe and continued. 

When air is deranged in the semen it is quickly discharged, or is 
constipated, and in women it retains the foetus long in the uterus, or 
abortions are produced. The semen in such cases has an unusual 
colour, and produces twins. 

When air is deranged in the vessels it produces painful contraction, 
or fulness of the vessel. 

When air is deranged in the nerves (tendons ?) the whole body 
may be diseased, or it may be confined to one situation. It produ- 
ces episthotonos, with lameness, spasm, and cramps of the leg, with 

When in the joints it produces swellings, and pain in the joints. 

When the vital air {prdn bdyu), which is situated in the thorax, is 
deranged with bile, it produces vomiting with a burning sensation of 
the parts. When this air is mixed with phlegm it produces weakness, 
debility, langour, and drowsiness ; and the taste for food is deranged. 

Vital air in the throat {uddn bciyu), when mixed with bile pro- 
duces great heat in the body, swooning, fainting, and languor. 


When mixed with phlegm there is no perspiration, horripilation is 
felt over the body ; the person becomes melancholy, has little inter- 
nal heat in the stomach, and the body feels cold. 

Vital air in the umbilical region {samdna bdyii), when mixed 
with bile, produces much perspiration, a burning sensation of the 
body, fainting, and swooning. When mixed with phlegm constipa- 
tion of the dejections and urine, and a state of goose-skin over the 
surface may be remarked. 

Vital air in the anus (apdna bdyv). When mixed with bile the 
body is very hot, or is only slightly warm, and the urine is bloody. 
When mixed with phlegm the person has a sense of heaviness in 
the lower part of the trunk, and the body feels cold. 

Vital air over the body {bydn bdyu), when mixed with bile the 
body is very hot, and there are convulsims of the extremities, with 
great fatigue. When mixed with phlegm the person remains stupid, 
and rigid, and he feels pain, and swelling of the body. 

Different varieties of nervous diseases are thus supposed to be pro- 
duced by the derangements of the air (bdyu) . In Bhdbaprakdsha 
eighty varieties are described. The following may be considered the 
most important : — 

1 . When air is much deranged, and passes into the different 
vessels of the body it produces contractions of the body. This 
form is called ahhyepaha, or spasmodic convulsions. 

2. When air is deranged, and rises from its situation, it pro- 
duces pain in the chest, head, and temples. The body and mem- 
bers are bent like a bow ; and it produces convulsions. The person 
has difficulty in breathing, the eyes are fixed and shut. The person 
moans, and has little sense. This form is called apatantraha or rigid 
spasms. In this disease the body is drawn up either backwards 
or forwards, or to either side. 

3. When the eye remains fixed, with loss of sense, the person 
makes a pecuhar noise, the air is dislodged from the chest with rehef, 
and is followed by weakness of the senses : it is called ddruna or 

4. When air is mixed with phlegm, and is situated in the 
"vessels, the person is rigid like a stick, hence its name is dandd- 

5. When the body i& bent like a bow it is called dhanustambha. 

6. When the air is deranged in the fingers, ankles, belly, chest, 
or neck, the air contracts the nerves of these parts, and forces the 
body forward, accompanied with Tetanus, and vomiting of phlegm ; 
the eyes are fixed, and severe pain is felt in the sides : this form is 
called dmbotreama. 


7. When the ah' affects the veins of the back it produces apos- 
troto'tias (bdjJnjd-dma) ; this form is incurable, as the breast and 
back joints are broken by the violence of the symptoms. This 
variety of the disease is produced by external injuries, in miscarri- 
ages, and great hemorrhages. 

8. Pakhydghdta (paralysis, hemiplegia.) There are two varieties 
of this disease, one affecting one side of the body, and another af- 
fecting one half of the body taken transversely. When air affects 
the vessels and nerves of one side, it produces this disease ; when 
the person loses the power of that part, which is without feeling, 
and with loseness of the joints. When deranged air alone produces 
hemiplegia, the disease will be cured with difficulty. When air and 
bile, or air and phlegm produce this disease it may be cured ; but 
when there is great weakness of the essential parts of the body, as 
after hemorrhagia in parturition or injuries, the disease is incurable. 

9. When all the body is palsied it is called sarhdnga-rog. 
When air and bile are both deranged, it produces great heat of the 
body, and fainting. When air is deranged with phlegm, the body 
is cold, is swelled, and heavy. 

10. Arddata, or hamistamhhay (Tetanus and Trismus ?) When 
the air is deranged by a person speaking very loud, or by eating 
large mouthfuls of meat, or hard things, or laughing much, or 
gaping or sleeping uncomfortably, or bearing heavy weights, it 
affects the lower jaw or half the face and neck, which it draws later- 
ally, and the head shakes. The person cannot speak, there is a 
deformity of the eye, nose, mouth, and neck, with pain in these 
parts, as also in the chin and teeth, and the senses are in an unheal- 
thy state. The dangerous symptoms of this disease are when the 
person is weak, the pain severe, and he cannot move his eyelids^ 
nor speak distinctly ; when the mouth is turned to one side, and 
with the shaking of the part of the body, as the head, has continued 
for three or more years. In all these spasmodic diseases the symp- 
toms for a time disappear, and again recur. 

1 1 . Sometimes while cleaning the tongue mth the tongue-scraper, 
when eating dry and hard food, or by external injury, the air is 
deranged in the joints of the jaw, and are sometimes dislocated, 
when the mouth remains open. In other cases the jaw is locked, 
when the patient is unable to speak or eat. 

12. When sleeping in the day time, especially in an unnatural 
attitude, or when regarding intensely an object above the person^ 
air may be so deranged, and mixed with phlegm as to produce the 
stiffness of the neck, which remains straight and rigid. This is 
called manydstamhha. 


13. When the air affects the nerve of the tongue, it becomes 
rigid and immoveable, and the person cannot speak, eat, or drink. 
This disease is ndim&di jihwdstambha. 

14. "UTien air enters the blood-vessels of the head, the vessels 
becomes dry, black, and painful, producing head-ache or the disease 
called shir ogr aha. 

15. When air attacks the buttocks, back, loins, hip, thigh, 
knees, legs, and feet, it produces pain in these parts ; passes from 
one to the other, often without the pain being properly defined. In 
other cases the affected parts shake ; sometimes when air is mixed 
with phlegm it produces heaviness of the part, dispepsia and drow- 
siness. This variety is called gridhrasi. 

16. Bishwdchi. When air affects the tendons of the back of the 
hand and arm, it produces this disease, in which there is no motion 
in the hand or arm. 

17. When air and blood are changed in a part, it swells vdth 
severe pain. In this manner the knee-joint may be affected, and 
become large, like a jackal's head. This disease is called kustaka- 

18. When air is deranged in the sides of the thighs, it draws 
the tendons of these parts, which contract, and the person walks 
feebly. This disease is called khanja. 

19. If both sides are affected the person cannot walk, this 
disease is called J^«?^^w. 

20. When in walking the person limps, his body shakes, or as if 
the person was walking over kaldi, a kind of pea, and is feeble, it 
is called kaldskhanja (chorea sanctir viti).* In this disease the parts 
seem as if loosened from their natural binding. The disease is 
characterized by the person feeling in the commencement a trem- 
bling or shivering sensation through his body, accompanied with 
a dimness of sight, and a pain in the neck, jaw, or teeth, or of 
the part affected. These symptoms are followed by involuntary 
twitching of the head, neck, and jaw, often of one side, especially 
of one leg. The patient speaks indistinctly, and then the involuntary 
motions extend to the whole voluntary muscles of progression, 
producing a dancing motion. When the disease extends over the 
body, and has continued long, it is considered incurable. Its existing 
cause is considered to be irregularity in the bowels from eating 
indigestable food, too much walking or laughing, carrying great 
loads, &c. 

* In some Sanskrit works the term Ardita is given to this disease, 
and others apply the term Ardita to Tetanus and Trismus, 


21. When the ankle joint is strained in walking it produces 
pain in the ankle with stiffness, it is called bdtakantaka. The 
pain resembling that of a thorn piercing the flesh. 

22. Air, bile, and blood accumulated in the feet produce a 
burning sensation of the part, particularly when the person is walk- 
ing, it is called pddaddJia. This is one of the most distressing 
and intractable diseases peculiar to this country. It is called 
" Fever in the feet." 

23. When phlegm and air are deranged in the two feet they 
become cold, with insensibility, as when sitting very long in a par- 
ticular position, when the leg feels dead with a disagreeable numb 
feeling. It is cdX^tdi pddaharsha (foot numbness) ; and is a frequent 
complaint among the natives, from their sitting on the ground, in 
often constrained positions. 

24. When air is deranged in the shoulder- joint, it dries the liga- 
ments and tendons of the part. They are contracted, and the arm 
becomes fixed. It is called apahdkuka, or stiff arm. 

25. When the air is mixed with phlegm, and enters into the 
air-vessels (dhmnani) the person cannot speak, or speaks slowly, 
and indistinctly. This disease is called muka (dumbness), and 
mimnma and gadgada (indistinct speech). 

26. When pain commences from the bowels and bladder, and 
passes to the anus and urinary passages, producing great pam in 
these parts, which feel as if torn asunder, the disease is called tunie. 

27. When it commences from the anus and urinary passages, and 
passes up to the intestines with great violence, it is called pi'atunie. 

28. Swelling and pain, with a rumbling noise of the abdomen, 
produced by the air being confined in the abdomen, is called 
ddhydna, or drumb-belly. 

29. When the swelling is confined to the stomach with pain 
and noise, it is called pratyddhydna ; and is produced by the air 
being mixed with phlegm. 

30. When a hard oblong swelling is felt under the navel, which 
passes from one part to another, or rests stationary, and becomes 
prominent, and air, urine, and dejections are constipated, it is 
called ashthild or bdtashthild. 

31. When the hard swelling is longitudinal, and is accompani- 
ed with much pain, and the urine and dejections are constipated, 
it is CdXltdi pratashthild. These derangements of air produce diseases 
in various situations ; when deranged in the bladder, it causes the 
stoppage of urine, &c. 

32. When air is deranged in the head, it is always shaking. 
The disease is called bapati. 


33. When air is affected in the feet, legs, thighs, and wrist, it 
produces spasm and is called kuli. The other diseases of air are 
named according to the part particularly affected. In all these 
nervous diseases it is of importance that the Physician observe 
whether the symptoms of bile and phlegm, &c. are present, as they 
will affect his prognosis, and treatment. In hanugraha (lock-jaw), 
ardito (or paralysis of the face), akhepokd (spasmodic diseases), 
pahhydghdta (hemiplegia), apatdnaka (epilepsy), our prognosis 
may be rather favourable, when the person is strong, the disease is 
recent, and is not accompanied with any bad symptoms. This is 
particularly the case when the patient is rich, as the treatment 
will generally be tedious. 

The unfavourable symptoms are when the disease is accompanied 
with erysepelas {hisarpa), or with severe burning sensations, with 
great heat and pain, as if the body was torn, and with constipation, 
fainting, and loss of appetite, or when the digestion is very weak. 
In such cases the patient will die. This disease is also dangerous 
when the person is swollen, when the parts are without feeling, and 
are accompanied with flatulency and shaking of the body, with great 
pain and weakness. 

Should the air not be deranged, and be confined to its usual 
situation, the person will live for a hundred years free from disease. 

Treatment of Nervous diseases. 

After distinguishing the disease, the next object is to find out 
the proper remedies for it, and how to exhibit them. When this 
is not attended to, the practitioner's reputation, and his income 
will be diminished ; and if he does not use remedies on the disco- 
very of the disease, it will be like a plant, which at first was easily 
removed, but when allowed to enlarge, and take deep root, it is 
removed with great difiiculty. In nervous diseases oily enemas 
are to be used several times a day, and the body is to be frequent- 
ly anointed with a mixture of 

Kumkuma, saffron, 
Agura, Acquilaria agallocha, 
Kushtha, (Costus speciosus,) 
Tagara, (Tabernsemontana coronaria,) 
and other stimulants. Preparations of milk are also much used 
in this class of disease. The following mixture is often used. 
Take equal parts of panchamula, or (bihva), shondka, gdmbhdri, 
jadtald, and ganikdrikd, form a decoction ; or take with a decoction 


a decoction of Coriander seed, or Kakalaidi ; a mixture of various 
vegetable stimulants and antispasmodic medicines ; such as — 

Kdkoli, (berry of the Calculus Indicus,) 

Kshira kdkoli, (resembles squill, and is often sold as such,) 

Mudgaparni, (Phaseolus Trilobus,) 

Mdsajparni, (Glycine debilis,) 

Chinrahd, (Minispermum glabrum,) 

Carkatashringij (the root of the Momordica mixta, (?) &c.) 

When the joint is contracted mix together oil, ghee, the fat of 
animals, and the flesh of the crocodile, and turtle. Boil together for 
some time, and then let it be frequently applied warm to the parts. 
When there is much spasm, apply the mixture with a piece of 
cloth. Hot baths with hot douches, and shampooing are also of 
much use. Oily purgatives are useful, and hot oil in bladders is 
to be apphed to the head, when there is head-ache. Emetics, and 
leeches to the part, are also recommended. Several aromatic, and 
anodyne substances with ghee are to be smoked or inhaled. Er- 
rhines of different kinds, made with prepared oil and ghee, are 
also used. 

In this class of diseases the diet should consist of milk, with 
broth and meat, and sweet and acid fruits. 

The person should wear warm woollen or cotton clothes, and the 
room should be in the centre of the house, cool, without any cur- 
rents of air. The bed should be comfortable, and have soft cushions ; 
and the person must avoid intemperance in eating and drinking, and 
intercourse with females. 

When the ah' is deranged in the stomach, he should take equal 
parts (half a told) of the powder of 

Chitraka, (the root of Plumbago zeylanica,) 
Indrajaba, (seed of the Wrightea antedysenterica,) 
Fdtd, (Cissampelos hexandra,) 
Katukd, (Hellebore,) 
Atibishd, (Atesor betula,) and 
Abhayd, (Myrobalan.) 

Repeat this medicine several times a day, and continue to take 
it for seven days. When deranged in the small intestines, oily 
purgatives, enemas, and food with salt are to be used. When 
deranged in the bladder, diuretics should be given. When affect- 
ing the senses, prepared oil and ghee, are to be applied to the 
parts. When affecting the skin, flesh, and blood, venesection 
is recommended. When deranged in the large tendons, joints, 
and bones, pressure is to be used, as by shampooing and rubbing 

2 G 


the part frequently -witli prepared oils, bandages, and the application 
of hot irons over the affected part.* 

"When the whole or half the body is affected, heat is applied in 
various ways to produce perspiration. The patient embraces hot 
stones, and is put into a hot room. In other cases they dig a hole 
which they heat, put leaves in it, and the person Hes down in it, 
and when he is in a free perspiration he is removed to his bed. 
Venesection is recommended when the whole body is affected, and 
cupping is used in the variety which is local. "When there is no 
feeling in the part ; the application of the actual cautery, and of a 
mixture of oil, salt,and soot is recommended to be rubbed into the part. 

The treatment of dislocation of the lower jaw consists in sur- 
rounding it with a cloth, and reducing the dislocation (hapushas) . 
When the jaw is fixed by tetanus, they apply prepared oil or ghee 
externally, so as to keep it well moist during the treatment, and then 
endeavour to open the mouth by force. When open a mixture of 
medicines to produce a free discharge of saliva is recommended ; 
such a mixture is formed by the powder of long-pepper and ginger. 
At the same time the mouth should be frequently gargled with 
warm water. He should also eat garlic, with salt. Numerous other 
oils and medicines are likewise recommended in this dangerous class 
of diseases. 

Order X. 

Leprosy, (Kushtha or Kuth.) 

This disease is the most aggravated of all that afflict the body, 
and when a person dies with it the Hindus beheve that the person 
will be afflicted with it in the next life, unless he performs the 
prcischitta, penance. This penance consists of abstinence for a day, 
shaving the whole hair off the head, presents of a certain number 
of cowries and other articles to the brahmans, who perform certain 
prayers, and to whom the person confesses his sins. This ceremony 
is now generally performed before entering upon the treatment of 
any supposed dangerous disease. 

The Hindus distinguish three kinds of Leprosy, the black, white, 
and red varieties, which are produced by various causes. Some- 
times the disease is caused by bad air, and drink ; eating substances 
which do not assimilate, as milk and fish, food of a rancid, salt, 
and indigestable nature ; or thin oleaginous food : when the 

* Pvbumatism is a frequent disease among cows, and the actual 
cautery is freely applied by the natives, with the best effects. Such 
cows are frequently to be seen marked all over the joints with these 
applications of the red hot iron. 


person eats imniGderately of such food, for some time, it will 
produce this disease. In other cases irregularity in eating and 
fasting, mental agitation, violent exercise, exposure to fatigue, or too 
great heat, especially after a full meal ; night watching with expo- 
sure to the night air, using new rice, milk, curds, fish, and the too 
frequent use of pulse, radishes, sesaman and treacle, produce lepro- 
sy. In others it is produced by checking natural evacuations, or 
suppressing them when artificially excited ; such as vomiting or the 
expulsion of air, urine or dejections, or the irregularity and alternate 
use of hot and cold applications. Sometimes it is produced from 
eating hot or cold articles of food, first at dinner, or after fasting, 
when the usual food is not eaten, after much perspiration, fatigue, or 
fear, or when the person bathes or drinks cold water at improper 
times. In other cases the disease is produced when the food is 
not digested, or when time has not been given for this purpose, 
before more is taken into the stomach ; when after the use of 
emetics and purgatives, the usual simple food, &c. is not employed ; 
when the person sleeps during the day with a loaded stomach ; 
or when he visits his wife before the food is digested. The blood 
and seminal secretions of parents when tainted by leprosy, affects 
their offspring. Lepers in one life, are born again with the com- 
plaint ; and the disease is supposed to be communicable by contact, 
by breathing the same air, by eating together, by wearing the clothes, 
or ornaments, of a person labouring under the disease. Whoever 
speaks disrespectfully or does any other improper action, or commits 
sins against his guru or bipra (pandit brahman) ; such as, commit- 
ting adultery with a brahman's wife, killing a good man, and robbing 
a person of his estate, will be liable to be afflicted with this disease. 
Such causes derange air, bile, and phlegm, by w^iich the skin, blood, 
flesh, and watery parts of the blood (ambu) are deranged, and 
produce the eighteen forms of leprosy : of these seven are severe, 
and eleven are mild. 

Before leprosy appears the skin becomes glossy, thin, and rough, 
and of an unnatural colour ; there is much perspiration, or a sup- 
pression of it, itchiness and occasional horripilation ; the body feels 
hot, parts of the surface become insensible, and the blood in the 
veins becomes blacker than usual, while other parts of the surface 
become discoloured, painful, swell quickly, remain so for a long time, 
and slowly heal. In such a person any injury turns to a sore, is 
very painful, heals with great difficulty, and a rough cicatrix is 
left. The person has fits of giddiness, with impaired, or an irregular 
state of the appetite. The seven severe forms of leprosy are pro- 
duced by deranged air, bile, or phlegm : they are thus described. 

2 G 2 


1 . Sidhma, is produced by deranged phlegm and air, and is 
characterized by small, white, coppery, or red spots, which spread 
over large surfaces accompanied with a thin mealy dust. This is 
the Lepra Vulgaris, or L. Alphos. 

2. Audumhard. In this form the blotches are livid, and resemble 
the ripe fig, or Ficus glomerata. This form is accompanied with 
much pain, and a burning on the surface. The hair becomes tawny ; 
and the morbid humor is bile. 

3. Rishwajihwa ; the patches of tubercles, are shaped like the 
tongue of a bear ; hard and red round their edges, dark in the cen- 
tre and are accompanied with severe pain. This form is produced 
by a derangement of the air, and bile. 

4. Kapala ; is covered with black and purplish patches re- 
sembling the broken pieces of a black earthen vessel. These blotches 
are irregular, hard, and dry, and are accompanied with pricking and 
pain. The air is the humor principally affected. 

5. Kdkanaka, resembles the seed oi hunch (x\brus precatorius), 
with red and black spots in the centre. The blotches are extremely 
painful, and often terminate in suppuration. The three humors are 
deranged in this variety ; which is incurable. 

6. Pundarika. The patches in this variety are pale red in the 
centre, with dark dull red edges, and resemble the petals of the lotus, 
when exposod to the sun. This variety is produced by derange- 
ments of the phlegm and bile. 

7. Dadrukushtha. The patches in this variety are elevated, 
black, round, and spreading ; there are many sorts, which are 
accompanied with much itching, burning, and pain ; and are pro- 
duced by derangements of the phlegm, and bile. These are the 
general symptoms of the severe forms of leprosy. 

The slighter varieties of leprosy, Kshudra^ are according to 
Sushruta as follows : 






Ekshyukushtha . 

















Charaka has the following arrangement. 


1. When there is no perspiration, and the patches are very large, 
and of a dark brown colour, and oblong, Uke the scales of fish, and 
rough Uke an elephant's skin, it is called ekakushtha, (Ichthyasis.) 

2. When it has patches of a dark yellow colour, like the cica- 
trices of healed ulcers, with a hardness and roughness of the part, it 
is called kitima. 

3. When sores and chaps form in the hands and feet, about the 
nails, accompanied with small tubercles of a red colour, much pain, 
and itching, it is called vaipddikd. 

4. When the tubercles are large, of a red colour, and very itchy, 
they are called dldsaka. 

5. Should the patches be of a slightly dark redish colour, itchy, 
spreading, and elevated into tubercles, it is called dadrumanala. 

6. When the spots are of a red colour, with severe pain, and 
itchiness, the blotches are very sensible, ripen soon, and much 
matter is discharged, it is called charmadala. 

7. Small tubercles in great numbers, of a black or purplish hue, 
with a copious bloody discharge, accompanied with burning, and 
itching, it is called pdmd. 

8. When the eruptions are merely larger than the last, and are 
accompanied with much pain in the palms of the hands, or but- 
tocks, it is called kachchMi. 

9. When the eruptions are of a dark yellow or red colour, and 
the skin is dry and thin, the variety is called bishphotha. 

10. Another form has yellow, or dark redish coloured blotches, 
accompanied with much heat and pain, and numerous itchy tuber- 
cles : it is called sotdnish. 

1 1 . When the tubercles are small numerous and itchy, of a dark 
yellow colour, and discharge much ichor, blood, &c., the variety is 
called hicharchikd. The four first varieties are supposed to be pro- 
duced by derangements of the air and phlegm ; and the seven last 
by derangements of the bile and phlegm. 

When leprosy is in the skin, its colour is unnatural, rough, dry, 
and insensible ; and the hairs on the body are generally erected, and 
the person perspires freely. When blood is deranged the body be- 
comes itchy with fetor, and the skin is hard, and pus is discharged. 

When jlesh is diseased it is called gajacharma (Ichthyasis Sim- 
plex) ; the mouth is often parched, perspiration is defective, the 
surface of the body is rough, is like the scales of fish, and eruptions 
form over the body, with pain. Patches of vesicles sometimes form, 
and terminate in ulcers, which remain for long periods. 

When/a^ is affected the hands and feet become stiff, immoveable, 
and ulcerated, and drop oif, with severe pain ; the sores pass from 


one part of the body to another, and the symptoms of diseased flesh 
appear also in this form. 

When the bones and marrow are leprous, the nose falls in, the 
eyes become red, and worms breed in the sores. The voice becomes 
unnatural, and hoarse. When the leprosy is in the skin, blood, or 
flesh, or in the air or phlegm, it may be cured. When in the fat, 
with two of the humors deranged, as air and phlegm, or air and 
bile, the person will not be cured, nor will it soon destroy the in- 
dividual. When the bones and marrow are affected and two or 
three humors are viciated, one of them being the bile, it is incurable. 

Fatal symptoms of leprosy occur with worms in the sores, or with 
the painful disease of the heart (Angina pectoris) ; with dispepsia, or 
with symptoms of diseased air, bile, and phlegm ; with sores which 
discharge copiously ; with inflamed eyes, the voice hoarse, and alter- 
ed, and with weakness so that the person is not able to bear the em- 
ployment of the five forms of medicine, as purgatives, emetics, &c. 

The white, and the red leprosy (shitra and kildsa), are distin- 
guished from the black leprosy by their not being accompanied 
with any discharge, and only affecting the skin. Char aim adds, that 
they sometimes affect the skin, Mood, phlegm, and/«^. 

When the white leprosy is not produced by burns, and when the 
hair is not white but remains of the natural colour over the white 
patches ; when the patches are not large and do not join each other, 
and when recent, the disease may be cured. When produced by 
burns, and the above symptoms are absent, these kinds of white 
leprosy are incurable. 

When situated about the external genitals, palms of the hands, 
or lips, the white leprosy is incurable although recent. 

The leprosy, with fever, and the drying up or emaciation of the 
body, and other symptoms of pulmonary consumption (shosha) ; a 
variety of 0\)\itha\mia (Netrdbhishyanda), and those diseases produced 
by the influence of the planets, such as small-pox, &c. are contagious. 


Leprosy commences first in the skin, and gradually extends deeper 
• and deeper affecting the different essential parts, as flesh, blood, fat, 
&c. Thus like the small shoots of the Banian tree, which are at first 
confined to the surface, they advance deeper and deeper, until they 
extend over the whole body. In the first stage, when it is superfi- 
cial, the use of proper diet and medicines may cure it ; but when 
it has extended to a greater distance, the difficulty of curing it 
becomes much greater. 

Diet. In leprosy, flesh, with the exception of that of wild animals, 


and oleaginous articles of food are not to be used ; as also hard 
food, milk, curdled milk, certain kinds of pulse ; sour articles, or 
sweet, prepared from sugar-cane. Improper and indigestable 
articles of food, or eating too often of roasted or heating food are 
to be avoided, and also sleeping in the day time, and connexion 
with woman. Good and old rice is to be used with barley, flour, 
and peas {mugh) boiled in water, and mixed with the leaves of 
nimha. Such vegetables as contain a bitter principle are useful. 
In other cases, barley is recommended to be steeped in cow's urine 
for a night and then dried in the sun. This is to be repeated seven 
days ; then fry it, and some of it is to be taken every morning with 
a decoction of the following bitters, 

Kantikdri, (Solanum Jacquini,) and 
Nimha, (Melia Azadirachta, &c.) 
Prepared oils are to be used to anoint the body with. 

The ulcers are to be cleaned with astringent decoctions ; with 
an oily preparation called Vajraka, and a paste or liniment of the 
aragbadha (Cassia fistula) . The water with which the person washes 
or bathes should be impregnated with khayar, catechu, which also 
should be mixed with the drinking water. 

In the beginning of the disease purgatives and emetics are first to 
be administered. If the leprosy is confined to the skin evacuant 
medicines, and smearing the body with different sorts of medicines 
are of use. If confined to the blood it is to be purified by evacu- 
ants, smearing the body with proper medicines, drinking bitter and 
astringent decoctions, and venesection. When confined to the 
flesh the remedies are the same as those of blood, with tonic 
tinctures, of various kinds. When confined to the fat it is incur- 
able ; but the progress of the disease maybe checked by proper 
diet and medicines, especially tonics. When the bones are affect- 
ed it is incurable, and should not be treated. 

When marrow is diseased the man will soon die. In the seven 
severe forms of leprosy, besides emetics and purgatives, glysters, 
supposotories, with errhines are to be used. If these five forms 
of medicines have been employed without effect, the case may be 
considered as hopeless. 

When air produces leprosy, prepared ghee, with astringent tonics 
are to be used ; when phleg^n, emetics ; when bile, blood is to 
be removed from the person, and purgatives are to be administered. 

The following mixtures are much recommended in leprosy. 
Take equal parts of 

Meshashnngi, (Asclepias geminata, &c.) 
Shwadangshtrd, (Flacourtia catafracta,) 


Chilancha, (Minispermum glabrum,) 
Shdngashthd, (Leea hirta,) 
mix with Panchamuli. This mixture consists of equal parts of 
the bark of 

Bilwa, (^gle marmelos,) 
Sandka, (Bignonia indica,) 
Gdmbhdri, (GmeHna arborea,) 
Pdtald, (Bignonia suaveolens,) and 
Ganikdrikd, (Premna spinosa.) 
These medicines are to be boiled in water, shaken, mixed with ghee, 
and boiled down till the watery part is dissipated. This to be 
taken internally, mixed with oil, and rubbed over the body. In 
other cases the ghee is prepared in the same way with 
Bhalldtaka, (Marking Nut,) 
Abhayd, (Myrobalan,) 
and a vermifuge plant called hiranga. It resembles black-pepper, 
is prepared as above, and used for the cure of all the different 
forms of leprosy. 

Blood-letting is used frequently in the cure of leprosy, and is 
abstracted from different veins. When prominent patches form, 
scarifications, leeches or caustics, are to be used. 

Various medicines are recommended for rubbing over the body. 
They are usually of a stimulating nature. The following is one of 
these. Take of 

Haritdla, (Yellow arsenic,) 
Manahshild, (Red arsenic,) 
the juice of the Madar, {Arka,) 
a kind of horse-raddisli called Sigru or Skobhdnjana, 
black -pepper, and the seeds of Sesamum, (Til,) 
mix together, in equal parts. These are to be rubbed with water, 
and applied to the surface affected. There are seven other varie- 
ties of such mixtures. The following is recommended. Take 
of the leaves of Cassia fistula (sonddl), and mix them with butter- 
milk, and rub it over the diseased part, particularly where there 
are tubercles. Others recommend the froth of the sea (samudra 
'phena)y after it has been dried, to be rubbed over the diseased parts. 
The following may therefore be considered as the best means of 
curing leprosy. Use freely catechu by mixing it with the water 
of the patient's bath, in his drinks, food and medicine, while he 
avoids animal food, wine, and intercourse with women. When the 
disease is subdued, use purgatives freely to prevent a relapse. 

With these means, certain diet, wearing clean clothing, and a 
proper degree of exercise is to be used. Such treatment will gene- 


rally cure the disease : especially if emetics are given every fort- 
night, purgatives every month, and venesection twice a year. Two 
tolas of the powder of turmerick in cow's urine are to be taken 
at the same time, every day for one month ; and every third night 
an errhine is to be exhibited. 

The following mixture is also much recommended. Take of the 
bark of the nimha tree, the leaves of a kind of cucumber commonly 
called Palwal, {Paltd,) the leaves of Solanum Jacquini, (Kantikdriy) 
Minispermum glabrum, (Gidancha,) with the bark of Justicia 
ganderussa, (Bdsaka,) of each ten polls (about ^iv.) mix them with 
64 seers of water ; and boil to 16 seers. Remove it from the fire, 
and add four seers of ghee by degrees, and again put it on the fire 
until the water is dissipated. To this medicine add the 

Haritaki, (Paste of Myrobalan,) 

Bibhitaki, (Terminalia belerica,) and 

Amlaki, (Phylanthus emblica ;) 
of each two pals,* 5 tolas, and 2 masas, and 7 ratis, are to be added. 
The whole is to be mixed in a mortar, to which ghee is to be added ; 
it is again to be placed over the fire for a short time, and when 
mixed, it is then to be strained through cloth. This, taken 
internally, is said to cure leprosy, the 80 diseases produced by 
deranged air, the 40 diseases of bile, and the 20 diseases of phlegm. 
It is also useful in bad boils, worms, piles, and the five kinds of cough. 
Other mixtures equally efficacious in curing numerous diseases, are 
recommended. These vaunted qualities of certain mixtures is to 
encourage the patient, as well as the practitioner ; and their ineffici- 
ency explains the numerous other mixtures which are recommended 
as substitutes. 

Should wonns form in leprous ulcers, a paste made of the bark 
of Nerium odorum {Assamdra), and the seeds of a vermifuge plant 
called biranga, with cow's urine, is to be applied to the sore. 
Treatment of White Lejprosy. 
The diet in the white leprosy is the same as in the black. 
The treatment of white leprosy consists in the exhibition of ex- 
ternal, and internal medicines. 

External Medicines. 
Take of the flowers and leaves of 

Putika, (Csesalpinia bonducella,) 

Akun, (Calotropis gigantea,) 

Sthahi, (Euphorbium,) 

Baruna, (Tapia cratseva,) 

* Eight tolas make one pal. 
2 H 


in equal proportions. Mix to the consistence of paste, with 
the urine of the cow, and apply to the part affected. The ashes 
of the skin of elephants and tigers ; and the powder of the flying 
bug {pddapokd), is also used. Another remedy is the faeces of a 
fowl which has been kept fasting for three days ; during which time 
it is only to receive a mixture of the seed of Cassia tora (j)repundrd)y 
and licquorice root. The faeces is to be rubbed over the part ; and 
repeat the apphcation daily for a month, during which time the 
same mixture is occasionally to be given to the fowl. Another 
external application is prepared as follows : The juice of the mango 
tree is to be mixed with the bark and leaves of the murabuli, the 
mixture is to be put into a copper vessel, and mixed with the juice 
of the Ficus Indica (hot tree). It is then burnt, and the ashes are 
to be mixed with a decoction of myrobalan, and mustard oil. This 
medicine is to be rubbed over the affected part. 

The Internal Medicines employed for white leprosy are very 
nmnerous. The following mixture may be taken as an example : Take 
of the powder of the root of Plumbago Zeylenica (^Chitrakah), black 
pepper, dry-ginger, and long- pepper ; macerate them in cow's urine 
in an earthen water-pot, in which ghee had been kept, and some 
honey ; keep the mixture for a fortnight, strain, and give one tola 
for a dose. 

Order XI. 

A kind of Leprosy,^ {Bdta-rakta.) 
This disease is produced by the blood being diseased with air 
{hdyu). Its exciting causes are using sour food, and alkaline salts. 
In like manner spices, or other hot articles, indigestable articles 
of food, putrified, or dry meats, as the flesh of crocodiles, of 
the buffalo, of the rhinoceros, or the like. Til oil-cake, and other 
indigestable articles of food, curdled or butter-milk, bad wines, 
and excess in eating and drinking, the passions, unhealthy and 
improper mixtures of food, eating too often, or sleeping during the 
day produce this disease. Delicate constitutions, and fat people, who 
lead a sedentary life are predisposed to this disease. Long continued 
riding on horses, elephants, or camels, and whatever produces great 
heat of the body ; by these causes the blood is diseased, and 
is conveyed by the air to the feet, where it accumulates, and 
produces this disease, first in the feet, and then in other parts 

* Under this head several diseases are described ; such as certain 
forms of rheumatism, abscesses ; and such cachectic states as may, 
they say, terminate in true leprosy. 


of the body. Bdta-rakta is ushered in sometimes by free, at 
other times by a cessation of perspirations ; the body becomes of 
a dark hue, and parts have no feeUng. If there are sores they are 
very painful ; the joints are loose, the person feels languid, and 
cannot work ; and small pimples appear over the body, with pain 
of a gnawing or lancinating kind, as if ants were eating the flesh, 
or needles thrust into the skin. The knees, legs, thighs, loins, 
shoulders, hands, and arms, are so aifected. The pain intermits, 
and these parts become heavy, without feeling, and the skin has 
patches of an unusual colour. 

When air is much deranged there is severe pain of the body, as 
if ants were eating the flesh, and the vessels, nails, fingers, and 
joints are contracted. The patient has no appetite, and if not 
treated the symptoms increase. The person cannot workj and the 
body shakes, with rigidity of the joints. 

When blood is much deranged swellings appears over the body, 
with much pain. The skin is of a copperish colour with slight 
stinging pain {chin chin). If the patient take oil and dry food, in 
small quantities, he feels better. 

When bile is deranged the body feels hot, with a burning sensa- 
tion, and dulness of intellect. He perspires much, has fainting 
fits, with an appearance of drunkenness and thirst ; pressure of 
the part produces great pain, with redness, heat, swelling, and 
sometimes abscesses are formed. 

When phlegm is deranged the body is very cold, as if a cold wet 
cloth was applied over the body, which feels heavy, and without 
feeling. The skin is smooth, shining and itchy, and feels cold, 
with slight pain. 

When two or three of the above humors are affected the symp- 
toms resemble the two or three forms, as above enumerated. 

In some cases the ankles and wrists are first affected, and then it 
extends over the body like the poison of certain animals. 

The disease is incurable, when accompanied with a sore from the 
ankle to the knee, or when it is opened and pus escapes in large 
quantities. V/hen the person is very weak and reduced the disease 
will be fatal ; but if the person Uves for a year, or it is chronic, he 
will live. When the disease is severe the person cannot obtain 
sleep, has no appetite, has a difliculty in breathing, parts of the 
body slough, he complains of head-ache, fainting, delirium, pain in 
the body, thirst, fever, has no sense, with shaking, hiccough, con- 
traction of the fingers and toes, so that he cannot walk nor work, 
and erysipelas appears with vascular eruptions. Severe pain is felt 
in the vital parts, tumors appear over the body, want of memory, 

2 H 2 


fatigue, and delirium follow, and precede death. When all the 
symptoms of this severe form of the disease are not present, the 
disease may not be fatal. If none of the severe symptoms are pre- 
sent, the disease may be cured. When only one of the humors 
is deranged ; as air, bile, &c. and the disease is recent, it may be 
cured ; but, if two of the humors are deranged, the disease will 
remain, when three are affected the disease is incurable, and when 
all the severe symptoms are present the disease will be fatal. 

The treatment of this disease is to be commenced by general 
and local bleeding ; when the patient is not weak, or much reduced 
in flesh. Emetics and purgatives are then to be used. If the air 
is much deranged old ghee is to be administered, with the milk of 
goats, prepared with hquorice, honey, and sugar. In other cases 
equal quantities of the following medicines are recommended : 

Sunt, (dry ginger,) mixed with 

SingataJca, (Trapa bispinosa,) 

Kaserika, (Scirpus kysoor.) 
In other cases a decoction prepared with milk and the five following 
medicines, is recommended : 

Sdljparni, (Hedysarum gangetic,) 

Prisniparni, (Hemionites cordiflora,) 

Kantikdri, (Solanum jacquini,) 

Bherhoti, (Solanum melongena,) 

Kokurd, (Ruellia longifolia,) 
equal parts of these plants, are mixed together, to form the decoc- 
tion. This mixture is called panchamuU, and may be used as fol- 
lows. Take of 

PanchamuU, and 

Mahd panchamuli, with liquorice, 

MesJiasringiy (Asclepias geminata,) 

Sahala, (Pinus longifolia,) 

Bdsaka, (Justicia ganderussa,) 

Debddru, (Ovaria longifolia,) and 

Kantikdri, (Solanum jacquini.) 
These are to be mixed and formed into a decoction in the usual 
way. Til oil may also be prepared in the same way as the above. 
These mixtures are to be administered internally and applied exter- 
nally. In other cases the powder of myrobalan with sugar is adminis- 
tered. A powder composed of five corns of long pepper, is to be 
taken daily for ten days, and is to be decreased by degrees for a fort- 
night, during which time the patient should live on rice and milk. 

The diet in this disease should consist of the simplest food in 
small quantities ; as old rice, barlev, flour, milk, broth of wild 


animals, aud the decoction of a kind of ipea. (mudff a) . When the 
disease is violent, bleedings should be repeated several times, and 
emetics, purgatives, and enemas are to be given ; such persons should 
live in a shut-up room, avoid currents of air, during the treatment ; 
and he should sleep on a long comfortable bed, with soft pillows. 
The body should be shampooed, and he should avoid fatigue, sleep- 
ing during the day time, connexion with woman, anger, heating, 
salt, sour food. 

Order XII. 

Urticaria ? (Sitapita.) 

This disease is called Sitapita or TJdordah, and another form is 
named Khatah. The disease is produced by cold air applied to the 
body, which deranges the phlegm, air, and hile. These move 
about on the surface, and within the body, producing thirst, redness 
of the eyes, nausea, and cause loss of appetite. The body 
becomes heavy, and the person incapable of work. The disease 
appears with slight swellings in different parts of the body ; like the 
sting of the wasp. The part is at first itchy and then very painful, 
with vomiting, fever, and heat of the body. When the air is much 
diseased, beyond the other humors it is called Sitapita ; and when 
phlegm is much deranged, producing red circles, accompanied vrith 
itching, it is called TJdordah. 

It is called Khata, when the stomach is deranged. This is more 
liable to occur if at the commencement the stomach has not 
been properly cleared by emetics, and when bile and phlegm 
are deranged. If in such a case an ignorant person does not pro- 
mote vomiting, but endeavours to cure the deranged bile and 
phlegm, the disease will be aggravated. In such cases the body is 
covered with large and small circular patches which are^ itchy, 
elevated, and have a red colour. They appear and disappear on 
different parts of the body. This form of the disease will also be 
produced by repressing vomiting when nature is endeavouring to 
relieve herself of the contents of the stomach. 

Treatment. In TJdordah, mustard oil is to be rubbed over the bo- 
dy ; in other cases turmerick, dub grass (Panicum dactyl on), and the 
urine of the cow, are to be mixed and rubbed over the body. The 
warm bath is of great use ; and a decoction of nimba leaves, as an 
emetic and purgative, with one ioXk <di trifaU,^ and half a tola of 
teori or Convolvulus turpethum, and tribrit, or castor oil. If for seve- 

* Which consists of myrobalan, Emblici myrobalan, and Beleric my- 
robalan, mixed in equal proportions, or one tola. 


ral days the person takes the powder of myrobalan (dmlaki), liquorice 
root with sugar ; or Legusticum ajwaen (jawdni) with sugar, and 
uses the proper diet he will be cured of the disease. The juice 
of fresh ginger, with old impure sugar {jagary)^ is also used. In 
Sitapita, the same treatment is to be employed ; in Khata, tonic 
medicines are to be given with blood letting. The powder of the 
nimba leaves, and Emblic myrobalan (dmlaki), are to be taken in- 
ternally. He should also take rice prepared with horse raddish, 
and the gravy of birds. Cooling diet is to be used in the two last 
forms ; and in Sitapita, heating food is to be employed, and every 
thing cooling avoided. 

Order XIII. 

Erysipelas, carbuncle? {Bisharpa). 
When air J bile 2^^ phlegm are all deranged in the skin, flesh, 
or blood, they produce a slight swelling of the whole body, which 
passes from one part to another. When produced by air, the part 
becomes black, soft, and unequal ; accompanied with pain, as if 
needles were thrust into the part, and the fever produced by 
deranged air. When surrounded with vesications it is incurable. 

When the disease is produced by bile it spreads quickly, and is 
accompanied with inflammatory fever. This form is accompanied 
with redness, and vesications. When the inflammation is deep, 
the flesh and vessels are destroyed, and it discharges a matter like 
a mixture of water and clay. Such cases are incurable. 

When produced by phlegm it spreads slowly, has an oily appear- 
ance, and is white. There is little pain in such cases, with consider- 
able itching. When produced by the derangement of the three 
humors the symptoms are of a mixed nature. When this disease 
passes - to suppuration it is incurable. When produced by sharp 
instruments, or such hke injuries, the bile and blood are deranged 
and produces a swelling of the part ; which becomes black and red, 
and is accompanied with violent inflammatory fever. The affected 
part is surrounded by a black edge, and eruptions hke peas. 

The first three forms of this disease are curable, and the two last 
are incurable. 

Treatment. When produced by air different preparations of ghee, 
and decoctions, and plasters are applied to the part. The medicines 
used are the same in all the above forms as follows : take equal 
parts of 

Musta, (Cyperus rotundus,) 
Sotdobha, (Anethum sowa,) 


Bebddru, (Pinus debdaru,) 

Kusta, (Costus speciosus,) 

Kustumhru, (Coriander seeds,) 

Cigruhy (Hyperanthera morunga,) 
mix them with water and ghee, the mixture is then to be boiled, 
strained, and apphed to the part. It is sometimes used as a decoc- 

Stimulating medicines are hkewise apphed to the part, when the 
disease is produced by bile. The application in this form should be 
used cold. Thus take equal parts of 

Bib era, 



Easanjana, (Sulphurate of Antimony,) 

mix them together with milk, and apply it to the part. In some 
cases cold water, or water mixed AYith honey or sugar, or the juice 
of the sugar-cane may be used with advantage. 

When erysipelas is produced by phlegm the following medicines 
should be used. Take of 

Ajagandd, (Ocymum gratissimum,) 

Ashioaganda, (Physalis flexuosa,) 

Sahala, (Pinus longifolia,) 

Tribrit, (Convolvulus turpethum,) 

mix them with cow's urine to the thickness of cream, and apply it 
to the part. Another application is as follows. Take of 

Kaldner sarga, 

Agura, (Aquilaria agallocha,) 

Kachu, (Arum colocasia,) 

Gunghd, (Morunga hyperanthera,) 


BdssaUj (Panicum italicum,) 





Munjdta, (Saccharum munja,) 
these medicines are to be mixed with cow's urine to the consistence 
of cream, and then applied to the part. 

Besides these external appUcations, purgatives, and blood-letting 
are recommended. When abscesses are formed, or the part ulcerates, 
the usual plan of treatment for abscesses, and ulcers is to be followed. 


Order XIV. 

Soils, pustules, Erysipelas ? {Bishphotaka) 

The causes of this form of disease are using too much heating, 
sour, or acid substances ; — heavy and indigestable or salt food ; — ■ 
eating too freely, and exposure to the sun — or to too sudden alter- 
ations of the weather. By such cause, air, bile, and phlegm are 
deranged, which affect the blood, flesh, bones, and skin ; and pro- 
duce large bullae, accompanied with fever. This part appears as if 
burnt. Sometimes these bullae appear over all the body, and in 
other cases they are confined to particular parts. When the air 
is much deranged in this disease it is accompanied with head-ache, 
fever, thirst, pain in the joints, and the bullae become black, accom- 
panied with much pain. "When produced by deranged bile there is 
much fever, burning of the body, and a large discharge of fluid from 
the bullae. They then become red, or yellow. 

"When produced by deranged phlegm it is accompanied with 
vomiting, dispepsia, languor, and the affected parts become itchy, 
hard, and white, without pain. Suppuration often takes place, and 
continues for a long time. 

When the three humors are deranged the disease is incurable ; 
and also when the bullae are depressed in the centre and hard. The 
patient in such cases complains of a burning sensation, thirst, faint- 
ing, vomiting, fever, delirium, rigors, and drowsiness. These are 
unfavourable symptoms, as also when the bullae become red. 

When the disease is produced by blood, the tubercles are like 
the seed of the giinja ; (that is red with a black spot.) This 
form is incurable {Char aha). 

The treatment of this disease is the same as that described under 
the head of (Bisharpa) . The bark and leaves of the {Sabanjana) 
tree {Morunga) is to make into a paste with old conjee, and applied 
to the parts with salt ; bitters are also of much use, such as the decoc- 
tion of neemba bark and of gulancha. 

Order XV. 
Hoemorrhagia, {Raktapitta.) 
This order of disease is divided into those which occur from the 
mouth, nose, ears, eyes ; from the anus, urethra or vagina ; or from 
the skin. 

Hemorrhage is caused by anger, grief, fear, wi^estling, and other 
severe exercises ; too much intercourse with women ; or too free use 
of hot things, as pepper and salt, or sour articles, when taken in con- 


siderable quantities. The improper mixtures of food, or exposure 
to the heat of the sun, or to fire. By these means the chyle is 
deranged, which irritates the bile, and this mixing with the blood 
produces Raktapitta. It may thus occur from above downwards, 
or from the surface of the body. This blood usually proceeds from 
the spleen or liver. 

Immediately before the disease occurs the patient is languid, the 
body is weak, cold, and cool things are desired. His throat is 
burning hot, as if he had swallowed smoke, with vomiting. The 
breathing has the smell of quenched iron. When produced b}^ 
deranged air, bile, and phlegm, it is known from the blood discharged 
being very thick, of a yellow colour, shining, and slippery, and 
mixed with phlegm of a grey colour, of a thick consistence, and with 
a yellow froth. In other cases it is thin. When bile is deranged 
in this disease, the blood has an astringent taste, and is of a dark 
colour, or of the colour of cow's urine, and as if mixed with diiferent 
colours, as of the colour of smoke, or of a dark colour. 

The symptoms which terminate this order of diseases are Aveak- 
ness, difficult breathing, cough, i^^^^Y, vomiting, and slight head-ache ; 
sometimes the patient faints, and his skin is yellow, hot, and after 
eating, the pit of the stomach burns. He is restless, and has severe 
pain in the chest, with hoarseness, head-ache, and the discharge of 
fecal matter from the mouth ; he has no appetite, is languid, and 
what is eaten is not digested. 

The unfavourable symptoms in this disease are when the hemor- 
rhage is like the water in which flesh had been washed, or like a 
vegetable decoction ; is of a liver colour, or like water mixed with 
mud. When it resembles pus mixed with blood, when it is dark 
like the fruit of the Jambu tree (black-berry), or of a variegated 
colour, like the rain-bow, such cases are fatal. 

When there is a frequent vomiting of blood ; when eructations 
have the taste of blood, when the eyes are red, and every thing 
appears the colour of blood, the case is hopeless. 

When phlegm is deranged the blood is evacuated by the mouth ; 
when air is deranged it is by the anus ; and when the two are derang- 
ed, the blood is evacuated above and below. When the blood passes 
above, the person may be cured ; but not so when below. When 
evacuated both ways, it is incurable. When the person is strong, 
the disease recent, and not severe, and only occurs one way ; and 
when the person in general feels well, with no other bad disease, 
it will be cured. 

Treatment. The hemorrhage from a stout person is not to be 
stopped at the beginning ; as it otherwise will produce jaundice, 

2 I 


dispepsia, leprosy, enlargement of the spleen, fever, and guhnah. 
When the blood is evacuated from the urethra or anus, emetics are 
to be administered ; and when from the mouth or nose, purgatives 
are to be used. If the person is very weak, the discharge of blood 
may be stopped by administering astringent articles. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are much deranged, and the person 
strong, such a person should fast for some days, after which he is 
to drink conjee with a little rice, with sugar, lemon juice, and the 
juice of grapes. 

Several decoctions and electuaries are recommended with prepara- 
tions of ghee, to cure this complaint. The purgatives are to be 
mixed with the juice of grapes and liquorice root, sugar, and the 
juice of other sweet fruits. Emetics are always to be used with 
honey, water, and the decoction of liquorice. 

The diet should be cold water, and the flesh of wild animals, 
boiled rice, broths made of gram {mung), potatoes, and different other 
vegetables, seasoned with ghee, and mixed with the juice of the pome- 
granate, {umlika) myrobalan, with the broth of pigeons, turtles, and 
shell-fish. Different preparations of rice as conjee with ghee may 
also be used. 

The body should be anointed with cold oil, and cold apphcations 
are to be made to the body. In this disease the juice of the rose- 
apple leaves, or mangoe leaves, or orgono ; and the juice of the fruit of 
figs may be used with rice water, and the root of cucumber (triposi.) 
In other cases half a tola of liquorice root in water ; the pulp of the 
seeds of ingodah with liquorice root, and sugar-cane bruised, are to 
be kept in a new earthen pot for one night steeped in cold water, 
with the flower of water-lily, and taken with honey. 

If the blood proceeds from the nose he should snuff the powder 
of myrobalan. After a great loss of blood, the patient may drink 
the blood of animals with honey, or he may eat the flesh and un- 
prepared liver of a goat with the bile. The juice of horse-dung with 
honey and sugar is also recommended. The powder of fried rice 
with honey, sugar, and the white concretion (tobashia) of the bam- 
boo is also used. A decoction of the bark of rose-apple, mangoe, 
and orgono trees, are to be taken with honey ; and cold and sweet 
applications, both internally and externally are recommended. 


Section III. 
Diseases of the regions of the Body. 

Class III. 

Diseases affecting the mind. 

The diseases of the mind are swooning, epilepsy, madness, and 
devil madness. 

Order I. 

1. — Sivooning, {Min-chha.) 

When the person is weak, or when the air, bile, and iMegm are 
very much deranged, by eating improper mixtures of food, such 
as milk and fish, or flesh, &c., by constipation, &c., this disease is 
produced ; in which the organs of sense, both external and internal 
are deranged, with faintness. 

When the derangements oi air, bile and j) hi eg m close the passages 
of the vessels, the person cannot see, and falls down as a piece of 
wood : this disease is called miirchhd or moha. 

There are six varieties of this disease, but in all the bile is 
deranged. The six are produced by derangements of air, bile, or 
•phlegm, by blood, by drinking spirits, and by poison. 

The approach of this disease is known by pain in the breast, 
gaping, languor, loss of sense, and strength. These symptoms are 
the same in all the varieties. 

Wlien produced by derangements of air, every thing appears 
of a dark-blue or red colour, or hke the sky. The person cannot 
see, and faints, but the senses soon return. There is shivering, pain 
of the body and breast, weakness, and the skin becomes dirty, and 
of a reddish, or green colour. 

Bile. The person sees every thing of a yellow, or green colour : 
he cannot see, and faints. He is soon restored to his senses, with 
perspiration. When he recovers, the skin becomes yellow, the body 
becomes hot, eyes red, and dejections yellow. 

Phlegm. He sees every thing of the colour of clouds ; the sky 
appears misty and dark, followed by fainting, in which sensation 
remains long absent. The body feels like as if a piece of soaked 
leather had been put upon it : and phlegm is discharged from the 
mouth and nose, followed by nausea and vomiting. 

4. When these three humors are deranged at the same time, 
they produce all the symptoms of the three separate diseases ; but 

2 I 2 


without the symptoms of Epilepsy. When these diseases occur, 
and the person does not feel when needles are thrust into his flesh, 
red hot irons put upon the surface, or hot substances put into his 
mouth, the person will soon die. 

5. Seeing blood often produces swooning from its containing 
earth and water, which possess the properties of tamoguna, the 
cause of darkness. In this manner the Hindus explain the occur- 
rence of fainting, on seeing blood, by the quality of darkness which 
it possesses. 

6. Wlien swooning is produced by poison there is shivering, 
drowsiness, thirst, followed by weakness and insensibihty. There 
are various kinds of this variety, but all produce these symptoms. 
Fainting is generally produced by deranged bile, when mixed with 
tamoguna, or darkness. When bile and air are mixed with rajogunUy 
it produces swooning, and drowsiness ; coma is produced when air 
and phlegm are mixed with tamoguna ; and phlegm and tamoguna 
when mixed together produce sleep. Drinking spirits derange the 
air, bile and phlegm, and produce swooning, which continues until 
the effects of the spirits cease. 

Another form of this disease is called sangnydsa (apoplexy). It 
is produced by the deranged air, bile, and phlegm, which pass to 
the place in which life is retained, and overpowers all the functions 
of both mind and body, and the person suddenly falls down, and 
remains as if dead, or hke a piece of wood. If not immediately, 
and properly treated, such a person will die. 

Treatment. In general all the symptoms of swooning will disappear 
in a few minutes, with the exception of sangnydsa, which requires im- 
mediate treatm.ent. In all forms of swooning throw cold water upon 
the face and body, rub the body with the hand, allow a free circulation 
of air, and assist this by means of ilne pankhd. Wet the mouth with 
cold water, and approach sweet smelling substances to the nose. 
Such as the juice of sweet fruits, as of grapes, pomegranates, dates, 
(khurma,) the juice of wild animals, barley, and good rice ; in like 
manner prepared ghee with a decoction of mgrobalan, or a decoc- 
tion of Imblic myrobalan ; or a mixture of fried rice, grapes, honey, 
sugar, and the juice of the pomegranate, with the petals of the water- 
lily. The treatment followed in biUous fever is also recommended. 

The treatment of sangnydsa is difficult, and requires prompti- 
tude. Should the person not soon recover from the swoon, needles 
are to be thrust under the nails, and remedies which produce strong 
irritation, are to be applied, such as sweet music ; and when the 
person is restored to sensibility, he is to have an emetic, and a purga- 
tive followed by the exhibition of sildjatu. If these means do not 


succeed, the case is to be considered as hopeless. When the disease 
is produced by poisons, the person is to be treated as recommended 
under the head of poisons. 

Order II. 
ETfiilepsy^ (Apasmara or Mrighi.) 

Generic character. Sudden loss of sense, loss of sight, and the 
person falls down with comTilsions. These symptoms are preceded 
by palpitation of the heart, lightness and hollowness of the chest 
and body, perspiration, inaccurate thinking, dullness of sense, and 
loss of sleep. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged by grief, sorrow, or the 
like, they pass into the vessels immediately communicating with 
the heart, and produce this? disease, with the loss of sense and 

Exciting causes. This disease is produced by the improper use 
and indulgence of the senses ; as too much, or too little listening, 
seeing, tasting, smelling, &c. ; the improper mixtures of food, or 
putrified articles of food ; the neglect of the calls of nature, connec- 
tion with women during the flow of the menses, and by such 
passions, as sorrow, grief, and anger. By these causes the mind 
is so effected as to produce epilepsy. 

There are four kinds of disease, one being produced by the 
derangement of each of the three humors, and the fourth by the 
combination of the three. 

TVTien air is deranged, the symptoms of epilepsy are followed by 
shivering, grinding of the teeth, foaming at the mouth, hurried 
respiration, and to the patient every object appears obscured, red, 
and confused. The treatment best adapted for this form of disease 
are enemas, the following decoction of Jotela. — Take equal parts of 

Haritaki^ and 
Goafs urine. 

Prepare the decoction in the usual manner with ghee. 

When bile is deranged the symptoms are accompanied with a 
yellowness of the body and countenance. To the patient every thing 
appears of a yellowish colour, the sputa is of the same colour, 
and the eyes appear red. The patient has great thirst, and every 
thing feels hot, and as if enveloped in flames. In treating this 
form the ghee should be prepared with the bile of 




Pirsoto, and 

Cow's wine. 
This preparation is to be taken internally, and applied externally 
over the body.— The ghee may also be prepared in a decoction of 

Tribrity (Convolbulus turpethum,) 



Bar- haridra, (Zanthorrhizon,) 

Anantamidj (Periploca Indica,) 


Kataka, (Strychnos potatorum,) 

Bacha, (Acorns calamus,) 


Biranga ; * 
with cow's urine and milk, and some of its dung and curdled 
milk. This may be used for all kinds of epilepsy. Venesection is 
also recommended. Another remedy is, giving a wild boar purgatives 
for three days, then rice and milk ; when this has been digested, he 
is to be destroyed, and the chyle in the vessels removed, and mixed 
with thin parts. It is to be put in a new pot, and when it has arriv- 
ed at the vinous fermentation, it is to be given to the patient. 

When phlegm is deranged the symptoms are whiteness of the 
countenance and body, the saliva and foam are of the same 
colour, the body is cold, and the patient shivers. The person sees 
every thing white, and as it appears to approach near him, he faints. 
These fits cease very slowly. 

The general indications of cure are to give enemas in derange- 
ments of air, purgatives in bile, and emetics in the form produced 
by deranged phlegm. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged together, all the symp- 
toms of the separate forms are present. This disease is incurable 
if not recent, as the person becomes weak and emaciated, and the 
fits are frequent, and accompanied with severe convulsive movements 
of the body. The eye-brows contract frequently with the eyelids, 
and the eyes move rapidly. In such cases the patient will die. The 
fits come after ten days, a fortnight, or monthly. In other cases 
they occur very often. As some seeds thrown in the ground during 
the rains do not germinate for a long time after, so in this disease 
the deranged air, bile, and phlegm produce the disease after long 
intervals. In the form of epilepsy the body should be anointed 
with utuhy which is to be taken internally, and at the same time 
administer strong errhines, emetics, and purgatives. 


Order III. 
Madness, (TJnmada.) 

The causes producing this disease are improper food, endea- 
vouring to perform impossibilities, strong passions of the mind, 
cursing the gods, brahmans, and spiritual guides ; eating poi- 
son, &c. 

The air, bile, and phlegm are affected by the above causes, which 
deranged knowledge (satwagun), affects the seat of understanding 
and the heart, and pass through the vessels conveying sense (mana) 
when the person becomes mad, speaks foolishly, is restless, and his 
eyes are continually moving about. 

There are six kinds of madness. Three being produced by 
derangements of air, bile, and phlegm ; one by the combination 
of these ; another by the violent actions of the passions ; and the 
last by poison. 

Air is deranged and the mind is thus affected by the use of dry, 
cooling, articles of food ; by food in small quantities ; by strong 
purgatives ; by the causes diminishing the humors (dhdtu), or by 
fasting. By these causes the air is deranged, producing madness ; 
in which the man laughs, dances, and sings unreasonably, and 
moves his limbs about. At other times he cries without cause ; 
the skin of his body becomes dry, rough, and of a dark-red colour. 
These symptoms are more violent after the digestion of food ; 
and the patient becomes greatly emaciated. 

When hile is generally deranged by the use of indigestible food, 
and the use of pungent and heating substances, the symptoms it 
produces are impatience of control, and anger ; the person wishes to 
use violence to others ; he remains naked, prefers cooling food, 
and wishes to live under the shade, or in water. The body is 
yellow, and hot. 

When phlegm is deranged by the usual causes, as a too sedentary 
life, and taking too much nourishing food ; by which the phlegm 
is deranged, affecting the functions of the heart, and producing 
the following symptoms : A love of solitude, taciturnity, and loss 
of appetite ; the person has a desire for women, enjoys deep sleep, 
and has vomiting, or expectoration. After eating any thing the 
symptoms are very violent, and the body as well as the nails and 
countenance are whitish. 

When ah'y bile, and phlegm are deranged together, all the separate 
symptoms are produced, and the disease becomes of very difficult 


When the disease is produced by the passions ; as when 
frightened by a robber, a tyrannical official, &c. ; by the loss of 
wealth, and friends, or by the love of particular women, the symp- 
toms are characterized by talking, laughing, singing, and sometimes 
crying. This variety terminates in Idiocy. 

The treatment of the above five forms of madness should consist 
of cleaning, and anointing the body with mustard oil : of eating 
ghee for some days, and then strong purgatives and emetics are to 
be given, with errhines, and mustard oil. Curious, or wonderful ex- 
hibitions are to be made before the patient ; and he should be informed 
of the death of relatives, and friends. He should also be frightened 
by the alarm of robbers, by the approach of elephants, and harmless 
serpents. The person should be beat with a whip, when he acts im- 
properly ; and he should hve on light food, such as barley, and conjee 
water, made agreeable by the addition of carminatives. Ghee should 
be prepared, with a decoction of the foUomng medicine : take of 



Eldj (Cardamoms,) 


Dehddru, (Erythroxylon siduoxylloides,) 

Haridra^ (Turmerick,) 

Kushtha, (Costus speciosus,) 




Trihrit, (Convolvulus turpethum,) 



Tdlisa, (Corypha,) 

These are to be prepared, in the usual way, with ghee and milk. 
During the cure the person should be treated, as much as possi- 
ble, with kindness, and consideration. 

6. When madness is produced by poison, the person becomes 
faint, from the sudden loss of strength ; his eyes becomes red, and the 
countenance and the body become yellow or blue. The unfavourable 
symptoms are when the person is weak and emaciated, remains in 
one position, and is always looking downwards, or upwards. When 
the patient has no sleep, and is so courageous that he mil throw 
himself from a height, the disease will be fatal. 

Th£ treatment in this variety is the same as that for poisons in 


Order IV. 

Possessed pei'sons, or B evil-Madness , (Bhiitonmdda.) 

There are two kinds of spiritual beings, a good and a bad spirit, 
which are supposed to enter the body, and to produce disease. These 
are called Bhutonmdda, {B evil-Madness ;) and Debonmdda, (madness 
produced by good spirits.) 

When produced by attack of de^'ils, the person shews his aversion 
to every thing divine, is very strong, and has much knowledge ; 
and when from the entrance of good spirit or (Debtd) the person 
has a pleasure in flowers and good smells, becomes pure and holy, 
and is inclined to speak Sanskrit. He obeys brahmana with strict- 
ness, and looks courageous. There are no intermissions in these 
forms of madness. 

Devils know the present, the future, and what is hid or unknown. 
They are never at rest ; and they are employed in diiferent kinds 
of business. Kn unclean or wounded person, or those who do not 
perform their ceremonies, may be injured by de^dls. They are very 
numerous and powerful, and are usually considered as the attend- 
ants, or servants oi Shiva. This explains how the energy, and work 
of the affected person, is much beyond that of man ; his mind is 
now powerful, his knowledge extensive, and he understands the shas- 
tras. Sometimes the person appears sane, and at another time is 
mad. Such madness is produced by a devil, which is known by 
the unnatural motion of the person's eyelids. 

There are eight principal devils that toraient the human species. 

1 . When Debagraha^ or good spirit, enters a body, the person is 
always happy and contented, remains clean in his person, and wears 
garlands of the sacred flowers, &c. ; his person has a pleasant 
smell, and he has no sleep. He speaks Sanskrit correctly. The 
person is strong, his eyes remain fixed, and he blesses those who 
approach him. He has a great love for brahmans, and performs the 
prescribed ceremonies, and attends to old customs of his ancestry. 

2. Asuragraha. They are the enemies of the Debtds. When 
the person is possessed with them, he perspires much, speaks of the 
bad conduct of brahmans, and the Debtds. His eyes are turned and 
fixed, he has no fear, and is always performing bad actions. He 
is a glutton, is not pleased with his food and drink, and is always 

3. Gandarbagraha. The person possessed with this devil is 
always happy, prefers living in an island, near the bank of a river, 
or in the jungle ; and his conduct is good. He is fond of singing, 
of sweet smells, and of looking at flowers. He is fond of dan- 

2 K 


cing, and laughing. These are the choristers of heaven (demigods) 
who wear sacred flowers, put marks on their person, and have a 
great love for adorning their persons. They speak little but proper- 
ly, and agreeably. 

4. Jakshyagraha. This class of demigods are fabled to super- 
intend the treasures, and gardens of heaven. When he enters 
the body, the person's eyes become yellowish red like copper. They 
wear thin red clothes, talk little, but are profoundly intelligent, 
and have much patience ; such a person walks fast, is never revenge- 
ful, though very strong, and is always wanting to bestow his means 
upon others. 

5. Pitrigraha. These are spirits which are separated after 
death from the bodies of mankind. Wlien an ancestor thus enters the 
body, the person is always preparing prayers for them, and perform- 
ing the different ceremonies (shrdddha) for ancestors. Such a patient 
is quiet and peaceable, and is fond of animal food, and sweetmeats. 

6. Smyagraha. When the serpent-devil enters the body, 
the person walks irregularly, or from one side to another, like 
a serpent ; his tongue is thrust from one side of the mouth to 
the other ; and he is passionate, and is fond of treacle, honey, and 

7. Rdkshyasagraha, or cannibal-de^il. When one of these 
devils enters the body of a person, he is fond of eating flesh, blood, 
and wine. He has no shame, his appearance is disagreeable, and 
he is very strong, and passionate. Such a person walks about at 
night, is unclean, and is always performing bad actions. 

8. Pishdcha, or fiend, is known to have entered the body, by 
the person always stretching out his hands. His body is thin, 
and is disagreeable to look upon, and he speaks fast, and without 
meaning. His body has a disagreeable smell, and he is unclean, 
restless, and covetous. Such a person eats much, prefers living 
in jungles and retired places ; he walks with an unnatural motion 
of the limbs and is sorrowful, and frequently cries. 

The unfavourable symptoms of such persons possessed with 
devils are ; his eyes are sv>^ollen, he walks fast, and his tongue 
is passed rapidly, and continually, from one side of the mouth 
to the other ; he is always sleepy and sometimes falls down ; 
and at other times he is afi^ected with severe shivering. When the 
madijess is produced by falls from high places, such as from 
elephants, or trees, they are more difficult to cure. It is also dan- 
gerous in old age, and when hereditary. When the disease has 
continued 1 3 years it will not be cured. 

The devils invade the body of persons on different days according 


to the species. Behtd invade at full moon, and devils (Asur), 
enter in the morning and evening. The Gandarha enters on the 
eighth, and Jakshya on the first day of the moon. Sarpagraha, or 
serpent-devils, enter on the fifth day after new and full moon. 
Rdkshyasa enter at night. Pishdcha enter on the 15th day after 
new and full moon. We cannot see when a spirit enters the body, 
in the same manner as the soul enters, and leaves the body with- 
out being seen ; as light enters the water in a glass, or as heat or 
cold enters a body, without our being aware how it takes place. 
Vnmaday and Bhutomntiday are said to be cured when the func- 
tions of the sense, judgment, and heart, are restored to a perfect 
state, and the tissues are natural. 

Treatment. During the cure the patient should be treated 
kindly. A physician should commence the cure of a person 
possessed with a devil, by cleaning and anointing his body with 
mustard oil, he should be dressed in new clothes, and he should 
repeat the proper prayers, and act agreeably to the shdsti^as ; 
so as to satisfy the devil {graha) who is the cause of the madness. 
The usual red and white pigments are to be applied over the fore- 
head, red clothing and garlands of red shoe-flower are to be worn, 
and honey, ghee, flesh, wine, milk, and articles of food are to be 
presented, for performing i\\t inijd with. Some graJia are satisfied 
with mne, some with goat's milk, &c., as stated in the shdstras. 

From the day of the invasion, find out when the devil will destroy 
the person, as each has a day particularly consecrated to him, and 
on that day use the proper means for removing the devil. The 
pujd is to be performed at the temple of one of the gods, by the 
physician, who if possible conveys there the person diseased ; 
a fire is prepared, and flesh, &c., are thrown upon it, with suitable 
prayers. Some kusa grass (used for funerals) is to be sprinkled 
over the ground, a preparation of coloured ground rice, a cake 
of unleavened bread, ghee, and an umbrella is to be given to the 
devil. A mixture of sugar, milk, and rice boiled, is also to be pre- 

When devils {Asur) afflict a person, the above remedies are to 
be administered in the square of the house. The removal of 
Rdkshyasa devils is to be accomplished at the meeting of four roads, 
and in deep jungles. The piijd of Pishdcha devils is to be 
perfonned in empty houses. When the devil has not been expelled 
by these means, with the prescribed prayers, other remedies are to 
be used. The smoke from leather, and hair, from the skin of a 
bear, or goat, from asafoetida, with goat's urine, are to be burnt, 
when even strong devils will be removed. 

2 K 2 


The other remedies are long-pepper, black-pepper, dry-ginger, 
rock-salt, asafcetida, myrobalan, and bach, with the urine of goats; 
and the bile of fishes. These are to be used as errhines. Ghee 
and oil should be prepared, with the faeces, skin, hair, fat, urine, 
blood, bile and nails of the following animals : a lion, tiger, bear, 
cat, leopard, elephant, horse, and cow. These are to be mixed and 
used for anointing the body with, as errhines, or cold cream is to 
be mixed with these. Numerous other mixtures of the same kind 
are also used in this disease. 

Persons not liable to be afflicted by devils are, prophets, charita- 
ble persons, those who speak the truth, and those who attend to 
the orders of the shdstras, and perform particular duties, and employ 
proper terms in addressing holy men. Those who have the eight 
qualities of the body, are always pure, humble, and wise, visit holy 
places, always govern their passions, and speak the truth ; and 
those who pray, and attend to the prescribed ceremonies and are 
charitable, over such persons devils have no power. Devils only 
go about at night, and they live, under their eight chiefs, on blood, 
fat, flesh, and disgusting animals. 

Class IV, 
Disease of the Head and Neck, 

Order I. 

Diseases of the Head, {Siraroga.) 

Under this order will be arranged the varieties of Head-ache, 
and the diseases of the organs of sense. 

Head-ache. — There are eleven varieties of head-ache ; which are 
produced by derangements of the air, bile, and phlegm ; by the 
mixture of the three ; by diseased blood ; by a deranged or diminished 
state of the humors, by worms, the eighth is named Siujydbarttay 
the ninth, Anantabdta, tenth, Ardhdyahhedaka^ and the eleventh 

1. When air is diseased in the head, it is suddenly affected 
with pain, which is severe at night ; but it is diminished by hot 
applications, and bandages. To cure this variety of head-ache, take 
ghee, milk, and mudga (a kind of pea), and boil them in water : 
mdskaldi at night will also be useful. Avoid bitters, hot milk, 
warm baths and douches applied to the head. K hot poultice com- 
posed of fish, and the expressed oil of sesamum will be of use. 


The smoke produced by oleaginous substances is to be applied, 
and the person is to anoint his body with prepared oil, and have 
errhines and purgatives exhibited. The juice of oleaginous substances 
mixed with the food, and with medicines useful for curing deranged 
air. Throwing warm water upon the head is often used, and some- 
times the water is mixed with other medicines. 

2. Bile. In this variety, the head is hot, as if burning charcoal 
was placed over it, and there is an appearance of smoke proceeding 
from the mouth. The pain is diminished when the head is kept cool, 
and during the night. Medicines are to be given with cold water, 
milk, ghee, oil, and the like, and applications are to be made to the 
head ; as vinegar, the juice of the sugar-cane, of acid fruits, or whey. 
The paste of aqueous plants, purgatives, enemas made with oil, and 
broths made of wild animals are also to be used. 

3. Phlegm. In this variety the head is heavy and dull, and it 
cannot be turned about. The head feels cool, and the eyelids and 
mouth are swollen. In this form the medicines which cure diseased 
phlegm are to be used, such as strong emetics, errhines, and 
gargles. The head should be rubbed with a paste made of liquorice 
root and ghee. The bark of inquido is also useful ; and snuff 
made of the bark of katfala. He should likewise take the decoc- 
tion of those medicines which cure phlegm, and live on rice and 
barley, mixed with long and black pepper and ginger. The decoc- 
tion of mudga (a kind of pea) may also be used. 

4. When the above three dhdtu are diseased, the different 
sjTuptoms are combined. In this form the treatment is the same 
as that above described, as being applicable when one only of the 
humors are diseased ; particularly the use of old ghee internally. 

5. When the blood is deranged, producing this disease, the 
symptoms are the same as when bile is deranged. The pain in this 
variety is so severe, that the head cannot be touched, or bent forward. 
. 6. When the disease is produced by a diminution of brain, or 
fat, phlegm, or blood, in the head, it produces great uneasiness and 
pain. This pain is increased by hot apphcations, by smoke, by 
errhines, and by blood-letting. In this form nourishing food is to 
be used, with prepared ghee applied internally and externally. The 
prepared ghee recommended in pulmonary consumption is also to 
be used. 

7. Worms sometimes produce severe pain in the head, of a 
kind as if an animal was eating, or tearing the head. A watery 
red or bloody discharge flows from the nose, and the patient's life 
is to be considered as in danger. The treatment consists in using 
medicines to discharge the worms ; as blood, when used as an errhine, 


it will cause the worms to become stupid. Stimulating snuffs are of 
use, such as the powder of the seeds of shringi, and biranga, mixed 
with cow's urine, and other vermifuge medicines. By these means 
the worms will be expelled. 

8. Surjyabartta. In this variety, when the sun rises the eyes 
and brow feel painful ; and it continues, and increases, while the sun 
is above the horizon. It diminishes in the evening, and towards 
night. It is produced by derangement in the air, phlegm, and 
bile. For curing it use old ghee, and other medicines, as above 
mentioned ; and the food is to consist of milk and rice, with broths 
made of wild animals. 

9. Anantahdta. When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged in 
the vessels of the neck, they produce great pain, particularly in the 
eyebrows, temples, and cheeks. It also produces shaking of the 
head, pain in the lower jaw, and diseases of the eyes {iieur algid) . 

This variety is to be treated in the same manner as Surjyabartta^ 
but particularly by the puncture of the diseased vessel. The diet 
should be sweetmeats prepared with ghee, honey, sugar, and flour, 
with the remedies which cure bile and air. 

10. Ardhdyabhedaka, {hemiplegia.) When much dry food is 
taken it produces this disease ; or eating without an appetite, or too 
frequent ; exposure to the easterly wind, or to dew, and the abuse 
of venery. When the urine and bowels are constipated, and the 
person has been subjected to much grief, or severe exertion, he is 
liable to the attacks of this disease ; as also by derangements of 
air, bile, and phlegm. The attack occurs sometimes every fort- 
night, in other cases every tenth day, or in other cases every day. 
The half of the neck, brow, temples, ears, eyes, are very painful. 
When severe, as it often is, like that of poison, or as if burnt, and 
the sight and hearing become imperfect. This disease is very 
obstinate, and most distressing ; so that a thousand physicians cannot 
sometimes cure it. In this form errhines prepared with the powder 
of the seeds of Sirisa, 

Mulakd, camphor, 

Pijpala, long-pepper, and 

Bacha, are to be exhibited. An external application 
is made by mixing together the paste of 

Sdliba, , 


Fipala and Madhuka, liquorice, 
with the juice of acid fruits, ghee, and oil. This is applied over the 
head. The broths of wild animals, with ghee, and cold applications, 
are also useful. The head should, in this disease, be always kept 


well anointed with mustard oil. If by the above means the 
head-ache is not checked, blood-letting should be performed. 

1 1 . Sank haka. T\Tien air, bile, and phlegm, with blood are 
deranged, it produces severe pain in the temples and head, which 
becomes hot. This form is dangerous, hke poison. "When the 
person cannot swallow, he will die in three days. But if he lives 
beyond this time, medicines may then be given for the cure. The 
treatment is the same as of the last varietv. 

Order II. 
Diseases of the Ears, (Karnaroga.) 

The more copious secretion from the external ears, and the most 
changes of temperature of the air, render diseases of this organ of fre- 
quent occurrence in this countr^^ They produce much suffering, 
and much attention seems to have been paid by the Hindus to their 
nature and cure. 

There are twenty-eight diseases of the ear. The corporeal air 
is the cause of all these diseases. When it is deranged in the ear, 
and is confined in its passage by the other humors, it produces 
severe pain in the organ, which is called karnashida, and is very 
difficult to cure. TMien air is deranged in the passages of the ear, 
several kinds of sounds are heard, like those of certain instruments 
called karnandda. 'WTien air is deranged with phlegm in the 
ear passages, and if not treated it will produce deafness called 

Fatigue, or eating hot or astringent substances, or the frequent 
use of errhines produce a derangement of the air in the ear passages 
called karnakshyera, which consist in a peculiar ringing noise. In 
others the disease is produced by blows on the ear, by bathing in 
water during which water enters the ears, or by a boil in the part 
which suppurates. This disease is called karnasangsrdba. 

WTien air and phlegm are deranged in the ear it produces itchi> 
ness ; and bile being deranged dries up the phlegm, and wax in 
the ear. This disease is named karnagiithaka. When the wax 
melts it passes out of the nose {sursuta), or mouth {nidan), and 
the disease is called pratindha, and is accompanied with much 
pain in the head. 

If worms form in the ear by flies depositing their eggs in the 
ear, the disease is called krimikarnaka. 

A^Tien the ear is wounded or otherwise injured it is called hidra-< 
dhi. In other cases there is great pain, burning, and tightness 
in the part, with a discharge of yellow pus or blood ; it is then 


called karnahidradhi. By the derangements of bile abscesses are 
formed, wliicli is called karnapdka. 

When 'phlegm is deranged and dried up by the heat of the bile, 
it melts, and then is discharged from the ear, with a disagreeable 
smell. It is called jpritikarnaka. There are also four kinds of 
bloody tumors, seven varieties of other tumors, and four kinds 
of swellings to which the ear is liable. 

In defects of the external ear, Susruta recommends the surgeon 
to prepare a new ear, by removing skin from the neighbouring part, 
leaving a connection to keep up its vitahty. Cutting off ears was 
a frequent method of punishment and the formation of a new ear 
removed the deformity, which was the more striking in the Hindu, 
as the ear was the place for hanging ornaments, especially among 

the rich. 

Treatment. In these diseases ghee is to be used with the diet, 
with rest, and bathing, not including the head, while intercourse 
with women is avoided. In karnashida, prandda, hddhirjya, and 
kara the treatment is the same. Give oleaginous purgatives, and 
apply steam of water impregnated with different herbs which cure 
air diseases. This is conveyed to the external ear by means of a 
tube. Fish, cock's flesh, and that of a bird called Idha are to be 
mixed, and applied hot to the ear. The leaves of the banian tree, 
are to be made in the form of a cup, which is to be heated over 
a fire, and the drops of juice which ooze through the leaf, are to be 
applied hot to the ear. The juice of garhc and ginger is also to be 
applied to the external ear. Other stimulating and narcotic medi- 
cines, and different oils, are recommended for these diseases of the 
ear. Strong errhines are also to be used. 

In deafness the oil is to be prepared with cow's urine mixed with 
a decoction of hillah, and applied to the ear. Milk and water are 
also of use. For curing the diseases named karnashrdba, putikarna 
and krimikarnaka are the same remedies as above enumerated. 
Strong errhines and fumigations, washing, oils dropped into the ear, 
and various astringent decoctions will be found of use. Gum, raisin, 
frankincense {dhund), powdered with the juice of the wild cotton 
. tree, are to be applied to the ear. Yf orms are to be removed by the 
application of such medicines as expel them. The sulphurate of 
arsenic, with cow's urine, is found of use. For removing the bad 
smell from the ear, use fragrant fumigations. Mustard oil will 
remove the ringing of the ears. Inflammations of the ear are to be 
treated as in other local inflammations. For the morbid secretion 
of wax remove it by instruments, and fomentations ; and emetics 
and errhines are to be administered for the itching of the ear. For 


remonns; external substances from the ear exhaust the air in a cow's 
horn, and apply it tightly upon the part. 

Order III. 
Diseases of the Nose. 

There are thirty -one diseases of the nose. When the nostrils 
are closed, when one is dry, very dirty, and hot, when matter has 
formed, and when the patient can neither smell nor taste, the disease is 
called Pinasa, and is produced by a derangement of air and phlegm. 
When the air is stopped in the palate and nostrils, and there is a bad 
smell which proceeds from the mouth and nose, the disease is called 
Putinaska. In these diseases the treatment should consist in anoint- 
ing, and heating the body. Then an emetic and purgative are to be 
given, and errhines exhibited. Hot food is to be used in small 
quantities, and of a kind easily digested. Boiling water is to be taken 
as soon as possible, and the part exposed to steam impregnated with 
aromatic substances. The powder of pepper, dry ginger, &c. may be 
mixed with mustard oil and the urine of cows, to be boiled toge- 
ther, and used as an errhine. 

Bile when deranged in the nose produces small pimples, which 
quickly suppurate, and are called Ndsikdpdka. In this disease 
a disagreeable discharge often proceeds from the nose and umbilia- 
cous, for which blood-letting is to be used. Yvlien blood flows from 
the nose it is called Ndsa-raktajpitta, in which case air, hile, and 
phlegm are deranged. When the vital part of the nose is wounded, 
deranged air, &c. passes through the nostrils producing a bad smell- 
ing secretion mixed with blood, it is called Puerakta. When stimulat- 
ing substances are applied to the nostrils, or by regarding the fire, 
the air is mixed with phlegm and passes from the nostrils with a 
noise, this is called Kahuii or sneezing. If phlegm thickens, as 
if prepared by fire, and has a saltish taste, it is called Bransuti. 
If hot air proceeds from the nostrils, and air is discharged like 
smoke or is very hot, it is called Bipta. Phlegm when deranged 
with air so as to close the nostrils is called Pratinaha. When air, 
bile and phlegm are deranged in the nostrils it dries. When the 
discharge is thin like water, and passes from the nostrils, particularly 
at night, it is called Pdsdparsisrdbah, 

When the nose is very hot and dry, and the passage of air gives 
great uneasiness, it is called Ndsdparisasah. 

Polypi of the nose, {Ndsdrsah,) and tumors of the nostrils 
{Ndsdrbuda) are described under the head of surgery. 

Pinasa has an acute and chronic form. In the first the head is 
heavy, the patient has no appetite, and the discharge from the 

2 L 


nose is thin. The voice becomes altered, with occasional vomiting 
and weakness of the body. When chronic, the phlegm as it is 
discharged from the nose, thickens, and the voice becomes natural. 
The colour of the skin is natural, and the discharged phlegm is 
thick, and very adhesive. 

Pritisijaiah resembles Apinnasa and is sometimes produced by 
the neglect in the calls of nature, by eating indigestable food, and 
allowing the accumulation of dust in the nostrils ; speaking or 
crying much ; frequent fits of anger, unusual and sudden alteration 
in the seasons, such as want of the accustomed rain, and exposure 
to the sun, watching or sleeping during the day, being wet with 
very cold water or dew, and excessive venery produce the diseases of 
the nose; as also hot tears passing into the nostrils. By these 
causes the humors are deranged in the head, producing the usual 
symptoms of catarrh ; the general symptoms of which are sneezing, 
heaviness of the head, languor and pain, and stiffness over the body 
(Guseskd) . 

When produced by air the nostrils become filled up, there is a 
thin discharge with dryness of the throat, palate, and lips, with 
severe throbbing pain of the temples, and hoarseness. 

When hile is deranged the symptoms are a hot discharge of a 
yellow colour, the body is weak, of a gray colour, and hot. There 
is much tbirst, and what is vomited is hot, and like smoke. 

y^hen phlegm is deranged the discharge is white or grayish, and 
is copious and cold. The body becomes pale, eyehds swollen, head 
very heavy, and the throat, palate, lips, and head, are itchy. 

When air, hile and phlegm are deranged the symptoms occur 
rapidly, disappear, and recur again, whether they be acute or chro- 
nic. At one time the nose is clean but it again becomes dirty, dry, 
and closes with foetid breath, and loss of smell. This is the bad 
form of the disease, and is cured with difficulty. If neglected this 
disease passes into Pinasa. When it has continued for a long time 
it produces deafness, blindness, loss of smell, cough, and dispepsia. 

When blood is deranged, and is discharged from the nostrils, the 
eyes are reddish. This form is produced by injuries of the chest, 
and both the mouth and nostrils have a bad smell. He loses the 
sense of smell, and worms are produced in the nostrils. These 
worms are small and of a black and white colour. The different 
forms of Prahsidkay if not seen by the practitioner early, are not 

There are five forms oiArhuda, or tumors attacking the nose, and 
four oiSota (swelUngs), four kinds oi Arsa (Polypus), and Raktapitta 
(hemorrhage) : all these form so many diseases of the nose. They 


have already, or will be hereafter described under the head of 

Treatment. In Putinaska ghee is to be introduced into the 
nostrils with fomentations. Emetics and errhines are also to be 
used, with hght food, and warm water as drink. Smoking with 
aromatic herbs is also recommended. In this disease mustard oil is 
to be used ; it should be prepared with the following medicines : — 

HingUi (asafoetida,) black and long pepper, and 
dry ginger, 




Ldkshja, (Butea frondosa,) 

Bacha, (Acorus calamus,) 

Kusttti (Costus speciosus,) and 

These are mixed, and used as an errhine. 

Ndsikupdka. In this case antiphlogistic means are to be used, 
as the application of leeches, and the paste made of the bark of the 
trees which produce a milky juice, as the banian tree. 

In Puerakta, when pus and blood are discharged, it is to be 
treated as fistulse in other parts of the body. 

In Pmasa hot substances are to be eaten, as ginger with salt, so 
as to thicken the mucus, and when chronic ghee is to be taken 
internally with emetics. "When the mucus becomes thick it is to 
be discharged by means of errhines, purgatives, gargles, and smoking 
with aromatic substances. The person should remain in a shut up 
place. His head should be kept warm, and he should avoid cold 
water and venery. He should also avoid grief, dry food and new 
wine ; when accompanied with fever, vomiting, languor, and diar- 
rhoea, fasting is recommended with tonics and carminatives. 

Order IV. 
Diseases of the Eyes, (Akirogah.) 
It is related that Janaka, raja of Mithila or Tirhoot, did not 
perform the usual ceremonies and prayers to the sun, for which he 
was afflicted with the diseases of the eye. By abstinence and 
humiliation before the sun, however he was cured of the disease ; 
and since then, by proper offerings he obtained the favor of, and was 
instructed by, Surya concerning these diseases. He afterwards 
wrote a Shdstra on the subject, called Sdldka Tantra, which is 
stated to be " in profundity like the ocean." 

There are 1^ diseases of the eye, of these 10 are air diseases, 

2 L 2 


10 bile, 13 phlegm, 25 are produced by the derangement of the 
three humors, 16 by blood, and 2 external diseases. These diseases 
are again subdivided into 9 of the joinings of the eye, 21 of 
the eyelids, 1 1 of the white part of the eye, 4 of the black part, 
17 of the eye in general, 12 diseases of the true organs of vision 
(JDristi), and two external diseases from injuries. 

1 . Description of the Eye. After a description of the size of the 
eye it is stated that it is formed by a combination of all the elements. 
The flesh being produced by the earth, blood from the fire, the 
black part from the air, the white part from the water, and the 
different canals for the tears are produced by ether or sky. The 
black part extends over one-third of the eye, and the pupil about one- 
seventh part of the black part. The tunics are the two eyelids, and 
of the globe of the eye. The first surrounds the vitreous humor 
(Tezajala, or ghstening water), the second is covered with flesh, the 
third with fat, and the fourth with bone. They distinguish five 
circles, the eyelashes, eyelids, the white sclerotic coat, the iris, and 
the pupil. There are five joinings, the eyelashes with the eyelids, 
the eyelids and white of the eye (sclerotic), the white with the trans- 
parent cornea, and this with the pupil, and the corunculo lachryma- 
lis. The humors are carried into the eye by the vessels, and 
produce many diseases. 

The causes of these diseases are bathing when the body is very 
hot, intensely regarding minute objects, or those at a great distance, 
or sleeping at irregular periods, frequent crying, grief, anger, exter- 
nal injuries, excessive venery, constipated or sour articles of food, 
or a kind of pea (Maskaltd.) Irregularities of seasons produce them, 
retaining the tears in the eye, smoke and dust, profuse vomiting, or 
stopping it suddenly. These causes with derangements of air, bile 
and phlegm or blood, produce diseases of the eye. The deranged 
humors are conveyed into the eye by the vessels, and produce the 
difl'erent diseases in the difl'erent parts of the eye. The general 
symptoms of diseases of the eye are its changing its natural colour, 
pain, redness, a discharge of tears, and there is a burning sensation 
in the eye as if there was an external body in it. The eyelids feel 
painful, as if thorns were under the eyelid, and there is intollerance 
of light. 

2. Inflammation. There are four varieties of inflammation of the 
eye, produced by derangement in the air, bile, phlegm, and blood. 
The ten diseases of the air are characterized by severe pain in the 
eye, which remains immoveable, a feeling of sand in the eye, which 
is dry, with an inclination to rub it. The patient complains of 
head-ache, and the tears are cold. 


Bile produces inflammation of the eye, which is characterized by 
burning, with the discharge of blood and pus, and cold appUcations 
are grateful. The eye seems to be covered with a haze, feels hot, and 
has a yellow colour. There is likewise a discharge of warm tears. 

Cough, when it produces inflammation it is characterized by hot 
applications being grateful to the eye, which feels heavy, swelled, 
itchy, and cold. There is also a copious discharge of tears, which 
are of an oily nature. 

Blood produces inflammation which is characterized by the dis- 
charge of a copper colour, the eye is red, and the small vessels of 
the eye become turgid. Before this appears the peculiar symptoms 
of bile are present. When this inflammation is neglected, or im- 
properly treated, it produces one of the four varieties of severe 
ophthalmia (Adimanta). This aggravated form has the following 
symptoms : severe pain, as if the eyes were torn ; throbbing, which 
extends to half of the head, and is characterized by the above 
symptoms of each variety. When this is produced by phlegm it 
will destroy the eye in seven days ; if blood is diseased it will de- 
stroy the organ in five days, if air in six days, and if bile in one day. 
In the acute stage of this ophthalmia the pain is severe, as if a 
foreign body was in it, with redness and swelling, and a copious 
discharge of tears from the eye. When merely chronic the pain is 
less, with itchiness in the part, the discharge of tears is slight, and 
the eyelids can be opened, and the globe appears healthy. When 
the inflammation produced by air is neglected, the accessions recur 
at intervals, and produce pain of different kinds. The eye swells, 
suppurates, and is red like a wild fig. It suppurates without 
swelling, when the other symptoms are the same. The eye in such 
cases is very pamful, and the disease is incurable. 

Another form of the disease is named Bdtaparjiya, in which air 
is deranged, and the eyebrow and eye are painful, so that the person 
winks, and brings the eyelids forcibly together. 

Suskdkipdka. When the eyelids are dry, and suppurate, the 
eye is very painful, the sight is troubled, and the patient cannot 
shut the eyelids. 

Anutdyahdta. When the air of the neck and head, ears, cheeks, 
or vessels of the back of the neck are deranged, and in other 
situations, the eyebrow and eye are very painful. 

In Amlddhasita, the eye is of a green colour with a red circum- 
ference, from the colour of the blood in the part. It extends over 
the eye which is hot, swelled, and tears continually flow. This 
is produced by sour articles of food. 

Sirofpdta. It is accompanied with more or less pain in the 


eye, which becomes red. When neglected this form is called Si- 
?'dharsa, when the discharge is of a copper colour, and the person 
cannot see. These are the general diseases of the eye. 

2. The diseases of the black part of the Eye. 

Ulcers of the Cornea, (Bruna-sukra.) In this disease the black 
part appears spotted, the discharge is very hot, and if it is not near 
the pupil and there is only one spot, which is without pain and any 
discharge, it may sometimes be cured. 

When the ulcer is of long standing, extensive, and deep-seated, 
it is difficult to cure. When depressed in the middle and the mar- 
gin elevated it will destroy vision. When both coats (cornea and 
iris) are destroyed by the ulcer, which has a red margin, and has 
been of long standing, it is incurable. 

Abruna-sukra. When the inflammation is in the black part of the 
eye with a burning sensation, it is very white like the moon, it is 
curable. If of old standing, is white, large, and deep-seated, it will 
be cured with difficulty. 

Pdkdtiya, or opacity of the cornea following inflammation. 

Ajakdydta, small tumors like the litter of goats, slightly red, 
which protrudes through the cornea, from which a bloody discharge 
proceeds mixed with pus. 

The Dristi (crystalline lens) is the principal part of the organ of 
vision. It is like the form of a pea (masuri), and is produced by a 
mixture of the essential parts of the five elements. It resembles 
the firefly, and it is largely supplied with the eternal fire {Abaytazi). 
It is covered by the external tunic of the eye, and has externally an 
opening (pupil ?). By cold it is kept in a healthy state. The diseases 
of this part of the eye are very tedious in their cure. 

3. Diseases of the membranes of the JEye. 

When the first tunic (Pratarnapatala) is deranged, the vision is 
indistinct. When the second tunic is affected the sight is very im- 
perfect, and the person sees an appearance of motes, musquitoes, 
hairs, and nets. In other cases it is in the form of a circle like 
spectres, rays, and as every thing were indistinct and immersed in 
water, or hke rain, clouds, and darkness. The person cannot dis- 
tinguish distance, so that near objects seem at a distance. 

When the third membrane is deranged he can neither see above 
nor below ; large objects appear covered, and he cannot distinguish 
the features of a person placed before him. Such a person has often 
double vision. 

Linffandsa, In this form the whole crystalline lens (Dristi) is 


affected, and if not very deep the person can see the moon, star, and 
lightning. When air is much increased the patient sees every object 
red ; and when bile is affected, he can see the sun, the rainbow, 
and hghtning. In other cases every thing appears black, variegated, 
and like the feather of a peacock. When affected by phlegm every 
object appears as if covered with oil and white. When the three 
humors are deranged, every thing appears spotted as of a mixture 
of different colours. When blood is deranged every object appears 
red and dark. InLingandsa the colour is made of six different tints. 

When the eye is affected with deranged bile it is called Pittabi- 
dagdha dristi, which is characterized by the yellowness, and images 
appearing yellow. If it affects the third membrane he cannot see 
during the day, but can see at night. 

When phlegm is affected it is called Sleshmabidagdha dristi \Nh\ch. 
is characterized by the white appearance, and every thing seems 
white. When deranged in the three membranes of the eye it is called 
Nyctalopia, or night blindness. He can see during the day. Grief, 
fever, vexation, severe diseases of the head, cause this disease of 
the eye, in which every object appears enveloped in smoke ; hence it 
is called SamadarsJier. In other cases the person cannot see small 
objects during the day, but sees every thing at night. This is called 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged, and produce a change 
in the iris like the mungoose eye (which is very red) every thing 
appears of a mottled appearance during the day. It is named Naku- 

GambiraJcd, When air is deranged it produces the disease in 
which the pupil of the eye is contracted, and it diminishes the size 
of the eye, and is accompanied with great pain. 

Lingandsa is of two kinds. The first is called Sanimita and 
the second Animita : the first is produced by inflammation of the 
eye, and the second by the sight of holy sages, by regarding a kind 
of large snake (JMaharaza), or luminous objects by which vision is 
destroyed. The eye in this disease does not lose its natural appearance. 

Abigdta hatadristi is produced by accidents or injuries to the eye, 
by which the person cannot see ; the organ becomes red like coral, 
and severe pain is felt as if a person was tearing the eye out. 

4. Diseases of the white part of the Eye. 

Frastdrijarma. In this disease there is a thin red or dark- 
coloured membrane covering the white part of the eye. 

Sukldrma. The enlargements in this disease are white and soft, 
and it advances slowly. 


Raktdrma is cliaracterized by fleshy growths of a red colour. 

Adimdnsarma (Ptergium) is a Hver-coloured thickening of the 
white part of the eye. It is stationary. Another form is thick, and 
fleshy, and of a white colour. 

Stdrjarma is fleshy swelling of the white of the eye. 

Suhti, when there are many small spots of a green flesh colour. 

Arjana is when there is a red spot. 

Pistaka is a round white elevation of the white of the eye 
like a drop of water. 

Jala. The white part in this case is like a net-w'ork, with hard 
small vessels of a red colour. 

Sirdja, in which white pimples appear in the white of the eye, 
surrounded by enlarged vessels. 

BaUsaka is a silvery copper-coloured spot surrounded by vessels. 

5. Diseases of the joinings of the eyes : — of the eyeball j cornea and 
sclerotica, eyelids, eyelashes, ^c. 

These" diseases are nine in number. The parts sometimes swell, 
suppurate and are painful ; the disease is called Puyalisa. Blood 
and thick pus are discharged in these cases. Another form swells 
much, but does not suppurate ; is itchy, but without pain. It is 
called TJpandha. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged at the joints, and the 
passage of the tears are discharged over the eyelids in the form of 
tears, it is called Netrandri (Fistula Lachrymalis), of which there 
are four varieties according to the nature of their discharges. When 
pus alone is discharged it is called Parsdsai^ba. When phlegm is 
alone diseased, and the joint suppurates without pain, the discharge 
is of a white colour, thick, and shining like oil : it is then called 
Sleshmdsrdba. Diseased blood sometimes produces this disease, and 
when there is a hot discharge mixed with much blood it is called 
Raktasrdba. When bile is diseased, the discharge has a yellow 
colour, and it is called Pittasrdba. 

When small pimples appear at the joints of the eye, of a red colour, 
they burn and are painful. They are called Parbanikd. Sometimes 
this occurs at the juncture of the cornea and sclerotica, and are 
accompanied by the same symptoms as the last. They are of a 
red colour, and are called Alaghi. 

Krimdgranti. Sometimes worms are produced at the juncture 
of the eyelids, and eyelashes. They produce much itching ; and 
sometimes they form between the eyelid and the white part of the 
eye. They are of different colours and forms, and destroy the 


Diseases of the Eyelids. 

There are t>Aenty-one diseases of the eyeUds. In this class of 
diseases, air, bile, and phlegm may be diseased in a combined or 
separate form. In other cases these derangements affect the vessels 
of the eye, and the blood and flesh, &c. may separately, or when 
combined, produce diseases of the eyelids. 

Atsangani are small eruptions on the external part of the lower 
eyelids, they often open internally ; and are produced by diseases 
of the blood. 

Kamhikd are swellings at the borders of the upper eyelid. When 
they break, pus and blood are evacuated ; and they are like small 
castor oil seeds. 

Another form of swelling is of the colour of blood ; of the size of 
a mustard seed, hard, and itchy ; and water, pus, and blood are 
evacuated from them. When painful they are called Pataki. When 
numerous clusters of small eruptions, are rough, elevated, and situated 
on the inner side of the lid, they are called Bartasarkard, Another 
form are small like melon seeds ; have little pain, are situated in 
the eyelids, are rough to the feel, and are called Arsabarta or Bar- 
tdrsi. When like the new shining germ of a plant, the eyelids are 
long, hard, rough, indolent and irregular, and the patient cannot 
open the lid, the disease is called Saskdrsa, or dry hemorrhoidal 
tumors of the eyelid. 

Another form is very hot, painful, and of a copper colour ; and is 
soft, and small, with little pain : it is called Angannandmika. 

Sometimes the eyelids are covered with small irruptions, and all 
the small swellings have the same appearance and colour, and are 
stationary. They are called Bahalabarta. 

Another form of swelhng is when the hds are swollen, itchy, and 
painful, the lids being tight over the eye, and the eyelids do not 
completely cover the globe of the eye. This disease is called Barta- 

When the internal part of the eyelid is spungy, hot, painful, of a 
copper colour, and changes quickly to a red colour, it is called 

If in this disease bile is deranged and affects the blood, much 
dirty matter is discharged called Bartahkardama. 

When the swelling of the hds is both external and internal, with 
burning and itchy pain of a dark yellow colour with a discharge, it is 
called Sdbabarta. 

When the upper lid is externally swollen, of a red colour, and much 
matter is discharged in its inner surface, it is called Prdkninabarta.. 

2 M 


When the eyehds are shut, and they cannot be opened without 
their being previously soaked in water, on account of the secretion, 
the disease is called Akhnabarta. 

When the joints of the eyelids become immoveable, and everted 
it is called Bdtahattaharta (Entropium.) 

When a pendulous swelling forms in the inside of the eyelid 
without pain, and is caused by blood, it is named Arbuda. 

When the vessels which move the eyelids are deranged they 
produce winking, or a continual movement of the eyes, when it is 
called Nimassa. 

When the small fleshy excrescences, situated in the eyelids, are 
of a red colour, soft, painful, and grow again when removed by the 
knife, they are produced by diseased blood, and are called Suni- 
tdrsa. Another form of tumor forms on the eyelids like a plum, 
hard, soft, moist, and does not suppurate, but becomes large and 
knotted it is called Lagannah. 

When air, bile and phlegm are deranged the swelling appears 
above the eyelid, breaks, and blood, water and pus are discharged 
through many openings. The pain is so severe as to resemble 
poison, and is called Bishabarta. In other cases these derangements 
contract the eyelids so that the person cannot see distinctly. This 
disease is called Kimcharna. 

When air is deranged the eyelashes are turned inwards, and 
inflame the eye, and the person is always rubbing them. It is 
called Pakakapat, (Entropeon,) and is a diflicult disease to cure. 

Bile when deranged in the eye produces the falling off of the 
eyelashes ; when the eyelids are itchy and hot, the disease is called 

Treatment of the diseases of the eye. Eleven of these diseases 
are cured by the excision of the diseased part ; nine by scarifications ; 
five by incisions ; fifteen by punctures ; twelve by the use of differ- 
ent instruments ; seven are cured with difficulty ; and fifteen dis- 
eases are incurable. The two general diseases of the eyes are 
considered incurable. 

In treating Ophthalmia (Abisanda), the patient is to have his 
body anointed, and fomented according to custom ; and in both 
Adimanta and Adisanda venesection is to be employed, followed by 
oleaginous glysters and purgatives. Cooling washes, and the vapour 
of certain medicines, with errhines, are to be applied to the diseased 
eye. It is then to be covered with a yellow-coloured cloth. Warm 
fomentations, and boiled hot flesh is to be applied to the eye, with 
poultices made of milk and rice. The patient should drink milk 
boiled with the decoction of those plants which cure diseased air. 


Goat's milk, boiled with the decoction of the root and leaves of 
the castor oil shrub is to be applied to the eye while warm. 

When the ophthalmia is produced by derangement of the bile, 
blood-letting, purgatives, and the applications recommended in other 
inflammations are to be used. In other cases ghee and goat's milk 
are to be prepared with the following medicines. Take of 

Gundrd, (Cyperus pertenuis,) 


Shaibala, (Yallisneria octandra,) 


Ddrbi, (Zanthorrizon,) 

Eld, (Cardamoms,) 



Mv.staha, (Cyperus rotundus,) 
and the leaves of the water-lily and other cooling medicines. Ghee 
is to be used as an external application. The other parts of the 
antibiHous treatment is to be followed ; and gold rubbed in the 
milk of a woman, and mixed with honey, may also be applied. 
Liquorice root, mixed with woman's milk or sugar and water ; or a 
piece of cloth made of the wild silk is to be first moistened with 
water, and then applied to the eye. 

When ophthalmia is produced by phlegm, blood-letting, fomen- 
tations, errhines, and colleria, with the application of vapour are to 
be used. Different gargles, and irritants for the discharge of mucus 
from the nose are recommended. The colleria, &c. are to be pre- 
pared with medicines which cure phlegm. The patient should eat 
of such substances as do not increase phlegm, the ghee should be 
prepared with bitter plants. This should be repeated daily. The 
fomentations should be prepared with the decoctions of 

Bdld, (Hibiscus tortuosus,) 

Sunti, (Dry ginger,) 

Bebddru, (Erythroxylon sideroxcylloides,) 

Kushta, (Costus speciosus.) 
The vapour of these medicines is to be applied to the eye. At 
other times various medicines are formed into a mixture, and applied 
externally to the eye : such as myrobalan, haridrd, (turmerick,) ma- 
duka, (liquorice,) anjana, and antimony. These medicines are dried 
in the sun, and when the mixture is to be used, moisten it and 
apply it upon the eyelids. 

When blood produces diseases of the eye, it is recommended to 
use general and local bleeding, strong and frequent purgatives, 
errhines, cold applications, and to apply a mixture of differ- 

2 M 2 


ent medicines upon the eyelids. When there is much pain use 
soothing fomentations, leeches, and the usual treatment for hile. 
The juice oinimha leaves mixed with iron and copper are also recom- 
mended. The juice of sugar-cane, honey, sugar, woman's milk, 
darbia, and madiika, (liquorice,) are to be applied externally, with 
the juice of the pomegranate. Water and sugar, rock-salt, and whey 
are also used as external applications. 

Besides the seventy-six diseases, which are common both to children 
and to the adult, there is another which is peculiar to the former. 
This is called Kukundka or purulent ophthalmia. It is caused by 
the bad milk of the mother, and also by the derangement of phlegm, 
air, bile, or blood, singly, or collectively. It affects the eyelids. 
The symptoms are the continual rubbing the eye, as well as the nose 
and forehead ; great intollerance of light, and a copious discharge. 

In the treatment bleeding is first recommended with scarifications 
of the eyelids. Then apply stimulating substances mixed with 
honey, in order to discharge the bad humors. With this the 
usual medicines recommended for the mother and child, for purifying 
the humors and improving health are to be given ; such as emetics, 
&c. are to be used. A decoction of the young leaves oijumhu (rose 
apple), dmra (mangoe), datree mulica, and myrobalan trees, are also 
recommended. The eyes are to be washed with this, as well as 
with other astringent medicines. The following mixture is also 
recommended. Take of — 

Nipdlaja, (red sulph. of Arsenic,) marichay (black pepper,) burnt 
Jcunchi (a shell,) rasdnjana, (sulph. of Antimony,) and saindhaba, 
(rock-salt,) with jagary and honey. These medicines are mixed 
with the honey and treacle, and applied with a probe to the eye. 

There are many peculiarities in the diseases of the eyes, that 
cannot be described in a book ; but by these general precepts aa 
intelligent person will be able to vary his treatment according to 
the circumstance of each particular case. 

The diseases of the eye in which the use of instruments is re- 
quired are : 







Pat aha, 

KambiMniy and 



Scanjications. Before performing this operation the person should 
take an emetic and purgative. He should be placed in a closed 
cool room without much light, the eyeUds separated by the thumb 
and forefinger of the left hand. ^Moisten the eye with a piece of 
soft cloth which has been dipped in warm water ; and with the 
point of a knife on the rough leaf, as of the wild fig-tree, &c. the 
scarifications are to be made. Continue the application of the 
warm water as a fomentation ; after which the following mixture is 
recommended. Take of — 

Manageh, (red Sulphurate of Arsenic,) 
Kdses, (Sulphurate of Iron,) 

Baso, (long and black pepper and dry ginger,) and 
Saindhahay (rock-salt.) 
Mix with honey, and apply a small portion with the probe to 
the inside of the eye-lid. This is to evacuate more completely the 
bad humors. After these have been discharged the medicine is to 
be removed bv bathing the eye with warm water. Ghee is to be 
applied to the eye. These applications are to be used, with the 
exception of the scarifications, every third day. 

The effect of these scarifications on the inside of the eyelids is to 
stop the morbid discharge, to diminish the swelling and itching as 
the eyelid becomes smooth. Such results prove that the eyelid 
has been properly scarified. If not performed well, the following 
are the symptoms ; the redness, swelling, and discharge, continue, 
and the symptoms of the disease are not removed. The eyeUd be- 
comes black, heavy, and is moved with diflftculty. There is much 
itching and irritation in the eyehd ; and sometimes it produces 
suppuration of the eye. 

The nine diseases in which scarifications are to be used, are — 

Sukdrdy and 
The characteristic symptoms of these diseases of the eyeUds are 
mentioned above. 

Incision of the eye should be employed in 

Bishagrenti. In this disease fomentations are first to be used ; 
when matter forms, open the abscess, and then apply powder- 


ed rock-salt with the sulphate of zinc, (kdsis,) long-pepper, red sul- 
phurate of arsenic with honey, to the part, and put on a bandage. 

In Ldgana divide the parts and then apply the powder ofRdcha- 
nds (supposed to be the concrete bile of the cow), saltpetre, 
sulphate of copper, and honey. In other cases the actual cautery 
must be applied. Treatment of UnjdndmeM, (styr,) consists in 
fomenting the abscess, and then applying the sulphurate of antimony 
with honey. 

For the cure of BishagrentOj first foment, open the part, and then 
apply the powder of the three kinds of matahah, tuto, (sulphate of 
copper,) kdsis, (sulphate of iron,) and rock-salt. These medicines 
irritate, and increase the secretion of tears, and clear the organ. 
Then use astringent applications. 

In Upandha cut off the diseased part, and then apply fomenta- 
tions ; and a mixture of long-pepper, rock-salt, and honey. 

Excision. In TJdemdnsarnid, (Pterygium,) excision is to be used 
for the cure of this disease. First mix ghee with the patient's food ; 
then apply stimulating powder to the part, followed by fomentations. 
The eye is then to be rubbed with the finger, and when the eye-lids 
are somewhat loosened apply a hook, and draw the fleshy growth ; 
slightly outwards. Then pass a needle under the diseased growth ; tie 
it, and then separate the diseased part from the cornea and sclerotica 
with a round formed knife. Then apply fomentations and a bandage. 

The only diseases in which excision is employed, are : 

Sarskdrsa TJrbada, small tumors. 

In Fakakapat, (Intropeon.) In this distressing disease it is re- 
commended that from the inner to the outer canthus of the eye a 
portion of the skin is to be removed, about three lines in breadth, 
in the lower third of the upper eyelid. This operation is particu- 
larly described by Susruto, who states the kind of room which should 
be used as an operating room, that in which the patient is to be 
placed, his diet, &c. After the operation apply honey and ghee to 
the wound, which should be brought together by hair sutors. These 
are removed on union taking place. If this operation is not success- 
ful, destroy the roots of the hair by the actual or potential cauteries. 

Amaurosis, (titm-a or darkness.) The patient is first to get oleagi- 
nous purgatives prepared with old ghee which has been kept for 
some time in an iron vessel. The ghee is also recommended to be 
prepared from amphibious animals. It is to be rubbed up with 
water and applied to the eye ; different preparations of antimony are 


like\^'ise recommended, such as antimony, honey, sugar, red sul- 
phurate of arsenic, mixed together, and appHed to the eye. Different 
colleria, fomentations, errhines and other external applications are 
also to be used. These preparations of antimony with other stimu- 
lants are to be used. Bleeding is not recommended, but errhines 
are highly extolled. Various other remedies with nutritive diet is 
recommended, as barley with much ghee, the juice ofmyrobalan, and 
the flesh of wild animals and birds. 

Cataract^ (lingandsa.) In treatment of this and other diseases 
the patient should first take ghee, as it is supposed to cure the diseases 
of air, which are supposed to derange the other humors. The weather 
should neither be very hot nor very cold in which the operation is to 
be performed. The eyelids are to be kept properly separated by an 
expert assistant ; the patient is then to be directed to look to his 
nose, and a knife with a point shaped like a grain of barley is to be 
held between the fore and middle fingers, and thumb of the right 
hand if the left eye is to be operated on, and in the left hand, if the 
right eye. The knife is then to be carried forward near the junction 
of the sclerotica with the cornea, neither high nor low in the eye, (near 
the transverse axis) and pass it on until water escapes. Then 
introduce a probe with a hook at its extremity, which is to detach 
and remove the cataract. When the person sees well, immediately 
after the operation, it has been properly done, particularly when the 
pupil appears clear like the other eye. After the operation apply the 
milk of a woman to the eye, with fomentations. Then cover the eye 
with a bandage. For ten days after the operation he nmst remain per- 
fectly quiet in a dark room. During this time his food should be light. 
In the treatment of the following diseases of the eye, the knife is 
not to be used : — 












In external injuries, and their consequences, the following diseases 
are cured by bleeding : — 


Also in acute and purulent Ophthalmia. 

Order V. 

Diseases of the Mouth, (Mukharoga.) 

The diseases of the mouth are sixty-five : viz. eight diseases of 

ths hps ; fifteen of the gums ; eight of the teeth ; four of the tongue ; 

nine of the palate ; seventeen of the throat ; and three general diseases. 

Diseases of the Lips. By using too much food, such as fish, the 

flesh of buffaloes, milk, curdled milk, &c. the three humors are 

deranged producing diseases of the Lips. They become rough, 

hard, and stiff. When the bile is much deranged they are very 

painful, and small eruptions appear upon the surface. When bile is 

deranged, there is much inflammation, the lips become yellow, and 

the eruptions are painful, and of a yellow colour. When phlegm is 

deranged the lips are covered with a thin oleaginous looking matter, 

are cold, stiff, and of a dark yellow, white, or mixed colour. The 

eruptions are likewise of different colours. 

When blood is deranged in the lips they become red, swollen, and 
very painful. They often bleed. When the flesh is affected they 
become swollen, heavy, sometimes ulceration takes place, and worms 
form in it. When fat is affected the lips become glistening, like 
the surface of ghee. They are also itchy and heavy, and the 
discharge is like pure water. These ulcers do not heal easily. 

Treatment. When air produces diseases in the hps the treatment 
is to apply equal parts of goat's fat, sesamum oil, ghee, and wax, 
to the diseased part. Fomentations are also to be used to the 
lips. When ulceration takes place, apply frankincense, green 
rosin, (dhund), a kind of gum (guguli), and powdered liquorice. 
Mix and apply them to the ulcers in the form of powder. When 
the disease is produced by diseased bile, apply leeches and other 
local and general antiphlogistic remedies. When phlegm is dis- 
eased after local bleeding, use fomentations, gargles, and errhines, 
with fumigations. Powder of long and black pepper, ginger, impure 
soda (sargi kd kdra), nitre and black salt, mix them together with 
honey, and apply to the part. 

When fat is diseased in the lips, foment, and if the Hps ulcerate 
apply the actual cautery, after which apply powdered jpringi, ladra 


and the three kinds of myrobalan : mix them together with 
honey. Such are the means of curing those diseases of the hps, 
which admit of being cured. 

When the blood is deranged in the hps, the same treatment is 
to be followed, as when the bile is deranged. 

6. Diseases of the Gums. 

There are fifteen diseases described under this head. 
Sitdda is when the gums are black and blood is discharged with- 
out any external cause. In such cases the gums are separated from 
the teeth, soft, and putrid. In other cases they slough. This 
disease is produced by derangements of phlegm, and blood. 

Treatment. Remove blood by scarifications ; then use gargles 
made by decoctions of dry ginger, mustard seed, and the three kinds 
of myrobalan. This mixture is to be used frequently. 

Dantapapataka. This disease is produced by derangements of 
phlegm and blood ; and is characterized by painful swelling of the 
gums, covering two or three of the alveolar processes. 

Treatment. In the acute stage use scarifications ; after which 
mix rock, black, and common salts, sachuUa, and samberi, with 
nitre and honey. Errhines should also be used, and food prepared 
with ghee. 

Bantabeshta is produced by deranged blood, and is characterized 
by a discharge of pus mixed with blood. In this disease the teeth 
become loose. 

Treatment. After scarification"^ use the following gargles : mix 
equal parts of the decoction of 

Lodhra, (Symplocos racemosa,) 
Patanga, (a kind of Sandal,) 
Jastimadhu, (liquorice,) and 
Ldkshyd, (lac,) or take honey, ghee, and 
sugar, mix and apply to the part. 

Saivesara is characterized by a painful swelling of the gums, 
which are itchy, and are accompanied with a copious discharge of 
saliva. This disease is caused by a derangement of phlegm, and 

Treatment. After scarification apply a mixture made of the bark of 
Lodhra, (Symplocos racemosa,) 
Mustd, (Cyperus rotundus,) and 
Rasanjana, (Sulphurate of antimony) with 
honey. Other astringent barks may also be used in the form of 

Mahdsansira is produced by the derangement of air, bile, and 

2 N 


phlegm. In this variety the teeth hecome loose, with severe paiti 
ahout the palate. Matter is formed in the gums, and the inside of 
the mouth is inflamed. This form is to be treated as the last. 

Fandarah is produced by derangement of bile, blood, and 
phlegm ; and is characterized by blood being discharged from the 
gums ; which are flabby, and separate from the teeth. This form is 
to be treated as Sitdda. 

Apakusa is produced by derangement of bile and blood. In 
this disease, abscesses form in the gums with little pain ; the teeth 
become loose, and when the gums are touched, they bleed. There 
is fsetor of the mouth, and after the discharge of blood from the 
gums, they again swell. 

In the treatment use purgatives, emetics, and errhines. Scarify 
the part by rubbing the rough border of the fig, or other such leaves. 
Then mix the powder of long and black pepper, ginger, salt, and 
honey together, and apply it to the part. As a wash use the powder 
of long-pepper, mustard, dry ginger with tepid water. Prepared ghee 
with sweet and astringent medicines are to be used as a detergent. 

Baidurba. This disease is caused by external injury, as by clean- 
ing the teeth with too hard a tooth-brush. In this disease the 
teeth become loose. 

Treatment. Any sloughing parts are to be removed with the 
knife, and the use of the caustic prepared from potassa. After which 
the antiphlogistic form of treatment is to be used. 

Adidanta. When the air is deranged it produces irregularity 
in the growth of the teeth, with much pain ; such teeth should be 
extracted, apply the actual cautery, and then . treat it as of a caries 
of the tooth. 

Adhndnsi/ca is the swelling round the wisdom-teeth, producing 
much pain and swelling, with the discharge of saliva. It is produ- 
ced by diseased phlegm. 

Treatment, Scarify the swelled part, then apply powdered 
Bacha, (Acorus calamus,) 
Tejohati, (Pothos ofScinalis,) 
Pdthd, (a sort of plant,) and 
Saiyekd, (impure soda and nitre.) 
Mix them with honey, and apply to the part. A powder of long- 
pepper mixed with honey may be used, and the wash of astringent 
and bitter decoctions is to be used frequently. 

Susruta also states that there are five different fistulas connected 
with the gums. 

In the treatment scarify the fistulous openings, and then use 
astringent and bitter gargles. Actual and potential cauteries are 


also to be used. Should such fistulse be neglected they will extend 
to the bone, and the teeth should be extracted, and the part treated 
as a fractured bone. 

If on remoTins; the last molar tooth there occurs much hemorrha^ 
ge, pain, and paralysis of part of the face, they prove that the tooth 
should not be extracted. When this has been done, use a decoc- 
tion of 

Jciti, (Grandiflorum,) 

Madana, (Mimosa catechu,) 

Swddukantakay and 

Khadira, (Catechu.) 

7. Diseases of the Teeth.^ 

Tooth-ache (Ddlana), in which the tooth becomes very painful. 
This is caused by the derangement of air. When there is a small 
black decayed part of the tooth which is painful, and discharges 
matter with swelling, and much pain, it is called Krimidantaka, or 
worm-eaten tooth. The treatment of this disease should consist of 
stimulant applications, and oleaginous mixtures. If the tooth is 
loose it should be extracted. After the above medicine the actual 
cautery is to be applied to the diseased part. 

When the mouth is turned to a side, and the teeth broken, as in 
spasms, it is produced by phlegm, and is called Bangana. 

Sensible teeth, (Baiitaharsa.) In this disease the person cannot 
bear cold, or hot applications ; cool air, and sour articles produce 
much pain. Diseased bile and air produce this form of disease. 
For the cure of this disease apply hot ghee, and a decoction of 

* It is curious to compare the opinions of the ancient European authors 
on the nature and diseases of the teeth. Homer calls them " Barriers 
opposed by nature to slips of the tongue, and the abuse of speech." In 
the temple of Apollo a tooth-instrument made of lead was suspended to 
shew that only those teeth should be pulled out which could be removed 
by so weak an instrument. Aristotle asserts that men have more teeth 
than women, and that this is the case with several animals, as sheep, 
goats, and pigs ! Aretaeus declares, " God alone knows the cause of 
tooth-ache." Pliny assures us that human teeth contain a pernicious 
virus, and that a bite from them will destroy weak animals. Sylvius 
having copied the anatomical errors of Galen, and the discoveries of 
Vesalius, which exposed those errors ; objections having been made to 
them, he replied that " Galen could not have been wrong, and that the 
human organization must have changed since his time." Thomas 
Bartholm saw a man in whose jaw there grew an iron tooth ; and he 
enters into an argument to show how such a thing may be. 

• 2 N 2 


medicines which cure diseased air. The appHcation of the usual 
fumigations will be useful. The food should be animal broths, milk, 
ghee, and different preparations of rice, with oil to the head. When 
the teeth are dirty, and phlegm and air are diseased, dried up and 
deformed, like the scale of fishes, or a piece of broken pot, it is 
called Bantasarkarci. In this disease remove the tartar, and apply 
powdered stick-lac (laka), with honey. This tartar increases, and 
the teeth become loose, and eventually drop out. It is then called 
Kajpdlikd, which is cured by following the same treatment as the 
other varieties. 

When bile and blood are deranged, the teeth become of a dark 
colour, as if burnt in the fire, and the disease is named Sidhadantaha. 

Air when deranged, may produce dislocation of the lower jaw, 
which is called Hanamaha, and the symptoms and treatment are 
the same as the form of the disease named Ardita. 

The following articles of food are to be avoided in diseases of the 
teeth ; acid fruits, cold water, hot, dry, and hard food, cleaning 
the teeth with a hard piece of wood, and not the soft recent branch 
of a tree as usually employed. 

8. Diseases of the Tongue. 

When o!W' is deranged in the tongue the person has no sense of 
feehng or taste in the organ, which is rough and divided into 
fissures. This form should be treated like the disease of the lip 
produced by diseased air. Bile. In this variety there is great heat, 
long and red papillae spread over its surface. The part is to be 
rubbed hard to discharge blood, and when the bad blood has been 
removed, sweet applications are to be used with collyria and washes 
for the mouth. When Phlegm is deranged the tongue becomes 
heavy, thick, and the papillae, over the surface of the tongue 

The treatment should consist in rubbing the tongue with the 
rough leaves of certain trees, or by scarifications, and then applying 
to the part, the powder of long and black pepper with honey. 
Water, in which the powder of mustard seed and salt have been 
mixed, is to be used for cleaning the mouth. 

Aldsa. This form of disease is produced by deranged phlegm 
and blood, and is characterized by sweUing on the upper surface of 
the tongue, particularly near its root. In this disease the tongue 
cannot be moved, and sometimes abscesses form. 

Apasibd is produced by diseased phlegm and blood, under the 
tongue. It is like a second tongue. In this disease there is a profuse 
discharge of saliva, accompanied with itchiness and burning pain. 


In this disease the tongue Is to be nibbed with rough leaves to dis- 
charge the bad blood, and followed by the appUcation of caustics, 
long-pepper, &c. mked mth honey. The powder of yellow mustard- 
seed and white salt are to be boiled in water, and used as a wash 
for the mouth. Errhines and fumigations, will also be of great use 
in this disease. 

9. Diseases of the Palate. 

1 . When the phlegm and blood are deranged In the soft palate, 
it becomes large, like a full bladder, and is accompanied with thirst, 
cough and difficulty in breathing. This disease is called Kantasunda 
(enlarged tonsils.) When they have become troublesome they are 
to be seized between the blades of a forceps and drawn forward ; 
and by means of a semi-circular knife the third of the swelled part 
is to be removed. If all be removed so much blood may be dis- 
charged as to destroy the indi^ddual. If too little is removed it 
will produce an increase in the swelling, with fainting ; a red secretion 
from its surface will be produced with sleepiness, an indistinctness 
of sight, swimming of the head, &c. After the operation, the part 
is to be rubbed with powdered black-pepper, 


Pdthd, (a sort of plant,) 

Bacha, (Acorus calamus,) 

Kushta^ (Costus speciosus,) 

Labana, (salt,) 
mixed with honey. The infusion of several astringent herbs may 
likewise be used as a gargle. 

In other cases the swelling is accompanied with much pain and 
heat ; suppuration being produced by phlegm, and blood. It is 
called Tundikari. 

2. When the part is much swelled, hard, and of a red colour, 
and is produced by diseased blood it is called Adussah, which is 
accompanied with fever and severe pain. When the swelling is of 
the shape of a turtle, is without pain, is produced slowly, being 
caused by diseased phlegm, it is called Kachhapa. 

3. Sometimes the swelling is like a water-lily, and in the soft 
palate is called Raktahuda, and is produced by a disease of the 

4. When flesh is swelled in the palate, there is no pain ; when 
produced by phlegm, it is called Mdnsasangdhta. 

5. When swelled like a plum, without pain, and remains In one 
spot, being produced by phlegm, and mixed with fat it is called 


6. Tdlupdka is produced by deranged bile, and is characterized 
by suppuration in the soft palate. 

7. Tdlushosh. In this disease the palate is very dry, and is 
accompanied with difficulty in breathing, and much pain. These 
six last diseases are to be treated by the use of the same medicines 
as the first. Fumigations are used for two days in the disease 
produced by deranged phlegm. The operations to be performed in 
the different forms of the swelling vary according to their nature. 
Sometimes a part of the diseased part is excised ; others require 
to be opened, others scarified, &;c. The diet in all these forms 
of disease should be milk, and a decoction of mudga or pulse. In 
all these forms of disease sigars are made of those aromatic sub- 
stances which are best suited to the nature of the disease, and 
smoked by the patient. 

Order III. 

Diseases of the Neck. 

These diseases consist of 1. Diseases of the throat; 2, Hoarse- 
ness; 3. Goitre; 4. Scrofulous swellings ; and 5. Tumors of the" 

1. Throat. 

There are five forms of diseases of the throat. 

When air, bile and phlegm are deranged in the throat separately 
or combined, or when the blood is diseased they form the five 
varieties of this disease. These produce a swelling in the throat, 
which shuts up the wind-pipe, and produces sudden death. It is 
called Rahini. In such cases the treatment is to bleed the patient 
generally and locally ; give an emetic, apply fumigations, and use 
gargles and errhines. 

When the air is deranged, in the severe forms all the symptoms 
of deranged air are produced. After the discharge of blood, apply 
rock salt over the wounds, and warm ghee ; fat, and marrow warmed 
are to be used as a gargle and retained in the mouth. This is to be 
repeated frequently. 

Bile. In this form papillae of flesh quickly enlarge, become hot, 
and ripen, with severe fever. After bleeding, sugar, red sandal-wood, 
and honey are to be appHed to the part, with a decoction of grapes 
and Parusaka. 

Phlegm. The passage of the throat is closed, and the swelHng 
remains long and at length suppurates. Fleshy elevations are 


formed. After bleeding, soot, mixed with hot articles, as long and 
black pepper, &c. is to be applied to the part. Oil prepared with 

Siyatd, (Arabian jasmine,) 
Biranga, and 

Dantij (Croton polyandrum,) 
to be used as a gargle. 

When air, bile and phlegm are deranged at the same time, the 
swelling suppurates to a great depth in the tongue. It is incurable, 
and the three forms of symptoms of diseased air, bile, and phlegm 
appear. The treatment is the same as for the separate form. 
^Yhen blood is deranged many small swelhngs form upon the tongue, 
and near its root, accompanied with symptoms of deranged bile. 
This form may be cured. The treatment is the same as the last 

When a swelUng like a plum is situated in the throat, and pro- 
duces difficulty in breathing, and a hard and rough swelling, it is 
caused by phlegm, and is named Kantasdluka. In this form 
scarifications are to be made on the swelling. The treatment should 
be the same as that of TantuJcard, or disease of the palate. Adijiba 
is a swelling at the root of the tongue like a second tongue, (this is 
probably a swelhng of the epiglottis,) and is produced by the phlegm 
and blood. When it suppurates it is incurable. The treatment is the 
same as that oi Apazibiha one of the diseases of the mouth. Various 
other swellings of the throat are also mentioned, such as JBaldsa, a 
swelling of the throat which prevents swallowing, and is produced 
by phlegm. It is incurable. Phelgm and air produce the swelling 
in the throat, which is accompanied with severe pain, and difficulty 
in breathing. This is also a very dangerous form of disease. 

Diseased phlegm and blood produce a swelling in the throat 
accompanied with itchiness, and a burning sensation. It is soft, 
heavy, and does not suppurate. It is called Ekabrinda. In this 
form scarifications are to be made, and astringent gargles are to be 
used. WTien it is accompanied with fever, it is called Brinda. This 
is an incurable disease. 

A thick swelling of the throat, causing difficulty in breathing, and 
surrounded by small papulse like piles with much pain, is produc- 
ed by air, bile and phlegm ; it is called Satagni, (or it is like the 
instrument of this name which at once kills 100 persons:) it is 

Gilin, The swelling in this disease is like the stone of a plum, 
not painful, but hard; and is produced by diseased phlegm, and 
blood. It is cured by being removed by a knife. 

Sarungna (Croup ?) When phleghm stops the passage of air, this 


produces dryness of the throat, hoarseness, difficulty in breathing 
and great uneasiness. It is incurable.* 

Mdnsatdna, is a swelling in the throat which produces suffoca- 
tion. It is always dangerous. 

Biddri. The swelling is accompanied with great pain, redness, 
followed by sloughing. This is an incurable disease. 

G^dlagha, is a large swelling in the throat extending over the 
throat with great pain, and high fever. The patient cannot swal- 
low food nor drink water. It is produced by phlegm and blood, 
and is considered incurable. In general the forms of disease pro- 
duced by bile should be treated by the antiphlogistic treatment, and 
those by phlegm by astringent and hot applications. When pro- 
duced by air the applications should be of ghee, oil, and other medi- 
cines for the cure of air. 

2. Hoarseness J (Swarahheda.) 

The causes of this disease are loud speaking, poison, long conti- 
nued reading, external injuries, exposure to cold, &c. "When air, 
bile, and phlegm are deranged in the air-passages they produce 
the six varieties of hoarseness. One is produced by derangements 
of the air, bile, or phlegm ; by the combination of the three ; by 
fatness ; and by weakness. 

1st. Air when deranged produces this disease, when the per- 
son's eyes, mouth, urine, and dejections become black, and his 
tone of speaking is slow, and like an ass braying. 

2nd. When bile is deranged, the eyes, mouth, urine, and dejec- 
tions are of a yellowish colour, and the patient speaking from the 
throat, with a sense of burning pain in the part. 

3rd. Phlegm when deranged, the throat is filled with mucus, 
and the person speaks little and that slowly and with difficulty, par- 
ticularly at night. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged, the combined symp- 
toms of the three varieties are present ; and the patient speaks so 
indistinctly that he cannot be understood. This form is incurable. 

4th. When weakness or diminution of the essential parts {dhdtu) 
produce the disease, the patient cannot speak, and when he tries, 
smoke appears to proceed from the mouth, with pain. He speaks 
very little. This form is also incurable. 

5th. When it is produced by fatness the person speaking is 
indistinct, and he thinks his throat and palate are covered with some- 
thing. Such disease will not be cured when the person is weak, old, 

* Croup is not unfrequent in Hindustan but it is less dangerous, be- 
ing of a more chronic nature than in Europe. 


tliin ; when it has heen of loug conthiuance, and is congenital. In 
fat people, and when produced hy the combination of the three 
humors it is also incurable. 

In treating this disease the body is first to be anointed with oil, and 
the bowels cleared by emetics, purgatives, and enemas. This is to 
be followed by the application of different kinds of errhines, gargles, 
and fumigations to the throat. "VMien these remedies have been used 
Avithout the desired effect the medicines recommended for asthma 
and cough are to be tried. When air is deranged, the patient should 
take ghee after dinner. The ghee is to be mixed with a decoction of 

Kdsamarda, (Cassia or Senna esculenta,) 


^yhen bile is deranged, the gliee is to be prepared with the juice of 


Jaba/ishar, (Saltpetre,) 



Amlaka, (Embhc myrobalan.) 
For diet he should use milk, rice, and molasses, with ghee. 
When phlegm is deranged use rice, milk, and powdered liquo- 
rice-root with ghee ; and other expectorant and heating substances, 
with cow's urine, are also to be used. 

The variety produced by fatness, is to be treated as in the form 
produced by diseased phlegm. 

3. Goitre i (Galaganda.) 

The swelling of the throat, whether it be small or large, is called 
by this name. It is of an oblong form like the scrotum. It is 
produced when air and phlegm are diseased in the throat, and dis- 
eased fat slowly produces it. 

"When air is diseased there is pain in the throat, and black veins 
spread over it. The swelling is of a green or red colour, dull and 
irregular. This form increases slowly and rarely suppurates ; but, 
when it does it is without any apparent cause. The person has a 
bad taste in his mouth, with dryness of the palate and throat. 

Phlegm. In this variety the swelling is hard, fixed, cold, and the 
colour is not altered. It increases slowly, is heavy, itch}^ and large, 
and sometimes suppurates. The taste of the mouth is sweetish, 
and the palate and throat is as if covered with some matter. 

When produced by diseased /«^ it is slow in its increase, and 
suppurates with little pain, and is of the shape of a pumpkin (Kadu), 

2 o 


with a small root. The swelling increases, and diminishes with 
changes in the size of the body. The face is shining as if anointed. 
The swelling is heavy, of a yellowish colour, and of a bad smell. It 
is itchy and painful, accompanied with a peculiar change in the voice. 
The unfavourable symptoms are difficulty in breathing, softness of 
the part, and after it has continued for one year, it is accompanied 
with dispepsia, and hoarseness. When the person is thin and weak 
he will die. 

Treatment. Foment the parts with steam, by means of a tube 
proceeding from a vessel, in which those vegetable remedies are 
boiling which cure diseased air. "When air is deranged, the steam 
of warm milk is used ; and warm poultices prepared with flesh 
and oil are to be applied, and an opening made into it, and it is then 
to be treated like a common inflammation. The following external 
applications are also recommended. The seeds of 


Atasi, (Linum usitatissinum,) 

Mulaka, (Raphanus sativus,) 

Sigru, the pulp of the 

Pilu, and 

Tila, Sesamun seed, are made into a poultice 
and applied to the swelling. A paste made with urine, and the 
juice of acid fruits, such as 


BriksTiaha, (Wrightea antidysenterica,) and 

Tilaka, are recommended. 
Oil prepared with 

Bala, (Sida cordifolia,) 

Shwethald, (Vallisneria octandra,) and 

Pit ab aid ; or with 


Nhnha, (Melia azadirachta,) 


and long pepper ; is used internally. 

When produced by phlegm, fomentations are to be applied as 
above ; open the swelling, and oil prepared with different salts, and 
with the ashes of long pepper, and other heating medicines is to be 
exhibited internally. Use also externall}^, paste made of gunja with 
the water of the ashes ofpaldsa, and applied to the part hot. 

Diet — ^use barley, a decoction oi mudg a with, cow's urine, or with 
powdered long and black pepper, ginger, and honey. 
When caused by fat apply a paste made of 




Dantt, (Croton polyandrum,) and 

Rasdnjaiia, (Sulphurate of antimony.) 
The gum rosin of the sal tree, with cow's urine may be used daily : 
or make an incision, remove the fat, and sow up the wound; then 
apply ghee and honey to the part, or hot oil. The patient is to 
live on a preparation of barley, and apply a tight bandage to the 
part. The decoction of the three kinds of myrobalan is also recom- 

4. Scrofulous swellings, (Gandamdld.) 

When many small tumors like plums appear in the axilla, neck, 
back, and groins, they are produced by diseased fat, and phlegm. 
They suppurate slowly, and continue to appear and suppurate for a 
long period, when it is called ApachL When not attended by any 
bad constitutional disease it is curable, but when accompanied with 
Coriza, with pain in the sides, cough, fever, and vomiting, it is 

Treatment. When indolent and recent, follow the same treatment 
as of local inflammation, support his strength ; ghee, fat and mar- 
row, are to be prepared with a decoction of 

Apehibati, and 

and applied to the part. DijGferent fomentations, fumigations, and 
poultices are to be applied, and when they suppurate, open and dis- 
charge the matter ; wash the wound with a decoction of 

Bilwa, (^Egle marmelos,) 

Arka, (Calotropis gigantea,) and 

ArjunUy (Pentaptera arjuna.) 
A poultice made of Tila, and the leaves of the Castor-oil tree mixed 
with salt, and applied to the part. Then apply oil which has been 
prepared with a decoction of 

Rdsnd, (Mimosa octandra,) and 

Sarala, (Pinus longifolia.) 
W^hen the disease is produced by bile, apply leeches, with milk 
and water, and other cold applications. Aperients are likewise to 
be given, and a paste made of 

Madhuha, (Bassia latifolia,) 

Jambi, or 

JunUy and 

Betasa, with 


2 2 


When it suppurates open, and wash with a decoction of astringent 
barks. Then apply a poultice, and ghee prepared with liquorice, 
and other sweet medicines ; as 

Kdkoli, (Coclus Indicus,) 

KsJidrakdkoli, &c. 
When produced by phlegm use rubbing with the finger, or with 
iron, stone, or a piece of bamboo : make also a paste of 



Gunja, (Abrus precatorius,) 

Kakddmi, and 

and apply to the part. If not situated in a vital part remove the 
tumor with the knife, and when the blood is stopped treat it as a 
simple wound. 

5. Tumors of the Neck, (Manskunder.) 

Is a variety of the Gandamald or scrofulous swellings. They are 
hard and large, and when they suppurate they should be opened. 
After which the cavity is to be cleaned with astringent washes. 
Detergent medicines are also to be used, as honey, ghee, and caustic 
preparations. Then apply oil prepared with a decoction of 


Fdthd, a plant called Aknadi, and 
Rasani, (or turmerick.) 

When the tumors are produced by fat apply a paste made of 
Sesamum seed. Then two folds of cloth are to be placed over the 
part, and a hot iron is to be applied frequently over the part. If the 
tumor is not removed in this way, the knife must be had recourse 
to. In this and in all scrofulous affections, emetics and purgatives 
are to be occasionally exhibited. Errhines are also of use. The 
actual cautery is to be applied across the arm immediately above 
the wrist leaving an interval of the breadth of a finger between each 

Class V. 
Diseases of the Chest. 

Order I. 

Asthma, (Swdsa.) 
This disease is produced by the same causes as produce hiccough. 
It is by the Frdn-bdyu changing its place, and being confined in its 


passage by phlegm, which produces the difficulty in breathing. 
There are the following five varieties of asthma : — 

1. Swdsa is a severe disease, and has only slight varieties. It 
is ushered in with pain in the chest and sides, loss of appetite, rest- 
lessness, tightness of the abdomen, a bad taste in the mouth, and a 
constipation of the bowels and bladder. 

1 . Mahd-swcisa. The air is confined in the air passages by the 
phlegm, and thus produces iVsthma. The patient respires with dif- 
ficulty, and with a noise hke that of a wild bullock. He becomes 
low-spirited, his eyes are always moving about ; his mouth open, 
with constipation of urine and fseces ; he speaks with difficulty, and 
his distress may be observed from a distance. 

2. TJrdha-swdsa. The patient in this disease respires with 
difficulty and with an effort ; the air passages being closed by 
phlegm, and the air trying to escape gives much pain. His eyes are 
directed upwards, he cannot see, and different objects appear before 
the eyes ; sometimes he faints, his mouth remains dry with restless- 
ness and severe pain over the body. The respiration becomes more 
difficult, and he dies. 

3. China-swdsa. This form occurs in fits at irregular intervals. 
In these cases he is sometimes still, and cannot breathe. The vital 
parts are much affected, and very painful. He is constipated in his 
bowels, with much perspiration and drowsiness. He complains of 
much pain in the bladder, which is very hot, his eyes are always 
rolling about, and red ; great debility, low spirits, mouth dry, bad 
colour of the skin, and delirium. Such persons quickly die. 

4. Tamaka-sivdsa. In this variety the air passes in, but is not 
discharged easily. The vessels of the neck and air passages are 
affected, with a collection of mucus in the air passages. Catarrh 
is produced, as indicated by yellow sputa from the mouth, and 
snoring, with great uneasiness and difficulty in breathing. When he 
coughs he often faints, but on mucus being discharged he feels 
easier. At times he cannot speak, does not sleep, and when he 
does he complains of much pain in the sides and chest. He is 
easiest in the sitting position, and Ukes hot things. His eyes are 
turned upwards, he perspires much in the forehead, his mouth is 
dry, and the body swings about as if he was riding upon an elephant. 
From time to time his breathing is difficult. This disease is in- 
creased in cloudy, rainy, and cold weather ; especially during the 
prevalence of easterly winds. "Whatever increases phlegm, is liable 
to increase the disease. This form of disease may be cured if recent, 
but in the old, or when it has continued for some time, it is not 
curable. When this form is combined with, fever, and dozing, it 


forms Pratamaka. "When produced or increased by Vdaharta, 
(constipation,) Ajirna, (dyspepsia,) Rajah, (or dust) and darkness. 
In this form cold things give relief, and the person sees imperfectly 
like one in darkness. This is called Sangtamaka. 

5. Kkudra-swdsa. It is produced by dry food and exercise. 
In this form there is less difficulty in breathing, and there is no pain 
or uneasiness. It does not prevent diglutition, nor the action of 
the senses, and only produces difficulty in breathing on running, &c. 
No other disease is produced by this one, and it is curable unless 
when combined with some other disease. 

Treatment. In Asthma mild purgatives and emetics are to be 
given. Old ghee prepared with myrobalan, black salt, and asafoe- 
tida, with powder of long pepper. Ghee prepared with the five 
salts, as rock, black, common salt, 

Saharitulla, and 

In other cases the ghee is to be prepared with the decoction of 

Bdsaka, (Justicia ganderussa,) 
or ghee prepared with Turmerick, Liquorice, 


Madurikd, (Anithum sowa,) 

Bydghri, (Solanum jacquini,) 

Shunthi, (Dry ginger,) 

Rasdnjana, (Sulphurate of antimony,) 

Banlochana, and 

Mustaka, (Cyperus rotundus.) 
Acid fruits are recommended, with broths made of the flesh of birds 
which pick their food, as fowls, pigeons, &c. The heads of deer 
prepared with peas, and mixed with ghee are also used. 

The following electuary is recommended. Take of the powder 
of the bark of 

Bydghri, (Solanum jacquini,) 

Sringabira, (Ginger,) 

Sarkara, (Sugar,) 
The ashes of the quills of the porcupine, and the seeds of Trikan- 
taka. These are to be mixed with the juice of the Utter of the 
cow, honey, and the powder of long pepper, and administered in 
the usual manner. 

Order II. 

* Cough, (Kdsa.) 

This disease is produced, by smoke or dust entering the mouth 
and nostrils, by fighting, by great fatigue, by dry food, by articles of 


food entering tlie air passages, by sneezing, or by resisting tlie calls 
of nature. These causes derange the vital air (Prdn-bdyu) in 
the chest, and the TJddn-bdyu which is situated in the trachea, by 
which the air which passes through the air passages to the mouth, 
produces a pecuhar noise, like a broken metallic vessel. 

The disease may likewise be produced by air, bile, and phlegm, by 
ruptures of the respiratory organs, or by the loss of particular hu- 
mors. All these varieties of cough, pass to consumption if neglected. 
The disease commences with a feeling in the mouth and throat as if 
it was covered with some irritating substance. It feels itchy, or 
there is a stinging which prevents the passage of the food into the 

The symptoms of cough are produced by deranged air, the 
change of voice, the dry and frequent cough, distresses the patient, 
with pain in the temples, head, stomach, and chest. The face be- 
comes sallow, and the person becomes w'eak. 

"When bile is deranged the mouth is dry and bitter, and the 
breath is hot with fever ; the person complains of thirst, and severe 
pain over the body ; the expectoration is sour, and of a yellowish, 
colour, and the skin becomes yellow and hot. 

When phlegm is deranged, the mouth is full of mucus with head- 
ache, loss of appetite, languor, frequent cough, with thick mucous 
expectoration. The person cannot labour, has frequent fits of 
coughing, the body is heavy and weak, he has no appetite, the 
frequency of coughing increases, and much phlegm is expectorated. 

Katazod Kdsa is caused by excessive venery, fatigue, carrying 
heavy weights, going great distances when unaccustomed, and 
violent exercise upon horseback or elephants. By these causes the 
air passages are injured or ulcerated, when the patient is first affected 
with dry cough followed by spitting of blood, much pain in the 
throat and chest, which is increased by pressure. The joints and 
other parts of the body are painful, as if pins were penetrating it ; 
pain in the muscles, fever, difiiculty of breathing, thirst, hoarseness, 
and change in the voice, so that it resembles that of wild pigeon. 

Khyd Kdsa (Pneumonia ?) This form of the disease is produced 
by taking improper food, at improper, or unusual times ; exces- 
sive venery, and neglect of the calls of nature. In other cases the 
disease is produced by grief, by food which has a bad taste, or 
produces disgust by which the internal heat is diminished and de- 
ranged, with the air, bile, and phlegm. This disease is characterized 
by the person being affected with severe pain and emaciation of the 
body, fever, and a burning sensation of the body. His intellect 
becomes affected, and the person loses his strength. The cough is at 


first dry, is accompanied with vomiting, and i$ followed by purulent 
and bloody expectoration. When these symptoms are present they 
are rarely cured ; and in weak persons the disease is generally fatal, 
unless when recent. In old age the cough (Jard Kcisa) will remain, 
and not be removed. 

"When Katazoa and Khyd Kdsa are recent, with the assistance of a 
good physician, and proper remedies, a cure may be obtained. 
When air, bile and phlegm produce these diseases separately, it 
may be cured. 

The Treatment of Khyd Kdsa is the same as that of Jakhdh, 
The treatment of Katazoa Kdsa is as follows : — When the cough is 
produced by deranged air it is first to be treated by oleaginous 
medicines, such as prepared ghee, glysters, different animal broths, 
milk, and fruit. The patient may also take the decoction of — 

Shdlparni, (Hedysarum gangeticum,) 


Brihati, (Solanum melongena,) and 

Kantikdri, (Flacourtia sapida,) 
with the powder of long pepper. 

Another electuary is prepared of powder of 

Shunthi, (Dry ginger,) 



Long pepper, 


Jagry, with Tila oil. 
When produced by bile give a purgative with sweet substances, 
as — 


Tribrit, (Convolvulus Turpethum,) and 

He should likewise take a decoction of — 


with long pepper and raisins. His food should be the broth of 
wild animals, good rice, and bitter vegetables. His drink should 
be prepared with 

Bala, (Sida cordifolia,) 

Brihatiy (Solanum melongena,) 

Bdsahay (Justicia ganderussa,) and 

Brdkshd, (Grapes.) 
These are to be mixed with two seers of water, which are to 
be reduced by boiling to one : take this frequently. Milk with 


sugar is also recommended. When the disease is severe, and is 
produced by iililegm give first an emetic, with fried barley, and hot 
spices ; such as long-pepper, saltpetre, and light and dry food, 
with stimulating medicines. For this purpose take a decoction of 


Pushkaray (Costus speciosus,) 


Pij)uli, (long-pepper,) and 

Sunt hi, (dry ginger,) or the juice of fresh 
ginger with honey. Form these into a decoction, in the usual man- 
ner, and use it occasionallv. 

3. Phthisis Pulmonalls, {Consiwqjtion.) 

Raj Ja/cshijd, (the prince of disease ;) Shosha, Kshijd, Khina, 
(emaciation;) Kshafa, (rupture or ulcer of the respiratory organs.) 

The mythological origin of this disease is that the moon married 
seven sisters, but attaching himself to one, the others complained 
to their father, who punished the moon, by declaring tliat he should 
be afflicted with consumption. This origin ; and the precepts in the 
treatment, proclaim its frequent, and fatal nature. It is charac- 
terized by coughing accompanied with bloody expectoration. 

It is produced by grief; by the evacuations being retained, 
when nature endeavours to expell them ; by great loss of the 
humors of the body ; by performing unusual and unnatural actions, 
as ineffectually endeavouring to raise heavy weights ; and by run- 
ning, swimming, or other violent exercise. Consumption, by eating 
bad food, or at unusual times, and in unusual quantities, by fasting, 
by boils and sores in the chest, and by old age. Is also supposed to be 
produced by diminishing the mental and bodily strength, by blunting 
the senses, by producing difficulty in breathing, by altering the voice, 
by producing vomiting with expectoration, by a discharge from the 
eyes, nose, and mouth. In such cases the body dries, and the sur- 
face appears dirty. 

When the air, phlegm, and bile, are deranged in the above 
disease ; the chyle vessels are stopped by the humors, but particularly 
phlegm, and the other parts of the body are not nourished. Another 
form is produced by excessive vencry, from the great discharge of 
semen, by which all the other elements are deranged. The disease 
commences by the person becoming emaciated and debilitated ; diffi- 
cult breathing and pain over the body comes on, with cough, and a 
discharge of mucus, from the mouth and nose. The palate is dry, 
vomiting, and loss of appetite takes place, from the internal heat 

2 p 


being diminished. There is also derangement of the mind, jamidice, 
cough with expectoration, and the loss of taste, and smell. The pati- 
ent sleeps continually, and the eyes become of a pearl white colour. 
The person is fond of animal food, and is desirous of intercourse 
with women. The following symptoms indicate the presence of 
this disease ; when the patient's voice changes, he sees in his dream 
crows, parrots, porcupines, peacocks, vultures, monkeys, and lizards ; 
and he supposes he is mounted upon these animals. He sees also 
dry beds of rivers, dry trees, as if destroyed by storms, and by fire. 

The characteristic symptoms are pain in the shoulders, and sides 
of the chest. A burning feverish feel of the palms of the hands 
and soles of the feet is felt, which extends over the body. 

Consumption is sometimes produced by derangements of one of 
the three humors. The symptoms produced by derangement of the 
air are hoarseness ; pain, particularly in the shoulders and sides of the 
chest, and a bent form of the body. The symptoms of bile are fever, 
the body burning, diarrhcea, and hemoptisis. The symptoms of 
phlegm are a fulness and heaviness of the head, no appetite, cough, 
and the windpipe is painful as if bruised, with a change in the voice. 
When all the above symptoms are present at the same time, and in 
the same person ; or when there is cough, diarrhoea, pain of the 
chest and sides, hoarseness, loss of appetite and fever, or when 
cough, asthma, and the discharge of blood is present, with emaciation, 
the person will die. When these bad symptoms are absent the 
physician may attend the person, but when the person has a strong 
appetite, the food does not produce strength, flesh, or diarrhoea ; or 
when the testicles or stomach swell, the person will not recover. 
When the person is strong, the disease recent, and he has slight 
fever; when he can work, has a good appetite, is equal to the treat- 
ment, and follows the judicious instructions of the physician, such a 
person may recover. 

When the eye is white, when there is no appetite, with great 
derangement of breathing ; when there is a great secretion of urine, 
with pain, the person will not recover. The other form of consump- 
tion is produced by excessive venery, grief, old age, great fatigue, by 
taking long journies on foot, by the debiUty produced by old ulcers, 
and by the rupture of the organs of respiration, by which the body 
will become thin, and the disease declare itself. By excessive venery 
the body becomes emaciated, debilitated, with the other symptoms 
of diminished semen, such as pain in the scrotum and penis, impo- 
tency, or a slight discharge of semen, mixed with blood, when the 
body becomes yellow, and the other humors are diminished. 

When consumption is produced by grief iho, person remains com- 


plaining, with the other symptoms of the last form ; hut without the 
evacuation and the symptoms of deranged semen. When the disease 
is produced by old age the body becomes very thin, the person can- 
not labour, his organs of sense and strength are diminished, his 
body shakes, he has no appetite, and his voice is like a broken pewter- 
plate when struck. There is always a flow of saHva from the 
mouth, weakness, and heaviness ; and his eyes, nose, and mouth dis- 
charge mucus. The dejections, and surface of the body are in these 
patients dry and rough. When the body is thin fi'om great fatigue, 
or walking ; the person cannot get up, his body changes in colour, 
is painful and some parts lose their sensibility. The palate, throat, 
and mouth are dry. When produced by other kinds of violent 
exercise or by a rupture of the lungs, the symptoms are the same as 

When old ulcers debilitate the body, by the great loss of blood, 
when there is much pain, and there is Httle nourishment in the 
food which is taken, the disease is incurable. When consump- 
tion is produced by a rupture of the respiratory organs, as by the 
frequent use of the bow and arrow, by carrying great weights, when 
a weak person fights with a strong man, when jumping from a great 
height, or when a person attempts to run after and seize an ox, a 
horse, or a dacoit, or pull at a bow, or throw pieces of wood or stone, 
the disease is dangerous. In like manner, loud reading, walking 
quickly and to a great distance, or swimming much, much horse ex- 
ercise, or running up a height or to a great distance, dancing quick- 
ly, or other bad customs, eating very dry articles, or very little food, 
or only one kind of food, will produce the disease. When this disease 
is present there is great pain in the breast as if it was wounded, pain 
in the sides, and the body dries up, and shakes. By degrees the spirit 
and strength fail, and the colour of the skin is diminished or unnatu- 
ral, there is no appetite, with fever, pain, dejection of mind, diarrhoea 
and loss of appetite. The sputa is of a light blue or yellow colour, 
with a bad smell, and like the knot of a piece of rope, being unequal. 
At other times the sputa is mixed with blood. These symptoms in- 
crease daily, with pain in the chest, more blood is vomited, and the 
cough becomes more severe. When the body is much emaciated 
from the drying up of the juices, indicated by the parched dry 
mouth, &c., the urine has the colour of blood, and the sides, back 
xmd thighs are painful. Consumption often occurs in the proo-ress 
of other diseases, and is always accompanied with danger, beino* 
cured with much difficulty. When the internal heat is natural, and 
the symptoms not severe, and remain but a few days, the person 
will be cured. If it continues one year the cure will not be accom- 

2 p 2 


plished, and when the severe symptoms above enumerated are 
present the person will die. 

Treatment. When the appetite is good, and the person is not 
very thin, and is careful, the physician may treat him. Ghee is to 
be taken internally, which had been prepared with Stiran, and other 
sweet, and nourishing medicines. This is to be followed by the use 
of mild purgatives, and emetics. Enemas are also to be given, and 
errhines to clean the head. The diet should consist of prepared 
barley, flour, rice, with animal broths ; when his appetite is good^ 
give nourishing food, particularly the flesh of crows, owl&, brahmany 
kites, rats, mongooses, wild-cats, earth-worms, and all animals that 
burrow under the earth. These are to be boiled with oil, salt^ 
and peas. The bodies of the animals are to be cut and bruised, 
and juice extracted. Wine made of grapes is to be given, with flesh 
of asses, mules, horses, camels, elephants, prepared in the usual 
way. The ghee of goats and sheep, with preparations of barley, are 
very proper. A mixture of ghee, honey, long-pepper, black pep- 
per, with chiihbo (a pungent bulbous root), and Biranga (a vermi- 
fuge kind of seed), mixed with honey is also of use. The Tubiishin 
(or salt of halum, or carbonate of allumina) is mixed with honey and 
Til oil. Another mixture is made by the powder of 

Asuganda, (Physalis flexuosa,) 

Tila, (Sesamum orientale,) and 

Mdsa, (Phaseolus radiatus,) 
with ghee of goats and honey. Garlick, pepper, &c., are given ia 
gradually increased doses, and continued as alternative medicines. 
There are various mixtures recommended to nourish and give tone 
to the body, none of which it is necessary to enumerate. 

It is recommended to eat the flesh, dejections, and blood, and 
live in the same house and in the same room with goats. The pati- 
ent should carefully abstain from venery, avoid grief, anger, fatigue, 
and the other causes which produce the disease. He should also 
court the society of brahmans, physicians, gurus, and study the 
sacred writings. This is recommended in consequence of the danger 
of the disease. 

4. Hiccup, (Hikka.) 

This disease is produced by nearly the same causes as Swdsa 
(asthma), and Kdsa (cough). Such as heavy and indigestable 
food, or roasted, hot, and dry food ; or much food, or an improper 
mixture of food, or articles that increase cough, &c., so as to pro- 
duce constipation. In other cases very dry things, cold things, or 
situations, exposure to dust, smoke entering the mouth or nostrils j 


or much lieat, as exposure to the sun, aud hot air. Violent exercise, 
as shooting arro\YS, carrj^ng heavy loads, walking great distances, 
not attending to the calls of nature, or long fasting produce this dis- 
ease. It is called hiJika, because the air comes to the mouth fre- 
quently, with a peculiar noise, and the spleen, liver, and intestines 
seem to be coming up to the mouth. This disease quickly debili- 
tates, and destroys the prcina (life). 

The precursory symptoms are a heaviness of the throat and 
chest, an astringent taste in the mouth, and a rumbling noise in 
the belly. There are five kinds of hiccup, in all of which air and 
phlegm are deranged. 

1 . Vnnu[/d. This form is produced by taking too much food and 
drink, which deranges the air, and produces the disease. 

2. Jumuld. In this form the passage of air proceeds, after a 
considerable time, with eructations of air, and the head and neck 
shake at the moment ; hence the name. 

3. Khudni (hiccup) takes place slowly, is not strong, and 
proceeds from the scrobiculus cordis. 

4. Gamhird. In this form the hiccup commences from the 
navel, is strong, and very noisy, and is always accompanied with 
other severe or fatal symptoms. 

5. Mahati. There is frequent hiccup, which produces pain in 
the vital parts, and shakes the whole body. The unfavourable 
symptoms are when hiccup is accompanied ^vith fixed eyes, as if 
drawn up by some one ; when there is great weakness, and the 
patient's arms and legs are thrown out, with frequent sneezing. 
When the person is very weak, and old, or becomes weak after ex- 
cessive venery, with no appetite, and a cough, it will soon prove fatal. 
When combined with other diseases, as delirium, fainting, great 
thirst, &c., it will be fatal. When the person is strong, has a good 
constitution, hiccup may be cured. Thus when the patient is not 
thin, when his memory is good, his tissues and senses are healthy, 
the person will recover. In the treatments prayers are first to 
be offered up to all the gods, on which occasion one nostril is shut up 
by the finger, and by the other nostril the air is taken into the 
lungs. Fear of all kinds cures it ; and when a child is attacked if he 
be accused of having stolen something, or if he is threatened to be 
beaten, the sudden charge will cure the disease. Needles suddenly 
thurst into the skin, to produce a sudden surprise, will also cure it. 
Liquorice-root, mixed with honey, and taken in the nostrils as an 
errhine, or powdered long-pepper, with sugar and warm ghee, milk, 
and the juice of the sugar-cane will be of much use in curing the 
disease. If the person is not very weak give him a purgative and 


emetic ; and use fumigations with gram, raisin, and other fragrant 
medicines. The ashes of the bones of animals, with honey, are 
also used for the same purpose ; or the ashes of the feathers of 
peacocks, with honey and ghee. Impure soda with lemon juice also 
cures hiccup, and hot barley water with ghee gives relief. A de- 
coction of myrobalan is of much use, as also long-pepper, sugar, 
Emblica myrobalan, and ginger with honey. The fried flesh of wild 
pigeons, andof diiferent birds, porcupines, deer, granhas, formed into 
broths with acid fruits and ghee should be used. Purgatives, with 
salt or sugar, and clysters are also in some cases used with advantage. 

5. Diseases of the Heart. 

Painful affections of the heart Ridraga (Angina pectoris ?) are 
produced by want of attention to the calls of nature, the use of hot 
and dry food ; the improper mixture of food ; an intemperance in 
eating, or unusual food ; which causes indigestion, and deranges the 
humors. The impure chyle is received into the heart, and pro- 
duces this painful disease ; of which there are five varieties. When 
produced by deranged air the patient feels various acute kinds of 
pains, sometimes it is lancinating, at other times as if the heart was 
cut or torn. When produced by deranged bile there is much pain 
in the heart, with thirst, heart-burning and dryness. This is suc- 
ceeded by fainting, much sweating, dryness of the mouth, and 
smoke appears to come out of the mouth. When produced by 
phlegm the patient feels a heaviness of the heart, a discharge of 
mucus from the mouth and nose, loss of appetite, and a sweet taste 
in the mouth. 

When produced by worms there is a lancinating, or piercing pain 
in the region of the heart ; nausea, vomiting, belching and loss of 
appetite. The eyes become dark greenish, with emaciation of the 
body. All these diseases of the heart terminate in emaciation, 
languor, loss of appetite and strength, with giddiness. 

Treatment. When produced by derangements of the air^ the 
patient should first have his body anointed with oil, and he should 
take an oleaginous purgative followed by an emetic. He should next 
take the following mixture: Powdered long-pepper, cardamums, 
Bacha, asafoetida, saltpetre, rock-salt, dry ginger, and Jawdni, with 
the juice of acid fruits and whey-wine or vinegar. He should eat 
good rice, with the broth of wild animals properly prepared, and 
occasionally use oleaginous glysters. 

When bile is deranged the patient should be treated as in 
bilious fever, and all the decoctipns and mixtures recommended 
in this disease are to be used. When produced by deranged 


j)hle(jm, take an emetic with a decoction of nimh leaves and bacha ; 
with the mixture recommended above for derangements of the air. 
He should also take a purgative of Tribrit with ghee. 

WTien produced by worms, the patient should eat meats prepared 
with ghee and rice, for three days ; and then he should take purga- 
tives of salt, and a decoction of aromatic plants. He should after- 
wards take wine with powdered Biranga. By this means the worms 
will come out of the heart. He should next eat Biranga powder 
(the best anthelmintic medicine), with barley for food. 

Class VI. 

Diseases of the Abdomen. 

1. I)ijs]}epsia, (Agni Mdndya.) 

This disease is supposed to be produced by derangements of the 
internal fire. It has four varieties. 

1st. When there is too little fire, it is called Manda Agni; 
when food is not digested, or only imperfectly. In this form, the 
diseases of phlegm are often present. 

2nd. When the fire is too strong, as when bile is deranged, it 
is called Tikhna Agni, In this case, little or even large quantities 
of food are digested ; and the diseases of bile are liable to occur. 

3rd. When the air is deranged the food is sometimes digested 
and sometimes not ; from fire being sometimes in the natural state, 
and at other times it is deranged. In this case the disease is called 
Bishama Agnij when other diseases of air are present. 

4th. Bhasma Agni, (Bidimia,) when pungent, sour and dry food 
are taken for some time ; phlegm is diminished, and air is much 
increased ; the internal fire, with the deranged air, absorbs the 
liquid part of the body, and the food when taken is soon digested, 
or reduced to ashes, and the person is not satisfied. This disease 
is accompanied with great thirst, dry cough, fainting, giddiness, 
burning of the body and emaciation, with severe constipation, and 
much perspiration. 

When there is no increase or diminution of the air, bile, 
and phlegm, in the same person ; the fire remains in the natural 
state, and is called Sama Agni. This is not a disease, but is the 
most favourable state of digestion, and is the condition in which 
food is properly digested ; when not taken in too small, or too 
large quantities. The divisions of the digestive organs into the 
parts in which the food are received, Amasia, (stomach ;) Agniaria, 


(the duodenum ;) and in which the digested food is removed 
Pakasia, (the small intestines,) is probably from the known struc- 
ture of the intestines of the inferior animals. 

This disease is produced by drinking much water, and eating 
at unusual hours, when very little food is taken, and the calls 
of nature are resisted ; when the person is sleepy or is in a 
passion, or is afraid, grieved, or fatigued at the time of eating ; 
and when he dislikes the food during the time of eating. It is also 
produced, when the person sleeps during the day, instead of at night, 
or is irregular in the time of sleeping, and when at the usual time of 
dinner, little is eaten. By such causes the food is not digested in 
the proper manner. When phlegm is deranged the food tastes 
sweet, and is indigested ; when bile, the taste is sour, and the food 
in the stomach produces eructations ; and air when deranged causes 
the partially digested food to be dried up, with pain in the stomach. 

2. Ajirna, {Indigestion.) 

This disease is divided into three varieties, A'ma Ajirna, Bistahdha 
Ajirna, and Bidagdha Ajirna. When digestion is good, the food 
is properly prepared for the use of the body, the eructations are free 
and without taste, and the dejections are natural ; the body is hght 
and elastic, and the person is inclined to exertion, he has a good ap- 
petite and the food is tasty, and is accompanied with thirst. 

When digestion is imperfect the person's temper becomes bad, 
he is subject to anger, is fearful, and becomes covetous. The food 
of persons with a bad and hasty temper is not properly digested. 
When indigestion occurs, there is a disinclination to exertion, with 
giddiness ; the body is heavy, the colour of the skin bad, and there 
is no passage of air ; such a person does not like his food, his under- 
standing is impaired, and his bowels are either constipated or there 
are copious dejections. 

The unfavourable symptoms of this disease are fainting, delirium, 
vomiting, a copious discharge of saliva from the mouth, with languor, 
and giddiness. 

A'ma Ajirna. In this disease the body feels heavy, with a flow 
of saliva and phlegm from the nose. The eyelids swell, and there 
are eructations of the substances eaten, some time before. 

In Bistahdha Ajirna, the air is deranged, and produces severe pain 
in the stomach, with flatulency. The stomach swells, there are no 
dejections, no air escapes, and the person remains stupid, with his 
imderstanding impaired, and pain over the body. 

In Bidagdha Ajirna, the bile is deranged, the person has sour 
eructations, complains of thirst, is giddy and often dozes. He com- 


pain in the abdomen, has a free perspiration over the body, which 
teels hot. 

When there is want of digestion, although the individual thinks 
the appetite good and eats, still it does not nourish the body, but 
acts as a poison in destroying the person. When the food is not 
taken in the usual quantities, digestion is not performed, and is 
often followed by disease. When a person eats like an animal, 
without consideration, he will be affected with indigestion, which 
is the cause of other diseases, as cholera, drum -belly, and con- 

Treatment. As indigestion, dispepsia, and costiveness, are consi- 
dered as only varieties of the same disease, the same plan of cure 
is to be followed in these cases. 

In dispepsia, myrobalan, dry ginger, and sugar are to be taken 
internally ; rock-salt and myrobalan ; dry ginger with sugar ; the 
powder of long-pepper and myrobalan, or the juice of the pome- 
granate. In the morning, to clear the bowels the patient should 
take the following mixture : mix equal parts of 
Dry ginger. 

Black and long pepper. 

The seeds of Danti, (Croton polyandrum,) the 
Root of Tribrity (Convolvulus turpethum,) and the 
Root of Chitra, (Plumbago root, rizia,^ 
and take with a little sugar. This powder produces appetite 
and cures costiveness, pain (««/), enlargement of the spleen and 

In indigestion the following mixture is recommended : Take of 
Asafoetida, black pepper, long-pepper, and dry ginger, equal parts ; 
make this into a paste with water, and rub it over the abdomen 
(^Charakd). The decoction of coriander seed and ginger is recom- 
mended, as also a mixture of powdered myrobalan, long- pepper, 
and rock-salt in whey. 

In the variety of this disease which is named Ama-jirna emetics 
are given, such as a decoction of Bacha^ Orris root (Acorus 
calamus), rock-salt, each half a told in hot water. This will be 
repeated four or five times until the person vomits : or he may take 
as a diuretic the infusion of coriander seeds with a little ginger. 

Bidagdha-jirna. Fasting is also recommended, and cold water to 
drink {Sushrutd). 

In Bistabdha-jirna warm applications are to be made ex- 
ternally to the abdomen. In other cases of despepsia take of 
Black pepper. 

2 Q 



Ajamodd, fLigusticura ajwaen,) 


Jirait, (Cumin seed,) 

Krishna-jiraka, (Nigella Indica or Sativa,) and 

Hingu, (Asafoetida,) 
of each equal parts. Mix and reduce them to powder ; dose two scru- 
ples. Small quantities of wine and honey mixed with water may 
also be administered. 

In despepsia, should the patient have sour eructations, with heart- 
burn, dried grapes (Jdsmis) with myrobalan and honey, are to be 
given in the form of an electuary. 

In Bhasmdgni (Bulimia) the treatment should consist in taking 
purgatives frequently followed by heavy, indigestable, and oily food ; 
unleavened cakes of rice, ghee, and sugar ; the flesh of amphibious 
animals, as the buffalo, tortoise, &c. Fish is also recommended, 
mutton prepared with cocoanuts, &c., barley with wax-flower and 
water, ghee and sugar ; oily fruits, as walnuts, almonds, &c., so as 
to weaken the digestive powers which will cure the disease. 

3. Alasaktty (drum-belly.) The abdomen in this disease be- 
comes enlarged and tight, with a rumbling noise, and the air passes 
upwards, followed by a constipation of faeces and air ; with great 
thirst, eructations, and pain in the stomach. 

4. Bilambi/ca, or constipation, is somewhat different from 
drum-belly, as there is no swelling nor tightness of the abdomen ; 
nor is the indigested food either rejected by vomiting nor by stool ; 
but is retained in the abdomen causing much pain there, and 
likewise producing various diseases in different parts of the body. 
Constipation is always difficult to cure. 

5. Bisuchika, (Cholera.) The person first feels pain, as from in- 
dio-estion, in the abdomen, followed by frequent stools and vomiting, 
great thirst, and pain in the abdomen, faiating, giddiness, yawning, 
and cramps in the legs. The colour of the body is altered, accom- 
panied with shivering, pain in the chest, and head-ache. The 
unfavourable symptoms of cholera are, the lips, teeth and nails 
become blackish, the person insensible, with frequent vomiting. 
The eyes become sunken, voice feeble, and the joints loose, with 
great debility. Such a person may be taken out to be burnt, 
as he will not recover. The most fatal symptoms of cholera 
are, want of sleep, restlessness, shivering, no secretion of urine, and 

This is certainly the same cholera which is still so common, and 
fatal in this country j but as a sporadic disease. It did not then 


appear to have taken on that wide spreading epidemic form, which 
it has done so frequently since the year 1817. 

The treatment of drum-belly, constipation and cholera are nearly 
the same. In all it is to be commenced by exhibiting a strong 
emetic. In cholera it is recommended to apply the actual cautery 
to the inner side of each ankle joint ; and hot external applications 
to the body. In all these cases fasting is enjoined, and after the eme- 
tics, medicines for correcting and soothing the pain in the stomach 
are to be used, followed by purgatives. When the faintness and 
purging has ceased, light easily digested food is to be given when 
hungry ; such as conjee mixed with stomachics, &c. clysters, with 
purgatives, such as a decoction of Zowhori (Convolvulus turpethum), 
castor oil, &c. 

For internal exhibition, Sus/u iita recommends the following : 
Take of 


Bacha, (Orris root,) 

Hingu, (Asafoetida,) 

Indrajab, (Wrightea antidysenterica seed,) 

Gringha, (small variety of garlic of a red colour,) 

Sabardaltty (rock-salt,) and 

Atibisha^ (Atis or Bitula.) 

The powder of these is to be mixed with warm water for use. 
Mustard seed with sugar is likewise recommended, also Burhok or 
Bitlabariy or black salt. 

Saindhabay (rock-salt,) 
HinyHy (Asafoetida,) with acid fruits. 
These are to be mixed in water and taken two or three times a 

The treatment of cholera must vary, and hence it is that so many 
different plans of treatment are recommended according to the 
prominent symptoms that are present. 

Vomiting is to be produced by a decoction of Bacha and salt. 
When there is much vomiting it is to be stopped by the following 
preparation : Take thirty-two ratis of each of the following me- 
dicines : — 

Caranja, (Galedupa arborea, Roxb.) 
Nimbtty (Meha azadirachta,) 
Gluchi, (Minespermum glabrum,) 
Arjuna, (Pentaptera Arjuna,) 
Bacha, (Orris root,) 

Mix them with one pint of water ; boil to a quarter. This will 

2 Q 2 


check the vomituig. For eramps, take mustard oil, rock salt, and 
Kusta, (Costus speciosus.) Mix when warm, and rub it into the 
parts effected. 

6. Chai'di, or Vomiting 

Deranged air, bile, and phlegm, produce this disease ; as also 
wlien the three humors are deranged, or when the person takes too 
much fluid, or bad articles of food. When disgusting objects are 
seen, smelt, or eaten, it may produce this disease. In other persons 
it is produced by eating food too fast, or at unusual times, and by 
great fatigue, grief, indigestion, and worms. The state of pregnancy 
likewise produces vomiting. 

Before vomiting occurs, the person complains of nausea, a cessa- 
tion of belching, a watery and saltish discharge from the mouth, he 
dislikes food, becomes weak and unsteady in walking, which is fol- 
lowed by vomiting. 

When produced by air the vomiting is frothy and scanty, much 
pain is felt in the back, and sides of the abdomen ; great exhaustion, 
and vomiting occurs, with a loud noise, and an astringent taste in 
the mouth. When bile produces vomiting, the person feels faint, 
thirsty, the mouth is dry and the head, palate, and eyes hot. He 
sees indistinctly as if he was in darkness, his body turns round, 
and he vomits a bitter matter of a yellow, hot, green, or sour nature. 
When phlegm is the cause the patient is heavy and dozes, his mouth 
is sweet, phlegm is discharged, thick, white, and copiously mixed 
with mucus, and a horripilation is felt. The person has no appetite, 
and the fluid vomited is neither salt, sour, nor bitter. . When air, 
bile, and phlegm are deranged, all the above symptoms are present. 
When produced by the sight of disagreeable objects, pregnancy or 
worms, the humors will be deranged, and the variety of the disease 
will be distinguished by their peculiar symptoms. When produced 
by worms, there is frequent eructations, and much pain, accompanied 
with the symptoms of those diseases of the chest which are pro- 
duced by worms. 

The unfavourable sjnuptoms are great debility, and the matter 
vomited being mixed with blood and pus, or resembles the varie- 
gated colour of the peacock's tail. There is also frequent vomiting 
in other dangerous diseases. All the varieties of vomiting are pro- 
duced by disorders of the stomach, and in the treatment fasting is 
always to be enjoined. When vomiting is caused by indigestable 
matter in the stomach, emetics and purgatives are recommended. 
In all the varieties, light, dry and agreeable food should be exhibited. 
Different decoctions are also to be used according to the derange- 


ment of the humor as recommended in the treatment of fever. 
The juice of lemon, mixed with the powder of long-pepper and 
honey, may be sucked in the mouth with advantage in vomiting. 
A decoction of barley vnih honey, or fried rice boiled in water, and 
made into conjee is to be used. The paste of coriander seeds mixed 
with salt, and the juice of acid fruits will be of use. The pulp of 
prunes or myrobalan, with spices, will also be of use ; as well as all 
articles possessed of agreeable smells. The broth of wild animals, 
bitter mixtures, and different kinds of agreeable food are all useful 
in checking vomiting. 

During pregnancy the woman should be supplied with those 
articles of food which she wishes to eat, as the want of them will 
hurt the fetus, and will increase the tendency to sickness and vomit- 

7. Bijsenterij, (Atisdr.) 

Dysentery is produced by a variety of causes ; such as exposure 
to cold, eating very cold articles of food in considerable quantities, 
eating much ghee and oily articles, very hea\'y or hot substances, or 
very thin or dry articles of food ; eating several articles of food 
with contrary qualities, such as milk and fish, &c., or any kind of 
indigestable food, causes this disease. In other cases it is produced 
by the food not being properly boiled or mixed, or being eaten at 
improper times ; or when not properly seasoned, or in unusually 
small or large quantities. In some cases the disease is produced 
by poisons, great fear, or grief ; by unwholesome drinking water ; by 
much wine, and peculiar food which thus affects certain persons ; 
and by irregular or sudden changes in the seasons. Remaining long 
in the water while bathing, worms, deranged or constipated alvine, 
or other excretions, sometimes produce the disease. The symptoms 
are explained by the internal fire being diminished by morbid 
watery secretions, or phlegm generated in the intestines ; this is 
mixed with the faeces, and is carried off downwards by the air of 
the part. Hence the production of watery stools, &c. In some 
cases the fever occurs first from the derangement of air, bile, and 
phlegm ; in other cases the dysentery precedes the fever, and some- 
times both occur together. In these cases abstinence from eating 
and drmking is to be observed, and such medicines are to be given 
as prepare the food that is in the abdomen. If dysentery is present 
such medicines are to be used as will dry up and stop this discharge, 
and the physician is to decide in each case which sort of remedies 
are to be given, whether they should be to cure first the fever or 
the diarrhoea. 


There are six varieties of this disease, as when the air, bile, and 
phlegm are deranged, it forms so many kinds ; when the three are 
deranged together, when produced by grief, and when caused by 
mucus in the abdomen. Dhanantvjari says, there are many other 
varieties as the symptoms vary from time to time. 

Before this disease developes itself a sharp pain is felt in the 
chest, umbiliacus, and anus, and in the abdomen under the false 
ribs, which is succeeded by want of appetite, languor, and lassitude 
of the body ; no air passed by the anus, the patient is costive, the 
abdomen swelled, and every thing taken remains undigested. When 
air produces the disease it commences with great pain ; the dejections 
are of a dark yellow colour, frothy, dry and frequent, and in small 
quantities mixed with the indigested substances, which have been 
eaten, pain is felt in the anus on the expulsion of air, and the urine 
is scanty. 

2. When bile is deranged, the dejections are expelled with an 
effort. They have a bad smell, are hot, and of a red yellowish colour, 
like the water in which flesh had been steeped. In other cases they 
are of a blue or red colour, and are accompanied with thirst, dozing, 
heat of body, free perspirations, and tenesmus at the time of the 
evacuation. There is often in such cases inflammation of the rectum 
with violent fever. 

3. When phlegm is deranged, the person dozes, the dejections are 
white, thick, and constipated, mixed with phlegm. He has no appe- 
tite, complains of languor and lassitude with dozing, and has fre- 
quent calls to stool, which are passed without any noise. 

4. When the above three humors are deranged the dejections 
are of different colours. The patient is very thirsty with languor, 
dejection of mind, and drowsiness. This kind of dysentery is fatal 
when children and old people are attacked ; and in all cases it is 
difficult to cure, and will cause much vexation to the physician. 
The symptoms will vary according as one or other of the above 
forms predominate. The cause of the disease will likewise vary 
the symptoms. 

5. When grief produces dysentery, the person has the internal 
fire oipakasia deranged by the watery vapours, which are formed by 
grief, and passing into pakasia mixes with the fire, and deranges the 
bright blood of the part. This blood is mixed with the dejections, 
often becomes putrid, and is expelled with them. In other cases it 
is discharged by itself. Sometimes it has a bad smell, in other cases 
it has not. The cure is tedious, and physicians are vexed by its 
obstinacy. If the dejections are frequent, the cure will be very dif- 


6. The sixth form is when it is produced by mucus, which de- 
ranges the stomach and is discharged frequently of various colours. 

There are also two forms of dysentery, one being acute (Ama- 
apdka) or crude, and the other chronic (Pdkdtisdr) or mature. 

Acute Dysentery, (Amaralddtisdr.) 

This form is known by the dejections sinking in water, and being 
very foetid. In the jpalia variety the opposite symptoms to the 
above are most prominent, and the abdomen does not feel heavy. 

The unfavourable symptoms are a stiffness of the body, dejections 
of a dark bluish colour, like the ripe rose-apple ; in other cases the 
colour of the dejections is like that of the lime, of ghee, or of oil, of 
tallow or marrow ; in other cases they are like milk or curds ; or 
hke water in which flesh had been washed ; or black, blue, or yellow ; 
or Hke the colour of these three mixed together in different propor- 
tions ; or like the water of Madar. In other cases they are very thin, 
of a foetid smell, and cold ; or of the colour of peacock's feathers, or 
that of the rainbow, or dry and hot. Sometimes the dejections are 
consistent, or hke the brain, or like the refuse of well washed and 
beaten bark (fibrous), or its decoction, and are evacuated in large 
quantities. When the sick person is thirsty and hot, breathes through 
the nose, has hiccough, and pain in the side, and skin, with loss of 
memory, dosing and stupor, the disease will be fatal. Such a person 
has no inclination to do any thing, and remains stupid and complains 
of pain in the anus, like that of a ripe boil. He speaks incoherently 
and becomes insensible, with an involuntary discharge from the anus : 
such persons will not live. When the person is very much reduced 
in flesh, is cold and the abdomen distended, with pain in the anus ; 
such a person should not be attended by the practitioner, as the dis- 
ease is incurable. 

The physician should be able to distinguish the symptoms of 
Ama, or acute, from those of chronic dysentery. Without this he 
will not be able to treat the disease properly. 

In the acute form the person should abstain from food, and very 
light medicines should be administered to improve the dejections. 
If there is much pain and flatulency, he should take an emetic of 
salt, long-pepper, and hot water. After vomiting, very light food, 
of a farinacious kind, is to be given. The physician should be care- 
ful in the acute stage not to stop the stools by astringents, or the 
like, as it wi-dl produce Gulma, anasarca, dispepsia, piles, and drum- 
belly. When the stools are frequent, and very scanty, he may take 
myrobalan (haritaJd). If the watery stools are copious, emetics, 
and the following medicines are to be administered. A specimen 


of these will only be given, as so very numerous receipts of this 
kind are given in the Hindu MSS. Take equal parts of 

HaritaJci, (Myrobalan, ) 

Atibisttf (Atis or Batula,) 

HingUj (Asafoetida,) 

Soubor chullon, (rock-salt,) 

Bacha, (Orris root, Acorus calamus,) 
powder, mix, and give half a told or more, according to the age 
of the patient, for a dose, w^ith a little hot water, wine, or conjee. 

When deranged bile produces this disease, heating and stimulat- 
ing medicines are not to be given ; but he should take conjee, and 
agreeable bitter medicines. After some days of fasting, when he has 
some appetite, such bitters as 

Atis, (turmerick,) 

Atibisha, (a plant Akmidhi, B.) 

Indrajabj (the seed of Wrightea antidysenterica,) 

Pat a, 

Rasdnjana, (Sulphurate of antimony,) 

are to be formed into a decoction, and given two or three times a day 
with honey. In cases of bloody flux, boiled rice is given for food 
without water. In this manner the acrimony of the disease is 
supposed to be absorbed by the dry rice. 

When the symptoms yield to these remedies ; the urine increases, 
and is discharged without the passage of fseces, which are discharged 
freely and without pain, the appetite is restored, and when there 
is no uneasiness in the abdomen the person will recover. When 
there is swelling of the hands, feet, and joints, without any secre- 
tion of urine, arid the dejections are very hot, the disease is con- 
sidered to be increasing in violence. 

In the chronic state (Pdkdtisd?'), when the stools are frequent, 
astringent medicines are to be given as follows. Take of 

Sdmangdy (Lycopodium imbricatum, a sensative plant,) 

Datakipuspa, (the flowers of Grislea tomentosa,)^ 

Manjistd, (Madar,) 

Lodra, (Symplocus racemosa,) 

Mustaka, (Cyperus rotundus,) 

Sdlmulibesta, (a kind of kino,) 

Rodhra, (a tree called Lodh), 

Darimata, (bark or shell of the pomegranate fruit,) 

mix equal parts of these medicines in powder, and give half a told two 
or three times a day. When there is much pain, with costiveness, 
and blood is passed with mucus, take milk boiled with three pints 


with oily purgatives, and enemas of demulcent medicines with 
nourishins: broths. 


8. Diarrkcea, (Grihini.) 

By the use of improper food the internal fire is weakened, which 
deranges the place where it is situated, between the stomach and 
place of the chyle. When any thing is eaten, which is not properly 
digested, and is frequently discharged, with or without pain, some- 
times liquid, at other times consistent, sometimes it is evacuated 
without air, and at other times it is foetid, it forms this disease. 
Before it commences the patient complains of lassitude and weak- 
ness of the body, accompanied with noise in the intestines, sour and 
bitter eructations, and a bad taste in the mouth. When a sinsino- of 
the ears, oedema in the hands and ieet, with pain in the joints, 
vomiting, fever, thirst, loss of appetite, and a heaviness and burnino- 
sensation of the body occurs, in old cases, the prognosis should be 
guarded. These symptoms are varied when either the air, bile, or 
phlegm, or their peculiar symptoms are present. 

Treatment . The bowels are first to be cleaned by an aperient 
stomachic ; astringent remedies are then to be taken, with wine in the 
morning, and butter-milk. x\safoetida, and other stomachic remedies, 
as ginger, are useful. The fever and other diseases which sometimes 
accompany it, are to be treated in the usual manner. 

Another form of Diarrhoea is cv^WtA Sangraha Grihini; from San- 
grahuy (a collection,) and Grihini, (place of internal fire ;) in which 
there is much noise in the stomach, with laziness, weakness and 
lassitude. The stools are unnatural, irregular, and evacuated with 
noise ; sometimes they are thin, and in other cases they are consistent 
or hard, and of a pale colour like indigested food. Some people re- 
main ten or fifteen days, or even one month, without any fecal dis- 
charge ; other patients feel well during the day, but have frequent 
dejections during the night. The prognosis of this form of disease 
is unfavourable, as it is obstinate and is cured with much difiiculty. 
The treatment of this is the same as that of Grihini ; consisting of 
laxatives, stomachics, and astringent, light, and farinacious diet. 

9. Gulma, (Swellinc/s in the Abdomen.) 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged by eating bad food, at 
irregular times, or by unsuitable exercise, this disease is produced, 
which resembles a ball in the abdomen. There are five kinds and 
situations of this disease : One in either side of the abdomen, 
one in the umbihacus, another in the pelvis, and one between the 

2 R 


chest and the abdomen, (scrobiculus cordis,) sometimes the swell- 
ing is fixed, and at other times it is moveable.* There are four 
kinds of this disease in the male, three by the derangement of air, 
bile, and phlegm, another by the morbid mixture of the three, and 
the fifth kind is pecuhar to females from the retention of the 

Gulma is ushered in by much belching, costiveness, loss of appe- 
tite, difficulty of making water, fulness of the body, with flatulence, 
and indigestion. These symptoms are followed by others produc- 
ed by the use of food and drink of a dry nature, by a kind of wine 
which produces roughness of the surface of the body, by improper 
food, or by eating it at irregular times, or eating too much, by taking 
unsuitable exercise, and by neglecting the calls of nature, such as 
sneezing, and dejections, grief, accidents, bruises, or by too great 
evacuations or fasting. The symptoms of Gulma, produced by air, 
are its being situated in the abdomen, in the umbiliacus, or sides, 
and its moving about. It is sometimes small, and at other times 
large ; sometimes round, at other times long ; sometimes the pain is 
slight, at other times severe, with constipation, dryness of the throat 
and mouth ; the skin of the body having a dark yellow colour, and 
fever commencing with chilliness. The pain in the breast and sides 
of the abdomen, shoulders, or head are considerable, particularly 
after the food is digested, but the person feels better immediately 
after eating. Astringent, dry, bitter, or pungent things increase the 

Bile. "When the disease is produced by eating sour, bitter, hot, 
or other things of the same kind ; by living on dry food ; by anger ; 
by drinking much wine, remaining much in the sun, or near the 
fire ; by collections of indigested food, or diseased blood in the abdo- 
men, the bile* is deranged producing the Pitta Gulma with the 
following symptoms. The disease commences with fever, thirst, and 
a red colour of the mouth and skin. When digestion is going on, 
there is much pain, and perspiration, with a severe burning sensation 
in the pit of the stomach, which is tender on being touched, or it is 
followed by a swelling in the stomach, which is painful like a boil. 

Phlegm is deranged by cold, or by eating indigestable or 
oleaginous articles of food ; particularly when the person does not 
take exercise, eats too much, and sleeps too long during the day. 
When phlegm is thus deranged it produces coldness and languor 

* Under the term Gulma are arranged very different diseases : as 
tumors of the pylorus, partial enlargements of the liver, and diseases of 
the large intestines. 


of the body, with low fever, nausea, cough, no appetite, and heavi- 
ness of the body, without much pain. The ball gradually becomes 
harder, and larger. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged, and are produced by 
the causes given above, there will be severe pain, great heat of 
body, and the Guhna or swelling feels hard like a stone, and is 
large, and quickly produces the heat of the body ; — so severe is 
this form of the complaint, that the person is in great distress. 
His body becomes thin, with a bad colour, and he has no appetite, 
nor strength. Such a disease is incurable. 

There is a kind of Gulma so like pregnancy that it may deceive 
physicians, unless they observe the precaution of not givino* medi- 
cine until after the tenth month, (the supposed time of utero-o-esta- 

The unfavourable symptoms of Gulma are its enlarging so as to 
fill the abdomen ; and the increase being rapid, and the swellino- 
being surrounded by vessels, with much pain in the breast, as well 
as in the part. When the swelling is of the figure of a turtle, 
when there is much debility, loss of appetite, nausea, cough, vomit- 
ing, restlessness, fever, thirst, coma, and the discharge of mucus 
from the mouth and nose, without either taste or smell, such a 
person will not recover. 

When a person with Gulma has fever, asthma, vomiting, diarrhoea, 
and swelling of the breast, umbiliacus, with swelling of the hand or 
feet, the disease will be fatal. 

When after asthma, cough, thirst, with no appetite, much pain, 
and the swelling has suddenly disappeared with much weakness, 

* My Pandit related an instructive case in point. A young woman be- 
came pregnant, and for the uncomfortable sensations attending that state 
consulted a physician, who after trying various remedies, without effect, 
one of which was thrusting a red hot iron into the tumor, which is fre- 
quently done for spleen, and sometimes with good effect by raising its 
activity : but in the present case the woman escaped. The physician find- 
ing that the disease did not yield to his treatment declared the case to be 
one of Gulma, for which nothing could be done, and that it would in- 
crease, and she would die with much pain, and violent shrinking. As 
this frightened very much the other females the patient was removed to 
a distant room, and in that state of anxiety passed some months, until 
parturition commenced. That was considered as the approach of death, 
and not to defile the house she was put out into the compound upon a 
mat, and her female friends deserted her. In this state she was deli- 
vered of a female child to the astonishment of all, and to the disgrace of 
the medical man. 

2 R 2 


the person will soon die. Such cases are in some of the Hindu 
MSS. said to be cured by the use of a few medicines, many 
of which have very Httle effect on the system, and consequently on 
the disease. 

Treatment. When air is deranged the application of unctions 
substances to the surface of the body are to be used ; but parti- 
cularly over the tumor, after which oily purgatives are to be used, 
such as castor-oil, and oily clysters. 

When bile produces Gkihna unctious remedies are to be used 
externally, and he should take internally Kdhalddi'^ prepared 
with ghee, followed by purgatives mixed with sugar. 

When the bowels are constipated, milk with ginger is to be given ; 
and the application to the abdomen of an earthen pot filled with 
warm water will be useful. 

phlegm. In this form, ghee prepared with a decoction of T?i- 
pulddiy a mixture composed of long-pepper, and other heating 
medicines. These are to be taken for some time internally, followed 
by strong purgatives and enemas. When air, bile, and phlegm, are 
diseased at the same time, the class of symptoms that appear most 
prominent will decide which of the above forms of treatment is to 
be preferred. When the disease is produced by retention of the 
menses, as sometimes occurs in women soon after delivery, eating 
improper food, or after abortion, or during the flow of the menses 
air is deranged, which prevents the flow of the menses, and pro- 
duces Gulma. The symptoms of this form are the same as that 
produced by diseased bile, and at the same time the swelling 
moves about like a ball of clay, with the symptoms of pregnancy. 
When a round swelling is felt in the abdomen of a woman, the same 
as in utero-gestation, and it is so painful that the part cannot be 
touched, you are not to use remedies for the cure of this disease 
for ten months, and then you may prescribe medicines for it. The 
treatment of this variety is the same as that for derangements of 
the three humors in other parts of the body, combined with those 
for Gulma produced by bile with amenagoge medicines, such as 
potassa prepared from the Paldsa tree (Butea frondosa) . This is 
to be mixed with ghee and taken internally, so as to separate and 
discharge the coagulated blood, which is supposed to be pent up, 
and produce the disease. Injections into the vagina of the female, 
with ghee prepared with long-pepper, black-pepper, and other hot 
medicines, are also recommended. 

* A medicinal mixture of an antibilious nature. It is principally com- 
posed of a medicine said to be brought from Nepal. 


10. Suly Colic, (Gastroperiodynia.) 

This disease is called Sul, from the pain resembling that pro- 
duced by piercing the abdomen with the deadly Trisula or three- 
pointed instrument in the hands oi Shiva, the destroying power of the 
Triad, and it is said to be sometimes so incurable that even Shiva 
himself cannot remove it. It frequently happens that the individual, 
in despair of being cured, commits suicide, as the only means left of 
relieving himself, and of propitiating the anger of the deity. Such 
fancies have a pernicious effect upon the progress of medical know- 
ledge, for instead of endeavouring to discover the cause and nature 
of the disease, and the means of alleviating the sufferings of the 
afflicted, the Hindu practitioner finds a ready excuse for his in- 
difference and ignorance in what he declares to be the will of God. 

There are eight varieties of Sid, produced by derangement of 
air, bile, and phlegm ; by two being deranged together, by the three 
being deranged together, and the last form is by indigestion. In 
all these forms, however, air is more or less deranged. 

1. The causes of iVir Colic (Bdtju Sul) are violent exercise, as fight- 
ing, riding, frequent intercourse with women, watching at night, 
drinking too much cold water, eating peas (especially Kaldi, Mudga, 
Araki), dry food, as dry flesh, vegetables, and fish, overeating, or 
eating too often ; injuries, and bitter or astringent food. When rice 
is eaten, and other grain that have vegetated, or an improper mix- 
ture of food is taken, as milk and flesh, &c., or when the calls of na- 
ture are not attended to, and the semen, urine, air, fseces are consti- 
pated ; or by grief, fasting, much and loud laughing or speaking, 
they produce Sid by deranging the air. When air is so deranged the 
accession of pain occurs at intervals when the person drinks cold 
water on an empty stomach, when the food has been digested, to- 
wards the evening in the rainy season, when the sky is overcast, 
and during the winter months. 

The pain is in the chest, sides of the abdomen, back, in the join- 
ing of the lumbar vertebrae with the os coccygis, and in the 
pelvic region. It is accompanied with difficulty in breathing, rigi- 
dity of the body, and scanty evacuations. It is diminished by the 
application of hot external medicines, frictions, or shampooing over 
the part with oleaginous applications, and drinking hot liquids. The 
pain in air Sul is first to be checked by hot applications, as bruised 
til- seed made into a poultice, and applied hot to the part, the ex- 
ternal application of hot rice and milk is recommended, or flesh 
boiled, and applied hot to the pained part. For internal use take 
equal parts of powdered 


BirangUy (a vermifuge seed like black-pepper,) 
SigrXf (Silvius singio,) 
Kampilay (a purgative root like rhubarb,) 
Fated, (yellov^ myrobalan,) 
Tribrit, (Convolvulus turpethum,) 
Amhlahitasa, (Rumex vincarius,) 
Surussah, (Ophiorrhiza mangos,) 
Ashwakarna, (Shorea robusta,) 
Souborchsiloh, (an impure soda,) 

one told is a dose, and may be taken with wine. This will at once 
relieve the pain. The following is another mixture. Take of, 

Fritika, (Nigella Indica,) 

Ajjaghi, (Cumin seed,) 

Chobikd, (Orris root. Piper chavya,) 

Jawdnt, (Ligusticum ajwaen,) 

Marich, (black-pepper,) 

Pipuli, (long -pepper,) 

Siinti, (dry ginger,) 

Chitraka, (Plumbago zeylanica,) 

powder, and take it with warm water, wine, or hot conjee ; or with 
the juice of the lemon, a decoction of prunes, or with asafcetida, or 

The Diet in this disease should be milk and oleaginous sub- 
stances, and soup made of the flesh of wild birds, and of burrowing 
animals. Wine-whey is also of use with butter-milk, curdled-milk, 
black-salt, and vinegar, with diaphoretics and purgatives. 

2. "When the disease is produced by fasting the person may take 
hot milk, light rice puddings, or animal broths with ghee. When de- 
ranged bile produces this disease, it is caused by eating nitre or heat- 
ing salts of the same kind, hot food like white mustard-seed, pepper, 
or the hke ; different kinds of wines ; roasted articles or oils, or shoots 
of the young bamboo, or oil cake, sour or bitter articles ; great 
anger, remaining near the fire, exposure to the sun, great fatigue, 
excess in venery, or any thing that is very heating is to be care- 
fully avoided. These different causes derange bile, and produce that 
form of Sill which is felt in the umbiliacus. In this case it pro- 
duces thirst, his senses are dull, body hot, with great grief, and se- 
vere pain in the umbiliacus. He perspires much, and he is giddy and 
sometimes faints, with dryness of the mouth, is eager to remain in a 
cold situation, and to take cold articles of food. Accessions of pain 
occur at noon and midnight, during great heat of the weather, and 
at the beginning of the rains. The pain is diminished during the 


cold hours of the day, when the body is cool ; and when cold or 
bitter things are taken, especially when they feel grateful thev 
mitigate the symptoms. 

In the treatment mild vomits are to be used, and then drink cold 
water, and every thing cooling, while warm articles are avoided. 
Cooling things are to be applied to the pained part, as stone, silver, 
copper, or vessels filled with cold water. He should use purgatives 
and barley, rice, milk, ghee, the juice of the flesh of wild animals, 
birds and aqueous plants ; and medicines that diminish bile, such as 
the juice of 

Parasaka, an acid fruit, (Xylocarpus granatum,) 
Mirdikdy (grapes,) 

Kharjura, (the fruit of Phoenix Sylvestris.) 
3. When deranged phlegm produces Sid, it is caused by eating 
the flesh of the rhinoceros or bufl*alo, fish or any kind of food obtained 
from water, whey, milk, or butter-milk ; or sugarcandy, rice cakes, 
or sesamum-seed, oil, rice, and other articles of food which are 
of a cooling or heavy nature, as Mdskahii. All these articles 
increase phlegm, and thus may produce Sul. In these cases the 
patient complains of nausea, cough, langour, and want of appetite, 
phlegm proceeds from his nose and mouth, the pit of the stomach 
is cold, and his body is very heavy with head-ache. In such cases 
after eating great pain occurs, especially at sun-rise, and during the 
spring or dew months. (Sishira.) 

The cure of Sul produced by phlegm is to commence by exhi • 
biting an emetic so as to remove from the stomach what he has 
eaten. For this purpose, long-pepper, boiled in water may be used, 
and apply hot and dry remedies to the part. A hot regimen is to be 
followed ; such as the use of long-pepper, and dry ginger, with 
the following mixture. Take equal parts of the root of the 

Gokra, (Ruellia longifolia,) 

Maricha, (black-pepper,) 

Pipula, (long-pepper,) 

Simti, (dry ginger,) 

Bachtty (Orris root,) 

Pdtd, (Aknuda, a plant,) 

Katrahini, (black Helibore,) 

Chitraka, (Plumbago zeylanica,) 
mix together in water, which is to be boiled until reduced to a quar- 
ter. This is given internally with nitre. 

This last decoction will be found of great use in that kind of Sul 
which is produced by derangements of air, phlegm, and bile. It will 
cure it, as wind disperses clouds. In all forms of the disease castor- 


oil, wine, whey, milk or lemon juice, will be of use. There are also 
different remedies, recommended according to the situation of the 
pain, whether it be in the scrobiculus cordis, bladder, or region 
of the heart. 

4. When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged together the symp- 
toms of the three above forms are combined in one person. When 
so deranged in one spot a physician will know it by examining the 
part. This form gives much distress, like poison or thunder, and 
such a person should be avoided by the physician as incurable. 

The treatment of this form is the same as above, varying the 
remedies according to the severity of the symptoms of air, bile, 
and phlegm. 

5. When Sul is produced by indigestion the symptoms are the 
same as produced by deranged phlegm. There is a rumbling noise 
heard in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, the body feels heavy 
and cold, as if covered with a wet cloth, and the breathing is dif- 
ficult. The person can get neither appetite nor sleep, he is costive 
with severe pain in the abdomen, and there is a discharge of phlegm, 
from the nose, mouth, &c. 

In this variety first use a vomit, enjoin total fasting, with such 
remedies as increase the internal heat or appetite. The other re- 
medies used for Gubna may be given with advantage, particularly 
when the symptoms stated under the form produced by derange- 
ments in phlegm, appear in this variety. 

In order to distinguish the different forms of Sul the practitioner 
should know that air is chiefly affected when the pain is principally 
confined to the pelvic region. When bile is much deranged, the 
pain is principally felt in the umbiliacal region ; and when phlegm 
is deranged it produces pain in the breast, sides of the abdomen, 
and in the scrobiculus cordis. When air, bile, and phlegm are 
deranged the pain is felt in all the above situations. When phlegm 
and air are deranged there is severe pain in the pelvic region, sides 
of the abdomen, and back. When bile and phlegm are deranged the 
pain is in the scrobiculus cordis, and between the chest and the um- 
biliacus. When air and bile are deranged there is great heat of the 
body, and inflammatory fever. Sul may be cured when it is produced 
by either air, bile, or phlegm, being deranged singly. When two are 
diseased, with difficulty ; but when all the three are deranged at the 
same time it is incurable. In Sul some other forms of disease may 
accompany and complicate it ; such as severe pain, thirst, fainting 
fits, spasm of the intestines with costiveness, the body is heavy and 
there is no appetite, with cough, asthma, and hiccough. Other 
sh^stras enumerate the following symptoms, severe pain in the 


abdomen, vomiting, fever, thirst, and the body seems to swim 
round. When the person becomes thin, and has no strength, he 
will not recover. 

6. Parindm Sul"^ is the variety produced during the digestion of 
food. When air is deranged by the usual causes it aifects also bile 
and phlegm, and Sul is the consequence. After eating, when diges- 
tion has taken place, severe fever occurs. The symptoms of this 

* Parindm Sul. This variety had not been described before 1836, (see 
the Indian Journal for March, page 11 -4,) by European Physicians, which 
induced me to add the following particulars of this curious disease. 

Gastroperiodynia, or periodical pain in the stomach, often commences 
with symptoms of indigestion and heart-burn, succeeded by a feeling 
of uneasiness in the scrobiculus cordis, slight at first, and occurring at 
irregular intervals, and these lessening gradually while the pain increas- 
es in violence. In severer cases, the paroxysm of acute pain generally 
occurs rather suddenly, when the stomach is empty ; sometimes early 
in the morning, or three or four hours after dinner ; increasing slowly 
when the digestive process is finished, and the activity of the abdominal 
organs has ceased. 

The excruciating pain is confined to the pit of the stomach, particu- 
larly towards the right hypocondrium, although the neighbouring parts 
often participate, as the muscles of the loins, Sec. The pain is of a cut- 
ting or gnawing nature; and during the paroxysm is intense, from 
which the patient generally obtains temporary relief from pressure. For 
this purpose he often turns upon his breast and places a hard ball in the 
pit of the stomach, on which he rests his bodv, and keeps rolling from 
side to side. A few days since I ordered an unfortunate person, in this 
position, to turn round for me to examine him ; but such was the agony 
that he could not remain without the soothing influence of pressure. 
As a substitute, he drew from under his clothes a piece of prepared 
bamboo, an inch in diameter, and a cubit in length, round at one end. 
This extremity he placed to the pit of the stomach while he rested the 
other on the floor; and by bending the body over it, produced such a 
degree of violent j)ressure, that at first I feared he would injure himself, 
and even penetrate the abdomen. He continued in this position while 
I gained the necessary information of his state, and then returned to his 
former position, commenced roUing from sidelo side upon the hard ball, 
placed in the pit of the stomach, and his low waihng proved how intense 
were his sufferings. This was an acute form of the disease, and until 
checked by remedies, it occurred daily about 4 o'clock, and he 
continued in dreadful agony the whole night. 

These paroxysms usually occur at intervals of a day or two, and 
remain from two hours to as many days, with occasional intervals of ease. 
During these accessions the state of the pulse, although full, continues 
slow and natural, and there is not usually more heat of body than is 
occasioned by a continual movement. 

2 s 


variety are, when air is deranged, the abdomen swells, a gurgling 
noise is heard in the abdomen, the dejections and urine are consti- 
pated, with lassitude and shivering, and oleaginous and hot medi- 
cines give relief. Bile, when much deranged in this form of Sul, 
produces thirst, heat, restlessness, and copious perspirations ; and 
when sour, pungent, or salt things are eaten the pain is increased, 
and when cold food is eaten they give relief. When phlegm is 
much deranged there is vomiting, nausea and dulness of the intel- 
lect, with pain, not severe, but remains many hours ; in which case 
pungent or bitter things give relief. When two of these are de- 
ranged the respective symptoms are combined, and when three are 

In the intermissions the patient feels well, and all the functions are 
performed as when in perfect health. The tongue is clean, but some- 
times parched, appetite good, and alvine secretions healthy and regular. 

I have not been able to obtain any certain evidences of the causes 
which produce this disease. It appears to be the effect of a combination, 
individually slight; but when occurring in a peculiar constitution, pro- 
duces this distressing complaint. I have generally known it to occur 
in the young and robust male ; to be aggravated by exposure to the 
weather, and by eating indigestable food, sleeping on the damp ground, 
&c. The accession seems oftener to occur when the organs are in a state 
of inactivity, than from causes increasing the nervous susceptibility. I 
have not seen it in females, although there is no reason why they should 
not be also effected; and I am informed that they are sometimes attack- 
ed but in a less violent degree. Persons of a nervous temperament are in 
general not so liable to this disease as might be supposed. 

The severe pain which occurs in paroxysms, the relief obtained by 
pressure, and the absence of participation in the circulating system, 
indicates, with sufficient accuracy, the disease being of a nervous na- 
ture. But we are still unacquainted with the peculiar diseases of the large 
plexuses of the sympathetic nerve, situated in the scrobiculus cordis 
and its neighbourhood, with those of the 8th pair, &c. These nerves seem 
to be affected in this disease, much in the same manner as we sometimes 
find those of the face, arm, thigh, &c. The resemblance of paroxysms 
of gastroperiodynia to those of Tic-douloureux is marked, not only in the 
nature and severity of the pain, but in the means of rehef, and the diffi- 
culty of curing both diseases. The severe paroxysms of otolgia, which 
so frequently occur in this country, some varieties of colic, &c. form exam- 
ples of the same species, varying more from the situation, and nature of 
the parts affected, than from any difference in the disease itself. 

The diet I have found most efficacious in gastroperiodynia is liquid 
farinacious food, with boiled milk, which in some cases I have seen di- 
minish the violence of the paroxysms. In strong and plethoric persons 
blood should be taken from the arm ; and may sometimes be repeated 
generally, or locally with advantage. During the paroxysms, pressure. 


deranged the person will die. When such a person's flesh, strength 
and internal fire are much diminished the disease will be fatal. 

The treatment should consist of emetics followed by bitters, 
purgatives, and enemas. The following powders are also recom- 
mended. Take equal parts of 

Biranga, (virmifuge seed,) 
Sunti, (dry ginger,) 
Pipuli, (long-pepper,) 
Maricha, (black-pepper,) 
Danti, (Croton polyaudrum,) 
Tribrit, (Convolvulus turpethum,) 
ChitraJia, (Plumbago zeylanica,) 
make them into an electuary with sugar, and take it every morning 
with warm water. 

Another remedy in this form of the diseases is 
Sunti, (dried ginger,) 

Tila, (Til-seed,) and jagry, which is made into an electua- 
ry with milk. 

dnnadrabuka, is another form of Sid, in which the pain occurs 
after eating, or during or after digestion. When present it 
is not removed by following a proper regimen, or eating good or bad 
food ; but after vomiting bile the patient feels better, but the pain 
continues under all circumstances of food, &c. 

This form is to be treated with listing, and the administration of 
emetics. A mixture of Emblic myrobalan, yellow myrobalan, and 
ginger, with the mixture of iron (carbonate) is of use. 
Another mixture is formed by mixing equal parts of 
Biranga, (vermifuge seed,) 
Must a, (Cyperus rotundus,) 
Haritaki, (Myrobalan,) 

heat, tinctures, ether, peppermint, anodynes, particularly opium, henbane 
and camphor, are of use in diminishing the severity of the pain : small 
doses of calomel and opium are also of use. 

During the intervals the oxyd of zinc and bismuth, carbonate of iron, 
sulphate of quinine, are also in some cases of use; but it must be ac- 
knowledged that the reUef is often of a temporary nature; and in some 
patients diminish, in effect, or in some cases seem to aggravate and pro- 
long the succeeding paroxysms. I have found the application of moxa, 
blisters to the loins, and fomentations only of use temporarily ; and that 
the probabihty of effecting the cure of this disease by medicine, depends 
on the severity and frequency of the attacks, and particularly on the 
length of time the disease has existed. 

2 s 2 


Amlaki, (Emblic myrobalan,) 
Bibitaka, (Beleric myrobalan,) 
Gulancha, (Menispermum glabrum,) 
Danti, (Croton polyandrum,) 
Tribrit, (Convolvulus turpethum,) 
Sunti, (dry ginger,) 
Pipuli, (long-pepper,) and 

Marich, (black-pepper.) These medicines are to be 
mixed with the powder of Jawdni, (Ligusticum ajwaen,) and the car- 
bonate of iron and water. The regimen in this form of the disease 
should consist of prepared rice in the form of conjee, and sugar 
and ghee with conjee. 

Other shdstras recommend promoting perspiration by hot baths, 
or vapour baths, by medicines to promote digestion, such as nitre, 
impure soda, and alum. It is also recommended to take eight mdsd 
of dried ginger, the root of the castor oil plant and barley, and mix 
them in a mortar with half a ser of water. This is boiled down to 
a quarter, and is to be tried as a dose ; and it will generally relieve, 
or remove the pain of Sul. 

11. Worins, (Krimi.) 
There is an internal sort of worms, and another which appears 
upon the surface of the body. Others say that there are four 
kinds ; one is external and produced by filth on the surface ; others 
are internal and are produced by phlegm, by blood, and by the fseces. 
There are twenty varieties of worms, each of which has a particular 
name. When produced externally by filth, the insect is like a 
small Til-seed with many feet, and is generally found in the hair 
and clothes. They are called >^« (lice). They produce small very 
itchy pimples, and sometimes a large boil. 

When phlegm produces the worms internally, it is deranged by 
indio-estable food, particularly when taken at improper times, or with 
much sugar, or sweetmeats, or much liquids, as vinegar or sour food, 
curdled milk, vegetables, and unleavened flour when taken daily and 
frequently. A sedentary life, and sleeping during the day predis- 
poses to worms. 

When blood produces worms many diseases are the consequence. 
In this case it is caused by improper mixtures, or by indigestable 
food, or certain vegetables, &c. The worms are produced in the blood. 
The general symptoms of internal worms are fever, paleness, and 
discoloration of the surface, severe pain, or Sul, especially in the 
breast, with languor, giddiness, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea. 
When produced by phlegm they are usually found in the stomach 
(Amdsiya), and resemble earth-worms, and when very large they pass 


from one intestine to another. Some of the worms are Hke rice 
which has begun to germinate, some are long, others are short, and 
very small ; some are white, or like mahogany, others are copper- 
coloured. There are seven varieties of worms found in the stomach. 
1st. Antrada^ or the gnawing kind ; 2nd. Udardhesta, large form ; 
3rd. Rhidayada, produces a gnawing pain in the breast ; 4th. Mahd- 
gada, with a large tail; 5th. Chara, like flattened rice ; 6th. Burba- 
kusama, like the flower of a certain grass, and 7th. Sugandha, which 
has a pleasant smell. These seven kinds of worms produce nausea, 
a copious discharge of saliva, indigestion, and want of appetite ; 
fainting, dozing, vomiting and fever ; constipation of urine and faeces, 
and weakness, sneezing, and a discharge of mucus from the nose. 

The worms in the blood have no ie^t, some have a round figure 
and red colour (red globules of the blood), and they are so small that 
they cannot be distinctly seen. Their names are, 1. Kdysdda : this 
form eats the roots of the hair of the head which drop out. 2. Roma- 
bidhansa : this form eats the roots of the hair over the body. 3. 
Romadipa : this variety produces elevations at the roots of the 
hair. 4. Arambara, are like the seeds of the wild fig; these worms 
may produce the (histha), leprosy. 5. Saurasa, (father,) and 6. 
Mdtrty (mother.) These two pass quickly from one relation to ano- 
ther, or are hereditary. 

Sushruta enumerates other kinds of worms generatedin theblood; as, 

Nakdda, which destroys the nails. 

Datifdda, which produces the caries of the teeth. 

Kikisa, which always accompanies leprosy. 

When worms form in the small and large intestines they are call- 
ed Parisajya, which are produced in the faeces, and are discharged 
by the anus. When these worms grow and ascend in the abdomen 
frequent eructations occur, which have the smell of the dejections. 
They are large, round, thick or thin, and are sometimes of a gray 
colour, or of a vellow white or dark colour. There are five kinds of 
such worms, 1. Kakiraka ; 2. Makiraka ; 3. Sausurdda, producing 
much pain ; 4. Sasuldkiya ; 5. Sailika, which licks the intestines. 
These worms produce diarrhoea, pain in the stomach, dryness of the 
faeces, constipation, weakness, roughness, and dryness of the surface 
of the body, which is of a dirty yellow colour. There is loss of 
appetite with an itchiness towards the anus. 

For removing external worms, live mercury is to be rubbed with 
sulphur until a homogeneous black mass is produced ; or the sul- 
phurate of mercury which is to be mixed with the juice of Datura 
Stramonium^ and rubbed over the part. In the present day a weak 
infusion of tobacco is often used. 


The thirteen first kinds of internal worms are curable, but the 
seven last are very difficult, or are incurable. The treatment in this 
case is to commence with the administration of an emetic prepared 
with ghee and Sarasddi, which is a mixture formed of various stimu- 
lants and bitter remedies. Strong cathartics are then to be given with 
clysters. The oil of Biranga, made of vermifuge seeds, is to be 
given with salt, and with the decoction of Biranga. The patient 
should at the same time be careful to avoid such food, and other causes 
which promote the generation of worms. He should take of the 
juice or paste of the Paldsa seeds (Butea frondosa), with the decoc- 
tion of the Balanga seeds. The juice of the leaves of Paribadraka 
(Erythrina fulgens), with honey ; or the juice of the leaves of Patu- 
ra (Salincha B.) or the powder of Biranga with honey. Biranga 
powder should be mixed with the bread and used by the patient. 
Different preparations of iron, or the powdered root of long-pepper 
taken with goat's urine are of use. Tin is recommended to be rub- 
bed upon a rough stone, and the small particles thus removed from 
the mass is taken in whey. The treatment in cases of insects at the 
roots of the hair, causing them to fall of, is the same as that for 
baldness. The worms in the blood are to be treated, as for Le- 

Patients with worms should live on food mixed with pungent 
and bitter food, while the following articles of food are avoided : milk, 
flesh, ghee, curdled-milk, vegetables with leaves, acids, sweetmeats, 
and cold articles of food. 

12. Retention of Discharges, (Addbarta). 

If a man wish long life he should attend to the calls of nature, 
while he avoids indulgence of the passions, particularly anger, pride, 
lust, revenge, and covetousness. 

There are thirteen kinds of diseases produced by checking the 
efforts of nature to relieve herself. As by stopping the evacuation 
of air, fseces, urine, by yawning, tears, sneezing, belching, vomiting, 
semen, appetite, thirst and abstaining from liquids, the stopping 
of breath, watching, and another variety of indisposition is produced 
by taking bad food. When these are not indulged in, it produces 
the constipation which, forms this class of diseases. 

1 . When air (Apanna bdyu) is stopped in its passage through the 
anus it produces a swelling in the abdomen, severe pain, difficulty of 
breathing, head- ache, hiccough, cough, discharge of mucus, difficul- 
ty of diglutition and a vomiting of bile, phlegm, or faeces with consti- 
pation, and severe pain in the anus followed by a discharge of air. 

2. Dejections. When the faeces are confined a gurgling noise is 


heard In the abdomen, with pain in the anus, as if the part was cut ; 
the dejections are confined, as air ascends, and sometimes stercorace- 
ous vomitins: occurs. It is to be treated as for Anaha. 

3. Urine. When confined, there is severe pain in the pelvis, 
urethra, anus, scrotum, groins, navel, and sometimes in the head, 
when the urine is discharged in small quantities with pain. The 
bladder swells, and the body remains bent forward. Sabarchala, (im- 
pure soda,) and other such salts, wine, cardamum seeds, with wine 
and milk, are to be given. The juice of the fruits oi AmlaM, (Embhc 
mjrobalan) with water ; or the juice of the sugar-cane, and the juice 
of the faeces of a horse or ass are recommended ; as also the seeds of 
cucumber with water and salt, and other diuretics. 

4. When gaping- is checked the diseases of the neck, throat, 
and of the head are produced ; with other diseases of air, such as 
diseases of the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth. To remove this anoint 
the body with oil or ghee, previously heated. 

5. When tears are confined they flow when the person is very 
happy, or very sorrowful ; and when confined the head becomes 
heavy, and various severe eye diseases are produced. In such pati- 
ents the phlegm discharged from the nose and mouth is without smell 
or taste. In this form anoint the body with warm oil, a pigment of 
a hot nature is to be applied to the border of the eyes to make them 
discharge the tears ; such as cloves rubbed up with honey and 
strong errhines, such as pungent smells will also be found useful. 

6. When sneezing is confined, diseases of the head, eyes, nose, 
and ears are produced. Tickle the nose with something, so as to 
produce sneezing, and look at the sun so as to allow his rays to 
fall upon the mucous membrane of the nostrils. 

7. When belching is confined, the throat and mouth feel as if 
distended, and very painful ; the person's speech is not intelligible, 
air is confined by the mouth, anus, &c., and the disease produces 
the diseases of air. A cheroot is to be formed of spices and ghee, 
which is to be smoked. Wine with soda, the juice of lemon and 
wine are likewise to be administered. 

8. Should vomiting be impeded it produces leprosy, loss of 
appetite, jaundice, fever, great sensibility of the skin and nausea. 
In such cases ghee is to be externally applied and internally admin- 
istered, mixed with saltpetre or salt. Emetics should also be 

9. When semen is confined, the bladder, rectum, and testicles 
swell, and become painful. The urine is confined and is discharged 
in small quantities with pain, or the urine has a white deposit, and 
the semen is discharged involuntary. The other diseases may occur 


that deranged semen produces. In this case certain diuretics and 
decoctions with milk are to be administered, and the person is to 
approach his favourite wife. 

10. When the appetite is not gratified, it is followed by drowsi- 
ness, pain as if the part was crushed, loss of appetite, fatigue, and 
the eye is dim. In this disease anoint the body with warm ghee 
and give it in the food, with hot drinks. 

1 1 . When the thirst is not gratified, the mouth and throat are 
dry, the hearing becomes dull, and pain is felt in the breast. To 
l-emove this the person should take fresh conjee or barley water, 
with sugar and lemon juice. 

12. When the breathing is difficult from being confined from 
the fatigue produced by severe exercise, the food appears to stick in 
the throat, the understanding is impaired which produces (Gidma), 
and there is a feeling of hard lumps in the abdomen. In such cases, 
rest, and gruel are to be enjoined with animal broths. 

13. When sleep is not gratified, it is followed by yawning, and 
pain of the body, as if it was crushed. The eyes and head feel 
heavy, and coma supervenes. Give milk, employ soothing language, 
and what promotes sleep. 

The air of the stomach when dry, astringent, sour, or bitter food 
,is eaten, produces quickly TJddbarta, and deranges the canals of air, 
urine, faeces, blood, phlegm, fat, and the vessels which feed them. 
Air closes these canals and produces pain in the breast and pelvis, 
with heaviness of the body, and no appetite, with scanty evacua- 

The retention of the above discharges produces pain of the chest 
and abdomen, nausea, laziness, and the air, urine, and dejections 
are evacuated with pain. If produced by phlegm there is difficult 
and noisy breathing, and the phlegm is discharged from the mouth 
and nose. (Corysa). In this case there is neither taste nor smell ; 
and the body feels hot, with dejection of mind. The person is 
insensible, and complains of thirst, fever, vomiting, hiccough, and 
head-ache. The person is deaf, the body swims round, followed by 
the other symptoms produced by deranged air. The life of such a 
person should be considered hopeless, when there is much thirst, 
great weakness, and languor, severe pain in the abdomen, and ster- 
coraceous vomiting. K\\ kinds of TJddharta are to be treated as 
diseases of air, so as to open the closed up passages, and the body 
in such cases of disease should be anointed with oil and salt, and 
prepared ghee should be taken internally, enemas should also be 
used. If the disease is not cured by these medicines, hot applica- 
tions are to be placed upon the abdomen, followed by oleaginous 


purgatives. The person should take a decoction made of Tribrit, 
Piiu, Jaicdni, and the juices of acid fruits, mixed with water. 
Tiie following is also recommended. Take 

HingUy (Asafoetida,) 

KustOy (Costus speciosus,) 

Batsd, (Pothos officinalis,) 

Sa?jiA-d, (impure soda,) 

Birangay (a vermifuge medicine,) 
mix and form a decoction. These remedies will cure Uddharta^ and 
pain. Suppositories will also promote the evacuations, glysters are 
also given, with the fumes of certain medicines. Other practitioners 
recommend, with the above plan of treatment, fasting, the hot 
bath, with purgatives, and hot carminatives. 

13. Unhealthy {Costiveness) Discharges, (Amaha.) 
When the fseces are not properly prepared for expulsion, but are 
discharged in small quantities, with pain, it forms this disease. It is 
accompanied with great pain in the epigastric region, thirst, a dis- 
charge of mucus from the mouth and nose, accompanied with head- 
ache and heaviness of the body, particularly in the chest. The 
person has no eructations, complains of pain in the loins and back ; 
the urine and faeces are constipated with severe pain, and there is 
dift^lty in breathing, fainting, and stercorous vomiting. These two 
last symptoms are only present when the Pdkasia (the large intes- 
tines) are affected. The treatment is the same as in Uddbarta. 

14. Acidity of Stomach, Vomiting of Bile, (Anilapitta.) 
This disease is produced by improper mixtures of food, by bad 
water, or articles that derange the bile, which is collected, and is 
discharged producing this disease. It is characterized by dispepsia, 
languor, nausea, sour and bitter eructations, and the body is heavy, 
with burning of the breast and throat. The person has no appetite, 
is thirsty, complains of syncopy,and the head turns round. A dulness 
of the intellect may be observed, and the fseces are various in appear- 
ance, and hot. The internal heat and pain of body diminishes, 
and the person sometimes vomits green, yellow, and blue matter. 
Sometimes it is like blood, and is very sour ; sometimes it is like 
phlegm, or the washings of flesh, or has a mucilaginous appearance. 
In other cases jaundice is produced with free perspiration, and the 
body is of a yellow colour. When phlegm and bile are diseased, the 
abdomen is very hot when any thing is eaten, and if nothing is taken, 
the vomited matter and eructations are bitter and sour. The neck, 
chest, and sides are hot ; there is head-ache, and the hands and feet 

2 T 


are buvning. The person has a disgust for food, is feverish, and 
itchy eruptions, and patches appear over the body. 

If this disease be recent it may be cured with difficulty ; and if 
old, it will often be incurable. There are three forms of the disease : 
when air or phlegm are deranged ; when air and phlegm ; or when 
phlegm alone is deranged, which will be distinguished by the ex- 
perienced physician. 

"When air is diseased the person speaks foolishly, is affected with 
syncopy, and his body is languid, with slight uneasiness and pain. 
The room he is in appears dark ; — in other cases he is still, is always 
forgetting, and complains of severe pain of the body. 

Phlegm, In this form phlegm is always discharged from the 
mouth, the body feels heavy, the person is languid, has no appetite, 
the body is cold, and the person is lazy and vomits. The surface 
of the body feels as if it was rubbed with something, it is itchy, 
the patient looses his appetite, and he takes much sleep. 

When air and phlegm are deranged in one place, the symptoms of 
the two above forms of disease are present. 

Treatment. In this disease emetics are first to be used, followed 
by laxatives. When the patient has vomited, and has been purged, 
anoint his body with oil, and exhibit enemas. His food should be 
taken with bitter substances, but without any heating mixture. He 
should eat a preparation of barley and flour, and the powder of^ied 
rice, with honey and milk. He should likewise take a decoction of 
the Fatal leaves, ginger and coriander seeds, when there is much 
itching pain, and indigestion. When there is much fever and vomit- 
ing, accompanied with pain, take a decoction of the Pa^«Z leaves with 
ginger, myrobalan, and Gulancha. Tonics are also of great use, with 

15. Enlargement of the Abdomen, (TJdara.) 
This disease is divided into eight varieties, three of these are pro- 
duced by derangements of the air, bile, and phlegm, and one by the 
combination of the three. The fifth is accompanied by enlargement 
of the spleen ; the sixth is called Baddaguda, concretions ; the 
seventh Parisrdhyudara, or Agantuha, or accidental ; and the eighth 
JDaliodara, or Asitis. 

This disease (Udara) is produced by eating bad food without an 
appetite ; eating dry putrid food, and the improper administration 
of purgatives, emetics, and other active medicines by which the air, 
bile, and phlegm are deranged in the abdomen. The first symp- 
toms of this disease resemble Gulma ; followed by swelling of the 
abdomen. It is produced by the taking up of the fluid part of the 


chyle, which is conveyed by air into the surface, and produces swel- 
ling under the skin, and enlargement of the abdomen. 

The disease is ushered in by weakness, unhealthy colour of the 
skin, languor, and want of appetite. There are no wrinkles on the 
abdomen, which swells, while the rest of the body is thin, and pro- 
minent veins appear over the surface of the abdomen. He has pain 
in the pelvis ; fulness in the abdomen, with burning ; the feet swell, 
and the person is weak and cannot walk. By degrees the body swells, 
the air and dejections are stopped, the body is hot, and the person 
complains of faintness. The forms of this disease, called Busrabi, and 
Baddagmla are incurable ; the other forms are cured with much dif- 
ficulty. In the latter stages of this disease manual assistance or 
operations are sometimes required for the cure of the disease. 

At the commencement of the disease the person should carefully 
avoid heavy food, or when not property prepared, likewise oleagin- 
ous, dry, indigestable food, and animal food, bathing, &c. He 
should live on barley, rice, and wheaten flour, or the like. 

1 . When diseased air produces this disease, the hands, ieei, and 
abdomen are swelled, with pain in the sides of the abdomen, pit of 
the stomach, loins, and back, with pain in the joints as if they were 
broken. He complains of cough without expectoration, stretching 
and hea^dness about the loins, the dejections and urine are con- 
stipated, the skin and eyes are of a dark yellow colour. The swelling 
is not always the same ; sometimes it increases, and at other times 
decreases, with severe pain in, and over the abdomen. Dark coloured 
vessels are prominent over the abdomen, which is swelled like a lea- 
ther bottle, and makes a noise like it when it is struck. The treat- 
ment in this form should consist in taking preparations of ghee, 
laxatives with ghee, oleaginous enemas, and the abdomen should be 
rubbed with hot preparations ; minced meat boiled and applied warm 
over the pained part is recommended ; or rice and milk may be ap- 
plied in the same way. He should also take milk with a decoction 
of Biddrujanda^ and the broth made of wild animals. 

2. Bile, The symptoms of this variety are fever, faintness, 
burning, thirst, and an acid taste in the mouth ; the head swings 
round, looseness is produced, the eyes and skin are of a yellow 
colour, the abdomen is of a green colour, and small yellow vessels 
appear upon the surface, with much perspiration ; the body burns, 
there is a feeling as if smoke was rising in his throat, and the symp- 
toms of bilious diseases ; as well as the pecuUar symptoms of this 
disease are quickly developed. 

Treatment. Take prepared ghee, with a decoction of sweet medi- 
cinal plants, such as Kdkoliy KirokdkoUy prepared ghee, with 



Tawarhi, (Myrobalan,) ^ m^^AY (Emblic myrobalan,) and Bihliitaka, 
as a purgative. Then take a decoction oi Botah, and other astringent 
plants, with sugar, honey, and ghee. Boiled rice and milk, is to be 
applied to the abdominal region. 

3 . Phlegm (Shleshmodara) when much deranged the person cannot 
work, is always sleepy, the abdomen swells, and there is no feeling in 
the abdomen, heaviness, sickness, no appetite, difficulty of breathing, 
cough, the eyes and skin are pale, abdomen cold, and the bowels are 
constipated ; and white vessels appear upon its surface. After many 
days the swelhng is completely formed, and is very difficult to re- 
move. The body feels cold and hard, and the abdomen heavy. 

The treatment of Shleshmodara consists in administering ghee pre- 
pared with long-pepper, and other stimulant and carminitive medi- 
cines. Enemas of cow's urine, oil, and a decoction of long and 
black pepper and ginger, are to be exhibited. The abdomen should 
be rubbed with the following mixture : take equal parts of linseed, 
hemp seed, and mustard seeds with the seeds of Mulaka (horse- 
raddish). These are to be formed into a plaster, and applied with 
other hot medicines to the part. When there is much pain, " con- 
stipation and swelling of the abdomen, it proves that air is deranged ; 
when faintness, thirst, heat, and fever are present, the bile is de- 
ranged ; and when there is a sense of weight with no appetite, and 
hard abdomen, the phlegm is deranged. 

4. The derangements of the air, bile, and phlegm are said by 
the moderns to be often caused by enchantment, or by the use of 
Philters, as of a woman to her husband, or lover. For this purpose 
the parings of nails, the cuttings of hair, faeces, urine, menstrual 
blood, &c. are used, on the absurd supposition of increasing their love 
towards them. Certain poisons administered by an enemy are said 
also to produce this disease. These causes not only derange the 
three humors, but also the blood. This form of disease is increased 
by cloudy weather, when the abdomen is swelled ; and when the 
air is cold, it is also increased in violence, and the person be- 
comes faint, the body yellow, the person very thin and dry, and he 
complains of thirst. This form of disease is called Dakodara. 

The treatment of this disease is very difficult. The physician 
should, before commencing it, inform the friends that the disease is 
incurable ; then he may try the effects of remedies. Administer 
strong purgatives repeatedly for "a fortnight or a month. The root 
of Aswamdrika, with Jangd, and Kdkddini, may be formed into a 
paste with wine, with which it is to be taken. Different forms of 
Nepal poison, as Aconitum, is said sometimes to be used. In other 
cases a sugar-cane is to be employed to irritate a poisonous snake. 


and when he has stung it, the sugar-cane is to be given to the 
patient to eat. 

The general treatment of the above forms of this disease varies 
with the cause. Should the derangement of air, and the accumula- 
tion of faecal matter in the abdomen produce it, laxatives are to be 
freely used ; such as castor oil, with cow's urine and milk, or rice. 
These are to be exhibited for one or two months, without drinking 
water. The person must live entirely on camel's milk. He should 
take daily a dose of long-pepper, rock-salt, ajwain, with the oil of 
Croton (poliandas), milk, with the juice of fresh ginger, ormyrobalan 
and sugar. The following medicine is also recommended. Take 
one thousand cloves of long-pepper, macerate it for seven days in 
the milk of Euphrobium. The seeds are then to be powdered, and 
to be taken occasionally. All forms of purgatives are useful in this 
disease, and many formulae are recommended. 

5. Flihodara (spleen). This is a swelling of the abdomen with 
an enlargement of the spleen. It is produced by eating indigestable 
food, or of a heavy nature, as also articles which produce cold ; as 
curdled milk, and articles which increase phlegm. These substan- 
ces when frequently eaten derange blood and cough, and swell the 
spleen. In this disease there is languor, loss of appetite, and 
symptoms of deranged phlegm, &c. The person becomes very 
weak, and the body of a yellow colour. When the liver is swelled 
it is called Jakrit JJdara. In this form the air, bile, and phlegm 
are deranged, and the disease is severe. 

For treating spleen first give ghee, then promote perspiration by 
employing the steam bath, give rice with curdled milk for one day. 
General bleeding is then recommended by opening the veins at the 
bend of the left arm, and while the blood flows press the spleen, so 
as to evacuate the bad blood. He should then take nitre with 
asafcetida and rock-salt ; or a decoction of Sahhdnjana, with long- 
pepper, rock-salt, Chitraka, the root of long-pepper, ginger, and 
nitre ; eight told of each ; add four seers of ghee, and four of milk ; 
and boil ; and when the watery part is dissipated, it is to be removed 
from the fire, strained and taken daily. Afterwards reduce to pow- 
der the long bivalve shells of the country by roasting them, and give 
the powder with milk. The liver is to be treated by opening the 
vein at the bend of the right arm, after ghee has been given, and 
perspiration has been promoted. The rest of the treatment is the 
same as in spleen and liver. 

6. Baddaguda. This form is produced by the accumulation of 
indigestable matter with the food, such as hair, gravel, &c. These 
form balls which produce constipation, and sweUing occurs be- 


tween the chest and umbiliacus. The person has stercoral vomit- 
ing, as a drain is stopped by an accumulation of filth. The air, 
bile, and phlegm are deranged at the obstructed part, and the faeces 
is confined. The stools are in small quantities, and are evacuated 
with great pain, the umbiliacus, and breast are much swelled. 

In this disease it is recommended to give ghee internally, and rub 
it over the abdomen, while perspiration is produced by hot baths, 
&c. When the remedies are of no use, and the situation of the 
patient desperate, an operation is recommended, which is to be per- 
formed in the following manner : Below and on the left side of the 
umbiliacus, and four fingers breadth from the linea alba, an incision 
is to be made four fingers breadth in length, and the breadth of four 
fingers of the gut are to be drawn out, and the substance, whether 
stone or hair, or a bad secretion, which was the cause of the disease 
is to be removed ; ghee and honey is to be rubbed over the wound in 
the intestine, and it is then returned into the abdomen. Apply 
sutors, and treat the external wound as recommended in such cases. 
Avoid any currents of air after the operation, and carefully follow the 
physician's prescriptions. (Sushruta.) 

7. Farisrdbyiidara is produced by sharp substances, such as fish 
bones, portions of wood, &c. being taken with the food, and wound- 
ing the canal. A watery discharge is evacuated by the anus, pro- 
ceeding from the wounded surface. The abdomen increases in size 
under the umbiliacus with much pain and burning. It is to be treated 
as the last ; but both are generally incurable. The other forms are 
cured with difficulty. Warm baths, and a milk diet are recommended. 

8. AsiTis, {Jalodara, or Dakodara.) When a person has taken 
a large quantity of prepared ghee, or has had frequent enemas, or 
after emetics or purgatives he drinks large quantities of cold water, 
they stop the absorbent vessels, and produce this disease. In this 
case the abdomen becomes large, the umbiliacus prominent, and 
appears shining as if anointed and full of water, and like it moves 
about, and gives a sound like a leather bag. 

In all these forms of diseases there is swelling, weakness, loss of 
appetite, languor, and swelling of different parts of the body, con- 
stipation, burning, and great thirst. When with these symptoms 
water collects, the disease is incurable. 

Treatment. In Asitis the abdomen is to be anointed with oil pre- 
pared with medicines to cure diseased air. — A friend is to hold the 
patient in a rechning posture by the arm-pits. The practitioner 
then introduces a trocar an inch (four fingers breath) below, and on 
the left side of theumbihacus. The trocar is removed, and a tube is 
put in its place. The morbid fluid for 16 days is to be allowed 


slowly to evacuate itself; and a light bandage is to be placed round 
the abdomen after the operation, so that the air may not swell the 
abdomen ; this bandage must be continued for a considerable time. 
For six months after this operation milk is to be freely used with 
rice, or the broths of wild animals, with rice ; and after three months 
and a half the quantity of water and milk with rice may be taken ; 
ai)d other three months hght and wholesome food. The disease 
will be cured in one year. 

Class YII. 

Diseases of the Urinary Organs and Organs of Genera- 

Order I. 
Diseases of the Unnary Organs, 
Under this head will be considered the diseases of the urine, blad- 
der and urethra. 

Morbid secretion of urine , {Prameha.) 

This disease is produced by a sedentary life, as sitting, lying 
down, or sleeping in the day time, using too much curdled milk, 
various kinds of fish, amphibious animals, or the flesh of buffaloes, 
new rice, or new water, such as rain or fresh river water, or food with 
different preparations of jagry, or whatever produces phlegm. It 
is also produced by the deranged phlegm of the bladder which affects 
the fat, flesh, or serum of the body ; but particularly the region of 
the bladder. The bile is deranged by its peculiar causes, and in like 
manner the air may produce the disease, when the other humors 
are deranged, and convey them to the bladder. 

There are twenty varieties of diseased urine ; of which phlegm 
forms ten varieties which are curable, bile forms six varieties which 
are cured with great difliculty, but do not destroy life ; and air forms 
four varieties, which are incurable. The causes of the different 
degrees of facility of removing these different varieties are that all 
the forms are accompanied with deranged phlegm, and when com. 
bined with deranged bile the cure of the disease is difficult, as those 
remedies which diminish bile will increase the phlegm. In like 
manner those remedies which decrease the air increase the phlegm 
therefore the cure is difficult ; and on this account the disease pro- 
duced by air is dangerous even from the beginning. These twenty 
kinds of disease are produced by derangements of air, bile, and 


phlegm, fat, blood, semen, serum (Amha), lymph (Basd), the essen- 
tial parts of all the humors (Ozzo), the flesh and the chyle. 

This order of diseases is ushered in by the appearance of morbid 
secretions about the teeth, ears, nose, and eyes. The hands and feet 
are very hot and burning, and the surface of the skin is shining as 
if oil had been applied to it. This is accompanied with thirst, and 
a sweet taste in the mouth. The different varieties of this disease 
are distinguished from each other by the symptoms of deranged hu- 
mors, and by the colour of the urine. 

In the disease produced by phlegm, insects approach the urine ; 
the person is languid, his body becomes fat, and there is a discharge 
of mucus from the nose and mouth, with dispeptic symptoms, and 
looseness of the skin. He is always sleepy, with cough and difficult 

"When the disease is produced by bile, there is a cutting pain in 
the scrotum, bladder, and penis, with fever, dispepsia, vomiting, 
heat of the body, thirst, want of sleep, and yellowness of the excre- 
tions. In some cases it is accompanied with jaundice. 

"When produced by diseased air there is pain in the chest, the 
patient has a desire to eat every thing, there is watching, shivering, 
pain and costiveness. The following are the names and characteris- 
tic symptoms of the twenty varieties of diseased urine : — 

1. Vdahameha, In this disease the urine is nearly of the 
natural colour, without any sediment. It is white, cold, has no smell, 
and is like water. For its cure use a decoction of Pdinjdta, Ery« 
thrina fulgens.) 

2. Ekhyumeha. The urine is like the juice of sugar-cane in colour 
and taste ; and for the cure give a decoction of Baijainti. 

3. In Sdndrameha the urine becomes thick after standing some- 
time, and for the cure give the patient a decoction of Nimba. 

4. "When the urine is of a white colour, is thin and pure above, 
and thick below, it is named Surdmeha ; and is cured by a decoction 
of ChitraJca. 

5. Pishtameha. At the time of micturition the hair over the 
body is erect, and the urine has a copious white powder ; as if 
flower had been mixed with it. For the cure use a decoction of 


6. Sukrameha. In this variety the urine is the colour of semen, 
which sometimes appears mixed with it. For its cure give a decoc- 
tion of Durba, Saibala, Loba,j and Kaseruka^ with other medicines 
of the like kind. 

7. When the urine lets fall a hard and small deposit like sand it is 
called Sikatdmehat and is cured by giving a decoction oi Chitraka. 


8. In Swetameha there is a copious secretion of urine which is 
sweet and cold. For the cure give a decoction of Trifald, formed 
of three varieties of myrobalan. 

9. When there are frequent calls to make urine, which is dis- 
charged in small quantities, the disease is called Skanai?'tneha ; and 
for its cure give a decoction of Catechu. 

10. Ldlameha. When the urine is like mucilage, and has long 
adhesive fibrous matter mixed with it, the disease is named Lala- 
meha ; and is cured by means of astringent decoctions. 

11. In Khdrmeha the urine has the colour, taste, and smell of 
potassa, and is like it to the touch. Cure, use the decoction of the 
three varieties of myrobalan. 

12. In Nilameha the urine is of a blue colour ; and for the cure 
give a decoction of the bark of the banian tree. 

13. In Kulameha the urine is of a black colour, like ink. For 
the cure use astringent decoctions, with honey. 

14. In Haridrameha the urine is bitter and of a yellow colour 
like tamarind water, and there is great heat in passing the urine. 
Cure, use a decoction of Cassia Jistula. 

15. In Manjistameha the urine has the smell of indigested food, 
and is of the colour of the water of madder. Cure, use a decoction 
of madder, and red sandal-wood. 

16. RaJitameha. The smell is like that of indigested food, is 
hot, is saltish to the taste, and is of a red colour. Cure, use a 
decoction of Gulancha, Casurga, Carjura, and the seed of the 

17. Basdmeha. The urine in this variety is of a light colour 
like fat, and seems as if mixed with it. It is discharged frequently. 
Cure, use a decoction of Saptaparna. 

18. Majjdmeha. The urine in this form is like the colour of 
marrow, and appears as if mixed with it. It is discharged fre- 

19. Kandrameha. The urine is astringent and sweet to the 
taste. It has a troubled appearance. 

20. Hastimeha. In this disease there is an incontinence of urine, 
which is discharged involuntary. It appears mixed with fat. 

The unfavourable symptoms of the above varieties of disease are 
when they are congenital ; when the seven forms of diseased air, bile, 
and phlegm are present ; when accompanied with a great discharge of 
the humors ; when accompanied with large deep-seated abcesses ; and 
when accompanied with Madhumehtty or sweet urine. These forms 
destroy the patient. All hereditary diseases being incurable, the 
congenital forms are such. All these different forms of Pr^me-Aa 

2 u 


if not properly treated, terminate in Madhumehtti or sweet urine, 
and they are then incurable. 

The following forms of Prameha may be cured ; when the urine 
is of the natural colour, is neither shining on the surface, nor 
white ; and is of the usual taste, or is bitter and pungent. The 
following eruptions and abscesses may occur in the course of this 
disease in joints, and in vital or sensible parts ; as the temples, or 
where there is much muscle. 

1. Sardbika ; with a central hollow, with high edges. 

2. Kachchha^iki are hot, and are in the form of a turtle, in ap- 

3. Jwalini is hot, and part appears irregular in its sur- 

4. Binatd eruption is of a blue colour, and is accompanied with 
severe pain. It appears in the back or abdomen, and is accompanied 
with a copious secretion of urine. 

5. Alagi is of a red and dark colour, in spots. 

6. Masurikd is of a small figure with a central depression of a 
yellow colour. 

7. Sarsapika is of a Hght yellow colour, and has the figure of 
mustard seed. 

8. Patirni is elevated, and is surrounded with small eruptions. 

9. Biddnkd like a bulbous root, hard, and hot. 

10. Bridadi h a kind of abscess; and will be considered in 
another chapter. 

These various forms of eruptions may be produced by the de- 
rangements of fat without the presence of Prameha ; and they are 
not observable until they have arrived at their full size, as it does not 
affect the pulse, &c. "When they appear about the anus, breast, 
head, shoulders, back, and other sensible or vital parts, and if 
accompanied with bad symptoms they are dangerous. When boils, 
are severe, and the internal heat is diminished, the physician 
is to give the case over as desperate. At the termination of the 
eruption, when there is thirst, cough, sloughing of the flesh, 
fainting, hiccough, delirium, slight fever, erysipelas in the temples, 
and the other sensible parts are very painful, so that the patient 
cannot be moved, the case will be fatal. Females are not liable 
to these diseases, as by the monthly discharge the body and humors 
are purified. 

Treatment. There are two kinds of Prameha; one of which 
is congenital, and the other is produced by the use of bad food. 
In the first form the patient becomes weak, thin, and the surface 
of the body is rough. He eats much, and is always thirsty and 


restless. In the second kind, or that produced by bad food, the 
patient becomes fat, eats much, the surface of the body is smooth 
and oily, and he is always sitting and sleepy. 

In the first form give nourishing food, and in the second light 
food, with occasional fasting. In both forms the following articles 
are to be avoided, all kind of wines, milk, especially curdled milk, 
oil, ghee, sugar, or sweet cakes, and acid drink. The flesh of 
domestic or amphibious animals are to be avoided, and the various 
kinds of fish. The patient is to use good old rice, barley, and 
flour, he should eat the different kinds of beans and peas, bitter 
and astringent vegetables, the flesh of wild animals without fat or 
ghee. Tlie treatment should be oily purgatives, as castor oil. This 
is to be followed by the exhibition of emetics. If there is much 
pain or scalding, give him antiphlogistic remedies, with the juice 
of Emblic myrobalan, tamarinds, and honey. The physician should 
also exhibit tonics and astringents. He should drink sharbats con- 
taining honey, liquorice, and an acid fruit called Kapittay with pow- 
dered black-pepper, and ashes of the dung of camels and asses. 
When the urine is increased much in quantity the patient should 
take prolonged exercise, as by walking and riding on horse-back, 
or on elephants. He should also drink difi'erent kinds of tinctures, 
particularly those with preparations of iron. 

For the cure of Basdmeha, use a decoction of the bark of 
Agnimanta or Sinsapdy (a tree,) Kadrameha, with Katikiy and 

In the cure of Hastimeha use a decoction made of Tindika^ 
Kapitttty Siristty Paldsa, Pdtd, Miirbd, with honey. Another 
remedy is the ashes of the bones of elephants, horses, asses, and 

Samarogd or Bahwnutra, is a disease only mentioned in modern 
books, most probably by its being classified as a variety of Prameha. 
Some manuscripts state that it is a disease peculiar to woman and 
is probably mistaken for Lucoreah, although generally considered 
to be Diabetes.* 

It is produced by excessive venery, grief, much exertion, and 
poison. In this disease all the humors are deranged, and pass 
through the vessels of the urinary passages ; and are discharged 
copiously, without pain, and pure like water. The woman becomes 
weak suddenly, and the discharge of urine becomes involuntary. 
The patient becomes uneasy with giddiness, and the mouth and 
palate become dry, followed by fainting and dehrium. The skin is 
dry and rough, with great thirst. 

* See Chikitsd Ratmsangraha, or the jewels of treatment. 

2 u 2 


The treatment consists in eating ripe plantains ; in taking the 
fresh juice of Emblic myrobalan mixed with honey, powdered 
mdskaldi, Hquorice, hdddm^ honey, ghee, and milk. The carbonate 
of iron and sulphurate of mercury is likewise recommended with 
honey ; or the seeds of the wild fig with honey. Different 
other vegetable mixtures are also recommended with ghee in this 

a, Suppi'ession of TJrine, (Mutraghdta.) 

The derangements of air, bile, and phlegm in the bladder pro- 
duce the thirteen forms of this disease. 

Bdtakundalikd. This disease is produced by eating dry articles 
of food, by retention of the natural discharges ; by which the air 
is deranged in the bladder, which mixes with the urine producing 
pain, and they turn round in a circle, and the urine is retained, or it 
is discharged in drops. The person is very fearful in this disease. 

Astila. When the air is deranged between the rectum and blad- 
der it forms a large ball like a stone (prostate gland ?) and produces 
suppression of the urine, fseces, and air ; and is accompanied with 
swelling in the bladder and much pain. This disease is also called 

Batabasti. When an ignorant person stops the evacuation of 
the urine or dejections, which deranges the air stops up the neck 
of the bladder, and produces retention. This disease produces pain 
in the pelvis, and in the sides ; which from is cured with much 

When a person allows the urine to flow for some time, and then 
stops, it produces the disease called Mutrdtita, or retention, when 
the urine is only discharged in small quantities. 

When urine is retained by such causes as produced the same 
effect as the retention of air, which is situated near the rectum, 
it produces swelling of the abdomen, with much pain under the 
umbiliacus. This disease is called Mutrajathara. 

When the urine stops by impediments in the urethra, near the 
glans penis or elsewhere ; or when expelled with great force mixed 
with blood, sometimes with much pain, in other cases with no pain, 
this variety is called 3Iutrasanga, 

When the body is dried up by the free use of stimulants, and dry 
food, and great fatigue, the air and bile are deranged in the bladder, 
and the urine, which becomes scanty is of a black colour, and pro- 
duces severe pain and heat. This disease is called MutraJda. 

When there is a small hard round ball at the neck of the bladder, 
accompanied with much pain, it may prevent the passage of the 
urine, and produce the symptoms of stone, it is called Mutragrinti. 


When at the proper time urine is not discharged, and the patient 
has connection with woman, the semen is discharged with the 
urine, sometimes before, and in other cases after the urine. This 
urine is of a white colour, as if mixed with chalk, and the disease 
is called MutrasuJcra. 

When violent exercise is taken, as in fighting, travelling, or great 
heat, the bile is deranged in the bladder with air, which passes 
mixed with urine, and produces a burning pain in the bladder, penis, 
and anus. The urine becomes yellow as if mixed with tamarinds, or 
blood ; it is discharged with difficulty, and is called JJsnabdta. 

When deranged air produces this disease it is accompanied with 
great pain and heat, on its being discharged. 

When the urine is yellow from bile, it causes in its passage a 
burning pain in the part, and there is much sediment. 

When phlegm produces the disease the urine is white, like the 
powder of shells, and is of different consistence : this variety is 
called Mutrakasdda. 

When the body is very dry and weak, and the fseces is collected 
for some time, it may be evacuated with the urine, have the smell 
of faeces, and pass with difficulty and much pain. This is most 
probably the recto-vaginal fistula, which is only described in modern 
books ; and is called Bierbigdta. 

b, Stranguri/i (Miitrakrichchhra.^) 
This disease is produced by wrestling, or other violent kinds of 
exercise, hot spices, dry food, wines, excessive venery, riding on 
horseback very quickly ; eating the flesh of the buffaloes, of the 
rhinoceros, &c., or other indigestable food ; another cause is eating 
too frequently, or it may be produced by bad digestion. 

There are eight forms of this disease. The derangements of air, 
bile and phlegm separately or combined, when they occur in the 
bladder, produce this and diseases in the urinary passages, when 
the urine is discharged with pain. This disease is also produced by 
injuries of the parts, by constipation of the bowels, and by 

1 . When the deranged air produces the disease it causes severe 
pain in the pelvis, in the testicles, and in the penis. The patient 
has a frequent desire for making water, and the urine passes in 
drops accompanied with pain. 

2. When the bile of the part is deranged the urine is of a yellow 

* From Mutra, urine, and Krichruy slow and painful. 


or red colour. There is much scaldmg or burning pain in the pas- 
sages ; the urine is discharged in small quantities frequently, 
accompanied with heat and uneasiness. 

3. When the phlegm is deranged the pelvis, bladder, urinary 
passages, and testicles feel heavy ; they are swelled, and the 
urine is cold, shining like oil, and soon dries up. 

4. When the air, bile, and phlegm are deranged the separate 
symptoms of each variety appear in the same person, and is cured 
with difficulty. 

5. Salajah. When the parts are injured by external violence, 
the disease is accompanied with much pain, followed by other 
symptoms of deranged air. 

6. Sahipratihatajah, when the bowels are very costive, from 
air being deranged, it is accompanied with much swelling and pain 
in the abdomen, with difficulty in mictirition. 

7. Asarijah is produced by calculi, with a difficulty and pain 
in mictirition. 

When a person runs quickly or jumps, is much fatigued, is fast- 
ing, or the part is injured, the bladder rises out of the pelvis of a 
round form, and large Uke the gravel uterus. It is accompanied 
with much pain and moves from side to side, and the urine is very 
hot, and passes in drops. If the swelling is pressed, above the pubis, 
the urine passes easily, and in a continued stream. When the per- 
son cannot move, it is called Bastikundaltti and is a severe and dan- 
gerous disease. 

When bile produces the disease it is incurable ; when phlegm 
it may be cured, especially if it continues to be discharged, except 
in the case of " Kundali bdta." When the bladder is round 
above pelvis, with thirst and insensibility and noisy breathing, it is 

Treatment. Different kinds of diuretics, alkalis, honey, wines, 
fomentations and injections, &c., are recommended in this disease. 

The seeds of cucumbers bruised, and taken with salt and vinegar, 
or wine with salt, rum with animal flesh and honey, saffron with 
water and honey, different sharbats with acid fruits, especially 
pomegranate, the fresh juice of the dung of asses with the decoction 
of Abayd, Debddru, Murba, and Madhuka. 

Cold water is to be given to drink with the juice of grapes, salt- 
petre, and other salts in water are to be used, and the body is to be 
anointed with oil, fomentations, and purgatives. 

8. Sarajah, when the semen is affected by deranged humors, 
and carried into the passage of the urine, it is discharged with 
much difficulty and pain. 


9. Asari and Sahara produced by stone or gravel. They are 
produced by the same causes, and the symptoms of both are the 
same. When the stone is broken and dried up with bile and air, it 
is discharged through the urethra. When stone is retained in the 
bladder, it forms the peculiarity of the two diseases. 

In. SaJcard there is shivering with severe pain in the chest and 
sides, loss of appetite, and fainting. This is followed by a fit of 
strangury, which is a severe disease, the pain being only mitigated 
when the urine is not discharged, and the suffering is very acute, 
as the gravel is passing through the urethra. 

The treatment will vary according to the humor particularly de- 
ranged. The medicines prescribed for stone are to be given in this 
disease, with a preparation of ghee, oil, and fat, with a decoction of 


Kantikdri, (Prickly nightshade,) 
Bald, (Sida cordifolia,) 

Mdsndj (Mimosa octandra,) 
Baruna, (Capparis trifoliata,) 
These are to be taken internally and used as glysters, and as 
injections into the urethra. 

Another remedy to alleviate the pain is prepared by the juice of 
Sadanstra with jagry, and milk. A diuretic mixture called Tri- 
nddu panchaka made by the decoction of the root of sugar-cane, the 
roots of 

Kushtty (species of grass,) 
Kdshaj (Saccharum spontaneum,) 
Shara, (Saccharum Sarah,) and 
TJsharay (Khuskhus.) 
These are to be mixed with sugar and taken frequently. 
When bile is deranged give purgatives, with the juice of sugar- 
cane, grapes, and milk. A decoction of Sarasdda or Barndda pre- 
pared with oil. Barley water is to be given as drink. 

When phlegm is much deranged, prepare oil with the above de- 
coctions. When the three humors are deranged, the three kinds 
of medicines above stated are to be used conjointly as a mixture. 

When produced by external injuries employ the usual treatment 
for such injuries. 

In all these forms fomentations and warm bathing should be used. 


c. Urinary Calculi, (Ashmari.) 

When air, bile, and phlegm are deranged it produces different 
forms of calculi ; and another kind is produced from semen. 
Phlegm is the chief cause of the disease in all its different forms. 

This disease is produced in those who live on hard indigestable 
food, and do not use evacuating remedies, by which the phlegm is 
deranged, and mixing with urine passes into the bladder and forms 
the stone. 

Others suppose that the calculi are produced b}^ collections of the 
impurities of the urine which sink down and form, by being dried 
with the internal fire, calculi in the bladder. Others suppose they 
are formed as hailstones are formed in the sky. 

This disease is ushered in by pain in the bladder, especially in 
its neck, scrotum, and penis. In some cases languor and fever are 
present, and the urine has the smell of goat's urine. When formed 
the pain is in the umbiliacus, bladder, perineum, penis, particu- 
larly during mictirition. The urine does not pass in a stream, but 
in drops : it also stops suddenly. It is sometimes mixed with 
blood, in other cases it is clear or mixed with gravel. The pain is 
increased by walking, jumping, and riding. 

Four different forms of this disease are observed. The following 
are the peculiarities of each form. 

When produced by air it is always accompanied with deranged 
phlegm, and this forms the stone. This stops near the neck of the 
bladder, and suddenly impedes the flow of urine ; and is accompa- 
nied with much pain. To assist the evacuation of the urine the 
patient presses the parts particularly the umbiliacus, penis, and 
anus. The colour of the calculi are black, rough, and unequal ;. 
and are surrounded with elevations like the kadam. 

Bile. In this case the bile being mixed with deranged phlegm, 
become a thick mass, increases in size, passes to the neck of the 
bladder, and prevents the passage of the urine. In the bladder there 
is a burning pain, as if produced by the application of heat. The air 
from the anus is hot, and the stone is yellow and sometimes red, 
black, or greyish, and resembles the stone of the " marking-nut." 

Fhlegm. A person who eats much of those articles of diet 
which produce diseases of phlegm is liable to have this form of 
stone. In such cases the phlegm becomes thick, and a stone is 
formed in the bladder. It produces a sudden stop of the flow of 
the urine, with severe pain in the bladder, and the person feels as 
if beaten. The bladder feels heavy, and cool ; and the stone is 
white, shining, large, like the appearance of a hen's egg. 


The fourth kind of stone is produced by excesses in venery, or by 
the stoppage of semen which collects between the scrotum and 
penis. There it dries, and stops the passage of urine. This produces 
pain in bladder and scrotum, and a difficulty in mictirition. In 
such cases the scrotum sometimes swells. 

The three first forms frequently attack children, and old people ; 
by sleeping during the day, and using improper food and sweetmeats. 
The stone is easily extracted in the young, as the parts are small. 
In old people the disease is produced by derangements of air, bile, 
and phlegm. 

Treatment. When stone is threatened, ghde and other like sub- 
stances are to be used, and will prevent its formation. 

Stone is a dangerous disease, being like poison, or thunder. 
When recent it may be cured by medicines ; but when of long stand- 
ing an operation is required. 

In the beginning give different decoctions and preparations of 
medicines, which dissolve the calcuh ; as Pdsdiihheda, Basuka, Ba- 
shera, Ashmantaka, Sotdbari, Shwadashtrd, Brihati, Kantakdri, &c. 
These decoctions are most useful when air is particularly diseased. 

When bile is deranged, several different decoctions are to be used. 
The same is observed, when the calculi is produced by deranged 
phlegm. In all forms of this disease diuretics are to be used. If 
not cured by the above, an operation is to be performed, which is 
difficult and dangerous. It is consequently proper that the sanc- 
tion of the raja be obtained to its performance. 

The operation of Lithotomy. — The person should take ghee inter- 
nally, for several days, with aperients. If very robust he should 
be reduced in strength. When the operation is to be performed ; 
collect the necessary instruments, offer up prayers, and speak kind- 
ly and encouragingly to the patient. He is to sit on a table sup- 
ported by a person behind, while his legs and arms are raised, and 
tied by proper bandages. The abdomen is to be well rubbed to 
make the stone descend. Two fingers of the left hand, well oiled, are 
to be introduced into the rectum, and the stone felt and brought 
down. Should the patent faint at this stage of the operation, it 
should not be proceeded in, as he will in this case die. An incisioa 
is then to be made on the left side of the perineum, a barley corn in 
breadth from the raphe, and carried down to the stone. The incision 
is to be larger in proportion to the size of the stone, and in other 
cases it may be made on the right side avoiding always the raphe. 
If there be more than one stone be careful to remove them all. 

Care should be taken not to break the stone, nor to leave any 
fragments behind, as it will in such a case again form. These small 

2 X 


pieces should be removed with a schoop called Agrahakra. During 
the operation the practitioner should carefully avoid the raphe, 
the seminal canals, the vessels of the spermatic cord, the anus, and 
the rectum. If the seminal canals, or the spermatic vessels are 
wounded, the person will become impotent. Wounds of the vagina 
and raphe, will produce much distressing pain. 

In females the bladder is situated near the uterus, and care must 
therefore be taken not to thrust the knife directly forward, as it 
will wound the uterus, and the urine will pass through the vagina, 
forming a fistula. 

The wounds of the bladder are always difficult to heal up. 

After the stone has been removed, place the patient in a hip 
bath of warm water, to promote perspiration, and to prevent the ac- 
cumulation of blood in the bladder. When this collection of blood 
takes place inject a decoction of Kshirabriksha (Ficus Indica) by 
means of a syringe. To heal the urinary passages ; give sherbats, 
over the wound honey and ghee are to be rubbed ; and remedies are 
to be exhibited to render the urine pure, such as barley with warm 
ghee twice a day for three days ; after this time give sugar, rice, and 
milk in small quantities for ten days. Then take acid fruits, with the 
broth smade of the flesh of game animals for ten days, and for ten 
more days promote perspiration by warm fomentations with oil and 
ghee. The wound is to be cleaned with the decoction of the Kshira- 
brikslia tree, and other astringent medicines are to be mixed and 
placed in the wound. Oil and turmerick is also used with much 
benefit. If the wound does not heal up, and the urine does not pass 
by the natural passages, the actual cautery is to be appUed. When 
the urine passes by the natural passages give sweet decoctions in 
the form of glysters. 

When the calculi produced by semen cannot be dislodged from 
the urethra by pressure ; an incision is to be made over them, and 
the calculi is to be removed by the assistance of a hook. 

After the operation of Lythotomy connexion with women should 
be avoided for a year, as also riding on horse-back, on elephants, or 
in carriages ; avoid at the same time swimming in water, or eating 
indigestable articles of food. 

Order II. 

Diseases of the male Orc/ans of Generation. 

Diseases of the Scrotum {Briddhi), — There are seven varieties 
of swelling of the scrotum produced by air, bile, phlegm, blood. 


fat, iiriue, and by the descent of the intestme. Any of those 
deranged humors may produce the swelhng of the scrotum, or 
the testicle. The bowel only causes the swelling of the scro- 
tum. The preceding symptoms are pains in the loins, pelvic 
region, and penis, followed by the swelling of the scrotum. 

Symptoms. When the swelling is produced by deranged air the 
scrotum is extended as a bag of air, the surface is rough, and the 
peculiar pain produced by air is felt in the scrotum. 

"\\'hen produced by bile the swelling is red like the red fig, has a 
burning sensation and is accompanied with fever. In this form 
suppuration soon takes place. 

When caused by diseased phlegm, the sweUing is hard, is not 
painful, the surface is cool, it is itchy, and is not accompanied with 

Produced by hloodihQ swelling is surrounded with black tubercles, 
and is accompanied with the symptoms of bile. 

Fat produces the disease which is characterized by softness, 
shining, itchiness, and little pain. It becomes like the fruit of the 
palm tree ; that is rough and tuberculated. 

The form produced by urine (yellow serum), collected between 
the testicle and its external covering, moves like a bag of water. 

The last form is hernia which is produced by carrying heavy 
weights, by fighting with strong persons, falHng or jumping, and 
the like. By such causes air is deranged which propels the in- 
testine downwards, it remains in the groin, and if not treated for 
some days it descends still lower, and produces a sweUing of the 
scrotum. The tumor is oblong, and when pressed it passes up- 
wards with a peculiar noise, and again descends when the pressure 
is removed. 

Treatment. "With the exception of the last form, this disease is 
to be treated as follows : — 

In all these diseases riding on horse-back, sexual connexion, seden- 
tary employment, and indigestable food are to be avoided. When pro- 
duced by air, give the patient oleaginous food, and anoint his body. 
The parts are then to be fomented, and then give purgatives, espe- 
cially castor-oil and milk. This treatment is to be continued for one 
month. The patient's diet should be broth made of wild animals, 
rice, and occasional glysters. If the swelling does not decrease by 
these means, apply poultices, and when it suppurates evacuate the 
pus, taking care to avoid the raphe of the scrotum. The treat- 
ment is then to be the same as that of abscesses in general. 

When the disease is caused by hiUy and if it does not suppurate, 
it is to be treated, as other swellings produced by bile. If it sup- 



purates evacuate the pus, and apply honey and ghee. After this 
use such poultices as promote the healing action of the part. 

When produced by blood apply leeches, give purgatives with 
honey and sugar ; after which it is to be treated as swellings pro- 
duced by bile. 

When the disease is produced by diseased phlegm apply pressure 
with stimulants mixed with urine. If it suppurates, open it, and 
use such applications as will clear and heal the abscess. 

In sweUings when produced hj fat, foment the part, and apply 
such poultices as will make the swelling be absorbed, such as 

This is to be mixed with urine, and applied hot to the part. Sur- 
round the upper part of the scrotum with a bandage, and remove the 
lower and walled parts, taking care to preserve the testes and the 
raphe. Then apply a mixture of the sulphate of iron and rock salt 
to the wound, over which a bandage is to be applied. When the 
wound is clean apply prepared oil to heal it. 

Mutrahriddhi (hydrocele). — Apply the same bandage as above re- 
commended, then at the lower part of the side of the raphe a 
trocar is to be introduced. Leave the canula in the wound, and 
when the fluid is discharged, apply a tight bandage round the 

Antrabriddhi (Hernia) is incurable, unless when it is recent and 
situated in the groin, when it is to be treated in the same way as 
when the swelling is produced by air, that is by fomentations and 
oleaginous purgatives. When by these means the gut has been 
returned into the abdomen, the groin is to be cauterized (by a half 
moon cautery) over the part where the tumor was situated. In 
diseases of the scrotum it is also recommended that the skin of the 
right or left great toe be divided, according as the swelling is on the 
right or left side, and the wound is to be cauterized. This super- 
stition is followed from the supposed connexion with the vessels of 
the scrotum and of the foot, and is intended to prevent the recur- 
rence of the disease. It is still generally followed, and rings are 
also worn on the great toe, for the same purpose. 

Brishanakachchhu, (itchiness of the scrotum ^^^2^0.) This is a 
common and troublesome disease. Medical authors say that it is 
produced by not attending to cleanliness, by which the perspiration 
is accumulated, which irritates and produces an eruption on the 
part. This sometimes degenerate into sores. The treatment con- 
sists in cleaning the part well, and applying simple ointment pre- 
pared with wax and bruised mustard seed, and Satrak (a small seed 
like aniseed) ; these are mixed, strained, and applied to the part. 


2nd. Diseases of the Penis. These consist of sores on the genital 
organs, phymosis and pharymosis, stricture of the urethra, in- 
flammation of the penis, and impotency. 

Sores on the genital Organs, (Upadangsha.^) 

These diseases are supposed to he produced hy mechanical injuries 
of the part, want of cleanUness, and washing with impure water, 
after sexual intercourse. It is also produced by impure connexion, 
excessive venery, and the stimulants sometimes employed to enlarge 
the penis. There are five different forms of these sores, which are 
distinguished from each other by their colour, and the nature of 
the discharge. These are : 

1. JBdtika, characterised by the black colour of the pustules 
(primary), by the lancinating pain, and white discharge. 

2. Paittika is distinguished by the redness of the pustules, by 
the burning pain, and bloody discharge from the part. 

3. Shleshmika. In this form the pustules is larger, and are 
attended with an itching sensation. The discharge is white, and 

4. Sannipdtika. This is a complicated form of the disease, 
in which the above symptoms appear. It is considered in- 

5. Agantuha, or accidental injuries of the organs of generation. 
In this description no secondary symptoms of syphilis are men- 
tioned. The description is confined entirely to the primary sores. 
The unfavourable symptoms of this .oca disease is confined to the 
suppuration, sloughing, and destruction of the penis, and to the 
generation of worms in the sores. In such cases the disease was 
supposed to be incurable. 

It is stated that these sores should be treated by an ignorant per- 
son, or should the person continue to have intercourse with women, 
he will die ; from the sloughing of the parts, and the irritative fever 
which accompanies it. 

Another local disease of the genitals is named Minguharti (warts) 
and consists in excrescences near the vagina, between the scrotum 
and penis, or corona glandis. They appear crop after crop, and 
resemble a cock's comb ; they are without pain, and are cured with 
difficulty. — {Charaka — Sushruta.) 

The treatment of the above local diseases of the genitals is as 
follows : 

For the cure of Bdtika apply ghee, or some oleaginous matter to 
the local disease, and give the same internally, to promote perspira- 
* From M^a, near ; and c^a^^^f^^a, biting. 


tion. Open a vein of the penis, or apply leeches to that organ, so 
as to remove any unhealthy humors that may be there ; and for 
the same purpose administer strong purgatives and emetics. For 
the former medicine, glysters may be substituted when the patient 
is weak. The parts are next to be fomented, and then apply to them 
poultices of flour, mixed with the powder of the castor-oil seed. 

Paittika. In this variety apply fomentations of milk and water, 
sugar and water, or honey and water. The following poultices are 
then to be applied : — Take of 

Gairika, (yellow earth,) 

Anjana, (sulphate of antimony,) 


Sdriba, (Echites frutescens,) 

Jashtimadhu, (liquorice,) 


Kiisha, (grass,) 

Padmaka, (a fragrant wood,) 

Sandal-wood and water-lily. 
Mix these together with ghee and use it as a poultice. 
Shleshmika is produced by a diseased state of the phlegm in the 
part, and is treated by fomenting with a decoction made of the bark of 

Sdla, (Sal tree,) 

Ashwakarna, (a kind of Sala tree,) and 

Bhaha, (Grislea tomemtosa.) 
The same barks may be mixed with wine and mustard oil, and 
used as a poultice. 

By thus employing bleeding and other antiphlogistic means, 
according to the nature of the case ; by the use of fomentations and 
poultices, with the assistance of emetics and purgatives, this disease 
will be most easily cured. Washing the sores with astringent 
decoctions, will also be found of much use. Much care is required 
in the treatment, when accompanied with sloughing or suppuration 
of the parts. In this case the abscess is to be immediately opened, 
as soon as it is discovered ; and then apply tili honey, and ghee. A 
fomentation of the leaves of 

Karabira, (Oleander,) 

Jdti, (Jasmin,) and 

Arakbada^ (Cassia fistula,) is then to be applied to 
the part. Various mixtures of powders are recommended to be applied 
with honey to these sores of the genitals. The following may be 
given as an example. Take of 

Saurdstra tnirtikdf (a kind of earth,) 



TutCi (sulphate of copper,) 

Pushpaka, (sulphate of zinc,) 

Kasisa, (sulphate of iron,) 

Saindhaha, (rock-salt.) 
These, and other medicines of the same kind, with various 
astringent powders and decoctions, are used. When the disease is 
produced by a derangement of the three humors the treatment re- 
commended for foul ulcers is to be followed. If the parts have 
sloughed, or gangrene has taken place, the dead part is to be sepa- 
rated, the actual cautery applied, and the part is to be dressed with 
honey and ghee. 

History of Syphilis 

The history of Syphilis is so peculiar, and various opinions as 
to its origin has produced so much discussion in Europe, that I 
shall here add a few^ remarks on the subject. 

From the above account of these diseases of the genital or- 
gans, as given in the ancient Sanskrit writings, it appears that 
there were only five, or rather six, varieties of local sores to which 
they were liable. These are stated to have been produced by inju- 
ries, or other causes of irritation, such as want of cleanliness, &c. ; 
which are quite sufficient to account for the varieties of these sores, 
and resemble those recorded by the Jews. They are quite different 
from the peculiar disease known by the name of syphilis, or the 
venereal disease. The history of this disease in Europe affords the 
explanation of these peculiarities. 

The veneral disease, as it now appears in its characteristic local 
and general features, seems to have been unknown before the return 
of Columbus to Spain, after the discovery of America (1494), when 
the sailors introduced the disease into Spain. Astruc asserts, on the 
authority of Oviedo, the historian, and of many contemporary physi- 
cians, who flourished a short time after that period, that the disease 
was communicated to the Spaniards by the Indian women of His- 
paniola, when Columbus first arrived in that country ; and they, in 
their turn, communicated it to their country-women. 

In like manner, Sapelvida, a Spaniard, who flourished towards the 
middle of the sixteenth century, asserts, " ex-Barbaricarum mulierum 
consuetudine Hispani morbum contraxerunt." In the course of a 
year or two afterwards (1495) Ferdinand, king of Spain, sent an 
army under the command of the great Gonsalva de Cordova to the 
assistance of the Neapolitans, at that time engaged in a war with the 
French. The Spaniards infected the Neapolitans, who commuuica- 


ted the disease to the French. As tney had not had the disease 
before they attributed it to the cHmate, and called it the ** Mai de 
Naples." The Neapolitans, as much astonished as the French, and 
treating them as the hostile power, imagined that they had brought 
it to the country, and called it the French disease. 

I regret not having had an opportunity of referring to a late 
work entitled " Lettere sulla Storia de malt Fenerei, di Dominica 
Thiene, Venezia, 1823 ;" in which Mr. Prescott states " that the 
author has assembled all the early notices of the disease of any 
authority, and discussed their import with great integrity and 
judgment."* This classic historian supposes that this loathsome 
disease was not brought from America ; — but his evidence does not 
appear to me to be conclusive ; particularly when the low state of 
the medical profession, at the time, is considered, and the mild 
form in which this disgusting disease may be supposed to have 
appeared among the abstemious natives of America, in a fine tropical 
climate. Besides the active and healthy sailors of the expedition 
were obhged to live on farinacious food and vegetables, which would 
prevent the disease appearing in a virulent form so as to attract their 
particular notice ; and explains the reason of the silence of Colum- 
bus and his son, on the subject of this loathsome disease in their 
correspondence. Nor can we suppose that the disease would be 
noticed until it began to commit ravages in its epidemic form. 
Before this occurred there is no description of this peculiar disease, 
previous to the discovery of America ; nor could it be expected that 
such writers would trace it to its origin, until more attention was 
called to the nature of the disease. During such an age we can 
easily understand how the disease should be rapidly propagated 
over Europe when introduced into an army of mercinary soldiers, 
composed of nearly every nation of Europe, who thus conveyed 
the infection with them on their return to their respective homes ; 
and explains many circumstances related of its progress in different 
countries. It was from the great intercourse at that time subsist- 
ing between the French and Scots that the disease first appeared in 
Scotland, and it was not until a year afterwards that it ap- 
peared in England. Astruc assigns another cause in the licen- 
tious manners of the age, for the rapid spreading of the venereal 
disease, on its first appearance in Europe. So much was this the 
case that Popes, Cardinals, Bishops, and the lesser dignitaries of 
the Church, were alike its victims. All ranks, and few ages were 
exempt from the disease. 

* See his History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, vol. iii. p= 
50 : London, 1838. 


Soon after the appearance of the disease in Europe its ravages 
extended over a considerable part of iVsia and Africa, as well as 
Europe.* This is stated by Fracastorio, who flourished at the close 
of the fifteenth century, was an eye witness of the extensive pro- 
gress of the disease ; and from his high medical reputation, and resi- 
dence almost on the spot of its first appearance, and more largely 
engaged in the cure of it than any physician in his day, had the 
best opportunities of judging of the nature of the disease. He says, 
that the disease first appeared in central Europe and extended its 
ravages from France to Great Britain, where it got the name of the 
French disease ; and still approaching towards the East, it was cal- 
led, " Armani danah ;" from which country it extended to Persia, 
where Mir Bahaii Daula Nur Baxsh was said to have been the first 
who described and treated the disease. From Persia it advanced 
into Hindustan, where it is still known by its Persian name : Nar 
Farsi {^M^^^), Persian pox ; or Jumra (h*^^)> blotches ; or from 
its peculiar symptoms A' tshak (^•i'-J T ),nocturnal fire ; ,^%^<iL) disease 
of foreigners, strangers, more especially of Europeans. Soon after 
(A. H. 950) in the time of Timur Lang, emperor of Persia, Amir 
Imamdin Muhammad Shirazi wrote a short treatise on the venereal 
disease ; in which he declares it to have been of recent orio-in 
and, with the exception of Nur Buxsh is stated to have been the first 
who wrote correctly on the subject. 

The same evidence is afforded by the Hindu writers. We have 
seen that the early writers gave minute and characteristic descrip- 
tions of the usual local diseases of these organs ; and what is remark- 
able, syphilis has not got a Sanskrit name, but is named from the 
Europeans, who first visited these shores. This was more readily 
adopted, as the presence of the disease conveyed a feeling of diso-ust 
and reproach. It is in the modern Sanskrit compilations, such as 
Bhdhaprakdsa, where the disease is named the '* Farinyi Roga " or 
Portuguese disease. In this work the disease is characterized by all 
the symptoms of secondary syphiUs, as detailed by European authors ; 
such as cutaneous eruptions, and affections of the bones, particularly 
those of the nose and palate. In these modern works syphilis is 
divided into three varieties ; one of which is characterized by the ap- 
pearance of cutaneous eruptions, the second by diseases of the bones ; 
and in the third variety both the skin and bones are affected.f 

* Europam fere omnem Asise vero, atque Africse, partem non parvam 
occupavit : — see de contagiosis morbis. 

John of Vigo, in 1514, first described venereal exostosis and caries. 
t It is curious that Bhdbaprakdsa does not speak of the primary symp- 

2 Y 


The disease is attributed to connection with the Portuguese, whether 
male or female, and it was supposed that it could only be cured by 
the use of mercury. The same author likewise states that after the 
mercurial treatment has been completed, Topchini, or China-root, 
must be administered to complete the cure. 

We have thus a disease presenting characteristic appearances, 
and of peculiar virulence, without a Sanskrit name — not even 
mentioned by the ancient Hindu medical writers ; and still called 
by the name of the people who first visited these shores from 
Europe. But as the disease was also introduced into Hindus- 
tan from the south-east by the Portuguese, it was called the Portu- 
guese or European (faringhi) disease ; and Ukewise from Persia in 
the north-west, when the disease was named the " Persian pox." 
It was only after the disease was introduced from the north and 
south of Hindustan, that an account is recorded of the character- 
istic disease, by modern compilers, including both the local and con- 
stitutional symptoms. Hence it would appear that this disease was 
introduced from America to Europe and Asia, as the small-pox 
and measles seem to have first appeared in Asia, from whence 
they spread, and committed such ravages in Africa, Europe, and 

The following proofs may be thus adduced of the venereal disease 
having been brought from America : — 

1st. The opinion of ancient authors who have left us minute 
descriptions of disease, such as Moses, Charaka, Sushruta, Hip- 
pocrates, Celsiis, &c., not having mentioned the venereal disease. 
Local sores on the genitals, and even the occurrence of buboes, &c. 
being no proof of the presence of this disease, without its specific 
secondary symptoms. Any irritating cause applied to the genitals 
would produce local sores, and if not properly attended to v>^ould in- 
flame the inguinal glands ; as sores on the feet are often found to 
produce the same swellings. 

2nd. The consternation into which all Europe was thrown by 
the rapid progress of this fearful disease. Like all new diseases, 
soon after its introduction into Europe, by the followers of Colum- 
bus, it spread in the most alarming manner ; or like that leprosy 
from the east, which at one time filled the Lazar-houses of Europe 
with its victims. Masses, prayers, and alms, were offered up to 
avert the anger of offended heaven ; as the superstitious notions of 
the age made people believe that it was a dispensation from God, 

toms of Syphilis ; probably from their not being considered as of con- 
sequence, or as having a connection with each other. 


to correct the licentious, and wicked manners of the times. The 
severity of a new disease when it occurs in a country is seen in the 
visits of the small-pox, to islands, and distant countries ; as occurred 
in tlie Mauritius in our day, and committed such dreadful rava2;es 
at first, and slowly appeared to wear itself out. Such was the case 
with Syphilis when it first appeared in Europe, compared with the 
mittigated symptoms of the present times. This is certainly in 
part owing to our following a better plan of treatment, but still more 
to this disease being of a less virulent nature than before. 

3rd. The progress of the syphihtic disease indicates that it was 
first brought to Spain, from whence it spread over Europe, Africa, 
and Asia. 

4th. The analogy of other diseases prove that new diseases may 
so appear, and spread as the small-pox, measles, &c. from Asia ; and 
perhaps the croup and sweating sickness of Britain, &c. 

PariharttiJm — Phymosis. This disease is produced by pressure, 
or external injuries, by which the prepuce is SAvollen by the diseased 
air, and covers the glans. When it remains swollen, hard, and very 
painful, the inflammation sometimes passes to suppuration. 

Abapdtikd — Pariphymosis. When much force is used during 
connection with a young girl, or when the prepuce is forced back with 
force, it remains there, and is followed with much swelling and pain. 

Another variety of the above disease is called Niruddaprakasha, or 
stricture, or diminution of the urethra. In some cases this is pro- 
duced by an adhesion of the prepi:^ce to the glans, impeding the 
passage of the urine, which in some cases only passes in drops. 

In Phymosis ghee is to be applied to the part with warm fomenta- 
tions followed by poultices, which are to be continued for from 
three to five days. Ghee is again to be appUed, and the skin is then 
to be pulled gently backwards. When in its natural position apply 
fomentations, administer oleaginous food, with animal broths, and 

The same treatment is to be followed in Pariphymosis, only in- 
stead of backwards, pull the prepuce forward. 

In Niruddaprakasha introduce a metalic, wooden, or gumelastic 
canula, after the parts have been rubbed with oil. Then the size 
of the canula is to be increased every third day, so as to increase 
the size of the passage of the urethra. 

Should the prepuce adhere to the glans divide them, and heal 
the wound in the ordinary way. 

2 Y 2 


SMJcadoshay inflammation of the penis, is a common disease in this 
country, from the pernicious habit of applying stimulants to enlarge 
the organ. There are eighteen forms of this disease, Sarshdpikd, 
AshtUUMy Grathita, KumhUka, Aladi, Mridita, Sammurhapiraka, 
AbamantJia, Vushkarikd^ Sparshahdni, JJttamd, Shatdpdnaka, Twaka- 
pdka, Sanitdrbudaj Mdngsapdkay Bidradhi, Tilakdlakay Mdngsdr- 
huda, &c. 

Sarshdjpikd are small pimples, like mustard seed round the penis, 
which are produced by the presence of a kind of insect, which is 
sometimes applied to the part with the intention of increasing the 
size of the organ. 

The other forms of inflammation are produced by the applica- 
tion of other stimulants which cause inflammation of a chronic or 
acute form. Sometimes abscess and mortification of the part occur 
so as sometimes to destroy the penis. The other varieties are mere- 
ly modifications of these inflammations, and their terminations. 

Treatment. Astringent decoctions and oils are to be used, after 
the application of leeches, fomentations, and poultices. When matter 
forms it is to be evacuated, and the abscess cleaned with tonic 
decoctions. The ulcers are to be healed by the application of pre- 
pared oil. 

When sloughmg takes place it is to be treated, as when it occurs 
in other parts. In all these forms of disease the antiphlogistic 
treatment is to be employed, particularly purgatives, and the local 
application of astringent, and healing powders. 

Order III. 
Diseases of the Female Organs of Generation. 

There are twenty forms of these diseases, which are produced 
by using bad food, or taking improper exercise. They are also 
caused by diseased menses, or semen. In other cases they are 
produced without any apparent causes. 

1 . TJddbertd. When the menses are discharged with great pain, 
and are frothy. 

2. Bandhya. Diflicult menstruation, Dismenorrhagsea (wos^^tr- 
tohoh) where the menses are stopped, by the accumulation of un- 
healthy humors in the part. When the woman is barren, the disease 
is called Bandhya. 

3. Biplutd. Continued pain in the genital organs. 

4. Pariplutd. Severe pain during connection. 

5. Bdtald. In this disease the vagina is contracted and rough, 
accompanied with pain. In these five diseases air is locally deranged. 


the parts are hard and swollen, with the various seven varieties of 
pain produced hy diseased air. 

6. When the menses are discharged very hot, the disease is 
named Samtakara. When there is an unusual discharge of a 
red colour from the vagina, accompanied with pain, and followed 
by lassitude, &c., the disease is named Prodoroh or Menorrhagia. 
This disease is produced by bad food, diet, or milk, or any improper 
mixture of food, sleeping during the day, by the use of ardent 
spirits, or hot food, or eating frequently without being hungry ; 
by abortion, or frequent venery, by severe exercise particularly riding 
and walking, by grief, by carrying heavy weights, and by external 
injuries. These causes produce the disease which is accompanied 
with fever, and pain over the body ; and after a time the patient 
becomes weak, is affected with giddiness, fainting, thirst, great 
heat, delirium, jaundice, and drowsiness. It is also accompanied 
with the general symptoms of diseased phlegm, air, and bile sepa- 
rately, or combined. 

When phlegm is particularly deranged in this disease ; the dis- 
charge is whitish, mucilaginous, and has the smell of the water 
in which flesh had been steeped, or of the colour of water in which 
straw has been immersed. 

When bile is particularly deranged, the discharge is sudden, and 
is of a yellow or reddish, blue or black colour. It is hot, and the 
other symptoms of diseases of bile appear. 

When air is particularly affected the discharge is of a red colour, 
like the washings of flesh, is frothy, is in smaller quantities than the 
last variety, and is accompanied with more pain. 

When the three humors are deranged producing this disease, 
the discharge is of the colour of honey mixed with ghee, or of a 
yellow colour like marrow, and has a foetid smell. In this form a 
cure is not to be expected, and the practioner should refuse to 
attend such a patient. 

The unfavourable symptoms of this disease are when it has 
continued long, is accompanied with a copious discharge, with 
fever, great thirst, and heat followed by great debility. When the 
menses occur every month, without pain or burning, are of the na- 
tural colour, and neither too copious, nor too scanty, it is advan- 
tageous to health. When the discharge is red, like the colour of 
the blood of a hare, or like a decoction of lac, and does not per- 
manently discolour cloth when it falls upon it, it is healthy. 

7. Bdmini. When seamen is discharged with the menses. 

8. Srangsini. When the blood is discharged, and the parts 
are diseased, so that it prevents easy delivery. 


9. Patragani. When the infant has died, or abortion has 
taken place with a great discharge of blood. In all these cases 
bile is much diseased, and is accompanied with fever. 

10. Pit f aid. When bile is deranged, there is much heat of 
the part, which suppurates and is accompanied with fever. These 
five last diseases are the symptoms of bile. 

The following are the diseases produced by deranged phlegm. 

11. Atydnandd. When the woman has no pleasure in the 
embraces of her husband. 

12. Karnim. When phlegm and blood are deranged in the 
vagina, small granulations form, like the grains of rice from deran- 
ged phlegm and blood. 

13. Churund. When the semen of the male is more copious 
than that of the female. 

14. Charand, When the male semen does not enter the uterus. 

15. Shleshmald. It is produced by diseased phlegm with itchi- 
ness and coldness, and the part appears as if covered with oil. 

16. Sandi. In this variety the menses are not discharged, the 
breasts do not swell, and the parts are hard, and rough like a file. 

17. Palam. When a large man has connection with a small, 
and young female he injures the parts, and produces this disease. 

18. Mahati. When the vagina is very large. 

19. SucMbuktra. When the entrance is very small. 

20. Sarbalingasamutpannd. Difi'erent varieties of pain, &c. pro- 
duced by the derangement of the three humors in the part. 

The five last forms of these diseases are cured with difficulty. 

The treatment of these diseases will vary according to the hu- 
mor diseased. 

When the air is diseased apply warm fomentations such as steam 
baths, &c., and poultices, use also injections of oleaginous and 
other medicines heated, which cure diseased air. A piece of cloth 
soaked in oil is to be kept in the vagina. 

When hile is deranged with much bearing down and inflamma- 
tion, use cold lotions. If there is a bad smell, use the decoctions 
of astringent barks. 

When 'phlegm is deranged take the juice of garlic every morning, 
with food made of rice and milk, and apply different tinctures to the 
part, as recommended under the head of midwifery. 

In dismenorrhagsea the patient should live on nourishing food, 
fish, mdskaldi, sesamum seeds {til), curdled milk, and drink cow's 
urine, whey, and wine. The pubis should be well rubbed with oil 
and ghee, and the vagina is to be kept distended by the introduc- 
tion of a roller of cloth. 


The treatment of menorrhagia should resemble that of hemor- 
rhagia, such as the application of cold and astringent medicines, 
avoiding venery, and living on cooHng and simple food. 

Kandtty (Utero Vaginal Tujnors.) 

These diseases are produced by the person sleeping during the 
day, by an angry disposition, by great fatigue, and by too much 
venery. They may also arise from mechanical injuries of the part. 
These tumors are like the fruit of the Lakucha tree, (a kind of Bread 
fruit tree, Artocarpus lacucha, or Madar.) 

When air produces the disease the tumor is dry, and is of a 
dirty or yellowish colour, and has furrows on its surface. 

When diseased bile produces the tumor it is very hot and red, 
and is accompanied with fever. 

When phlegm produces the tumor it is hke the colour of the 
Indigo flower and is very itchy. 

When air, bile, and phlegm are diseased, all the separate symp- 
toms are present. When three are so diseased in one part, it is 
incurable, and when produced by spirit or by phlegm, &c. it is 
cured with difficulty. 

Treatment. For the treatment of these tumors use the flesh of 
shell-fish, and the pulp of tamarinds, rub them together, and apply 
the mixture to the tumor. A paste made with the flowers of 
GossUj are to be applied to the part, and wiU be found of great use. 

Dhajahhanga or Claiba, (Impotence.) 

There are six kinds of Impotency, 1st, It may be produced by 
dejection of the mind, or connection with distasteful women. 

2nd. By eating too dry and pungent food, as black-pepper, 
capsicum, t&c. or too much acid, salt, or stimulating food. By such 
causes the secretion of semen is diminished. 

3rd. Excessive venery, and eating little food. 

4th. Old diseases of the organs of generation, or of injuries or 
diseases of the vital parts. 

oth. The congenital variety ; and the 

6th. Variety is caused by avoiding sexual indulgences. 

The fourth and fifth kinds are incurable. The other four kinds 
may be treated. For this purpose different kinds of nourishing food 
and drink are to be used : the patient is to live in a good house, 
indulge in good beds, in music, in the society of beautiful women, 
in wines, and in perfumes, as all these tend to remove sterility. 
The medicines to be used are as follows : Take of the powder of 
Biddri or of Anuloka mixed with honey and ghee j and eat the 


testicles of goats roasted and prepared with salt, ghee, and long, 
pepper. The preparations of mdskaldi and sugar, barley, wheat are 
also of use. The eggs of crabs and of crocodiles, or of turtles pro- 
perly prepared will be of great use. Flour prepared with ghee, and 
milk, and rubbed on the feet with oil, prepared with crocodile's 
eggs ; the flesh of rats, frogs, and the eggs of sparrows are recom- 
mended. The patient is to drink fresh milk with sugar, honey, and 
powder of Swayanguptd and Ekuruka. 

Class VIII. 

Diseases of the Rectum and Anus, 

These consist of piles, stricture of the rectum, prolapsus ani, 
ulcers near the anus, and fistula-in-ano. 

Order I. 

Arstty {Piles.) 

There are six vareties of this disease according as it is produced 
from deranged air, bile, phlegm, the three humors deranged at 
the same time, diseased blood, and the last form is congenital or 

Tl\at part of the rectum called guda is five and a half fingers 
breadth in length, and like the spiral cavities in the sacred shell, used 
in the Hindu temples, has three spiral turns called Frabdhim, 
which accelerates or assists in expelling its contents. The second is 
called Bisarjim, or that which expells ; and Sambarini, or sphincter. 
Piles are usually situated in these parts, the causes producing them 
are as follows : The improper mixtures of food, excessive venery, the 
unnatural position of the body when long indulged in ; horse riding, 
and the want of attention to the calls of nature. By these causes 
the humors are deranged in the anus and produce tubercles, or piles. 

When air is deranged it affords the following signs ; round the 
anus small tumors form, which are dry, slightly painful, red, and 
irregular like the kadamba fruit. The disease is accompanied with 
constipation, pain in the back, loins, penis, anus, and umbiliacus ; and 
is occasionally accompanied with pain in the breast, want of appetite, 
cough, and noise in breathing ; sometimes the appetite is good, at 
other times it is much impaired. The blood is often evacuated by 
a small orifice from time to time. The skin, eyes, face, mouthy 
teeth, and nails appear dirty and yellow with unhealthy yellowish 
dejections, and urine. Symptoms likewise appear like Gulma or 


spleen, or it even produces these diseases. In other cases the piles 
produce Asfila, a kind of hysterical ball. 

"When bile is deranged the swelling has an erysipelatous appear- 
ance ; at other times it has a blue, yellow, red, or black colour, 
with orifices in its surface, hke the mouths of leeches. The 
blood evacuated is very thin, and there is a considerable dis- 
charge, with pain in the part, accompanied with fever, thirst, and 

When phlegm is deranged the tumors are pendulous, near each 
other, hard, round, shining, and of a white colour, like the paps 
of the cow. There is no discharge, they are cold, itchy, heavy, 
remain stationary, and the stools are mixed with mucus, and 
appear like water in which flesh had been washed. In some cases 
the disease is accompanied with swelling of the extremities, with 
feverishness, loss of appetite, heaviness and pain of the head ; and 
the skin, nails, eyes, face, urine, and faeces becomes white. In 
these diseases there is a great discharge of urine, the person often 
becomes impotent, and digestion is impaired, with vomiting. Those 
diseases which impair digestion, produce this disease. When the 
three humors are diseased, the symptoms of the three separate 
diseases are present. 

When blood produces the disease, the pain is like that of a 
needle thrust into the skin, and S3^mptoms appear like those of 
deranged bile. The tumors resemble the hanging roots of the 
banian tree, or the kunch seeds, small red seeds with black spots, 
or they are like coral. When costiveness occurs it is accompanied 
with a free and rapid discharge of blood, which is hot, and produces 
the usual effects of a great and sudden loss of blood ; the person 
with this disease remains yellow, like the yellow frog ; weak, silent, 
and sad ; his skin is dirty, and all his senses perform their office 
imperfectly or they are depraved. The dejections are gray, like 
smoke, dry and hard, and in others they are thin, yellow, and 

The last form of this disease is produced by hereditary disposi- 
tion, from the taint being mixed in the semen and female blood. 
The tumors in this form become rough, of a white unnatural 
colour, with internal openings. The patient cannot eat much, his 
body has large veins over the surface, and his voice is low. He is 
impatient, is easily roused, has little appetite, is afflicted with 
diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, and head, and is always complain- 
ing of diseases of the stomach and intestines. 

When piles are external they are easily cured, but when situated 
internally they are cured with difficulty, or are incurable. Tumors 
2 z 


like those of piles sometimes form in the cavities of the ear, nose, 
mouth, vagina, and upon the penis. 

When aifecting the internal ear, they produce deafness, pain, and 
a fetid discharge from the organ. In the eyes they cover the eye- 
lids ; and sometimes destroy the sight of the organ. When in the 
mouth, they are attached to the throat, lips, and palate, they impair 
the voice and taste, and produce other diseases of the mouth. 
When in the nostrils they produce difficult breathing, a fetid smell, 
a change of voice, pain in the head, and a considerable discharge 
from the nose. 

The deranged humors produce the disease on the surface of the 
body when they form tumors of different sizes, which are called 
Charmkila. When the air is deranged the disease is accompanied with 
throbbing ; when phlegm, the color of the tumor is the colour of the 
skin and hard. When bile and blood are deranged, producing the 
disease, the tumors become black and rough. Those piles which 
form externally are curable, as also those in the first and second 
convolutions of the rectum, but in the third the disease is incurable, 
and also after they have existed for upwards of a year. 

Treatment. There are four indications for the cure of piles. The 
first is by medicine, the second by the apphcation of caustics, the 
third by the application of the actual cautery, and the fourth by 
the knife. When the disease is recent, and it is not accompanied 
with any bad symptoms, they may be cured by medicine. When 
soft and elevated with a thick base, they are to be cured by the use 
of caustic. When hard, rough, and large, by the actual cautery ; 
and when the base is narrow and they are elevated and moist, they 
are to be removed by the knife. 

The caustics are to be applied in the following manner : the 
patient is first to take some oleaginous and bland diet, such as rice 
and milk ; the parts are then to be well fomented, and on a cool 
day, when there are no clouds in the sky, the patient is to be placed 
upon a table with a good light thrown upon the part. He is to be 
supported by two assistants holding his head and shoulders ; and 
his loins are to be elevated with a soft cushion. The knees and legs 
are to be raised, and separated by a bandage passing round the 
knees, feet, and neck. The body is thus firmly fixed, and a little 
ghee rubbed upon the part. The patient is next to press downwards, 
so as to press out the anus. The piles are then to be dried with a 
piece of cloth, and the caustic fluid applied over the part by a 
broad pointed probe. The caustic is allowed to remain as long as 
is required to pronounce one hundred words, when it is to be rubbed 
off, and it is only when necessary that it is to be again applied. 


When the piles become black, and are diminished in size by the 
caustic, the necessary effect has been produced. The part is then to be 
washed with a spirituous cooling application, whey, or water mixed 
with the juice of acid fruits. Dry the part, and then apply ghee mix- 
ed with the decoction of liquorice. A warm bath is then to be given, 
and pour tepid water over the body. He is then to be left in a room 
shut up, and is to live on a spare diet. When any other piles ap- 
pear or when there are many, the application of the caustic is to be 
made every seventh day until the cure is completed. The applications 
are first to be made to the piles of the right side, then the left, and 
after that the part behind and before. 

If the caustic is too freely applied the anus is destroyed, with 
burning fever, fainting, and discharge of blood. 

When the piles are large and the person strong, they are to 
be removed with the knife, and the actual cautery applied. The 
diet is the same as after the application of cauteries. When the 
piles are not visible internal remedies must be use